ABRASIVE JET MACHINING AND STUDY OF PROCESS PARAMETERS

Abrasive Jet Machine
Introduction
Abrasive jet machining (AJM) is a non-traditional machining process that can machine material without generating heat and shock.

Abrasive jet machining (AJM) is commonly used for Cutting, Cleaning, Drilling and Etching operation

and the gas stream carries both the abrasive particles and the fractured (wear) particles away. •The particles are directed towards the focus of machining.Mechanism of AJM •Fine particles are accelerated in gas stream . • As the particle impacts the surface. it causes a small fracture. .

Conventional Abrasive Jet Machine Compressor .

VIBRATOR 3. COMPRESSOR 2.Constructional Details Equipments involved in the construction of the “ Abrasive Jet Machine” are as follows 1. NOZZLE 5. MACHINE TABLE 6. MIXING CHAMBER 4. PRESSURE GAUGE & REGULATOR .

Sodium bicarbonate etc. 3.Process Parameters The variables that influence the rate of metal removal are as follows : 1. nitrogen & air. The range of jet velocity is 150-300 m/min 4. Nozzle Tip Distance (NTD) : It is the distance between the nozzle tip & work material. Silicon carbide.Abrasive : Carbon dioxide. .Carrier Gas : 2. Work Material : It is recommended for processing of brittle material 5.Velocity of abrasive : The jet velocity is a function of nozzle pressure & design. Air is most widely used Aluminum oxide.

Seshan . 20 Gas Pressure Kgf/cm2 mg/min 15 10 5 0 1 2 Pressure (Kgf/cm2) 3 4 Material Removal Rate mg/min Fig a)1 : Effect of Pressure on MRR Source : Previous Experiments conducted by M. Roopa Rani and S.Effect of Process Parameters on Machining a) Effect of Pressure of carrier gas on Material Removal Rate (MRR) S.No. 1 2 3 4 Gas Pressure (Kgf/cm2) 5 6 7 8 Material Removal Rate (MRR) (mg/min) 18 21 23 26 Table a)1 : Effect of Pressure on MRR 30 25 Material Removal Rate (MRR).

S.01 1 2 3 4 Table b1:Effect of Nozzle Tip Distance on Diameter of Cut.(b) Effect of Nozzle Tip Distance (NTD) on Diameter of Cut. Source : Previous Experiments conducted by M. No.99 Diameter of Cut (mm) 0. Seshan .01 14.79 5. Nozzle Tip Distance (NTD) (mm) 0.64 1. Roopa Rani and S.00 10. Fig b1:Shows the effect of Nozzle Tip Distance on Diameter of Cut.5 2.46 0.

Block Diagram of Fabricated Abrasive Jet Machine Air Hopper Compressor Regulating Valve Mixing Chamber Nozzle Nozzle Tip Distance (NTD) Workpiece Table .

Photograph of Fabricated Abrasive Jet Machine .

cleaned and weighed again to determine the amount of material removed from the work piece.Experimental Procedure: Glass was used as a test specimen. accurate to 0. The size of hole at the top surface and bottom surface was measured and the results were tabulated. was cut into square and rectangular shape for machining on AJM. Specimens were cleaned using air jet and weighed on a sensitive scale. .001 gram . Each test sample was placed on the work chamber and machined by abrasive jet machine by varying various process parameters The machine work piece was then removed.

1.Experimental Details: Experiment No:1.NTD Vs Diameter of Hole Observation – 1.5 kgf/cm2 Thickness of material = 4 mm .1 Machined Work piece at Pressure = 5.1.1 1 NTD=6 2 NTD=12 3 NTD=15 4 NTD=18 Fig.

Nozzle Tip Distance .Observation Table Pressure = 5.2. Shows the graph of Diameter of Hole vs.72 11.33 6.No.05 8.21 11. 1 2 3 4 Nozzle Tip Distance NTD (mm) 6 12 15 18 Top Surface Dia (mm) 7.1 Effect of Nozzle Tip Distance on Dia of Hole. Bottom Surface Dia.05 5.65 Graph Table1. 12 11 10 Top Surface Dia. Dia Of Hole (mm) NTD (mm) 9 8 7 6 5 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Diameter of hole (mm) NTD (mm) Fig 1.65 Bottom Surface Dia (mm) 4.1.5 Kgf/cm2 S.51 5.

2.2 Fig 1.1 Machined Work piece at Pressure =6.5 kgf/cm2 Thickness of material = 4 mm .NTD Vs Diameter of Hole Observation – 1.Experiment No:1.

Dia Of Hole (mm) NTD (mm) 9 8 7 6 5 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Diameter of hole (mm) NTD (mm) Fig 1.2 Effect of Nozzle Tip Distance on Dia of Hole. 1 2 3 4 Nozzle Tip Distance NTD (mm) 6 12 15 18 Top Surface Dia mm 7.65 5.55 9.15 11.2.91 6.2 Graph of Diameter of Hole vs.Observation Table Pressure = 6.5 Kgf/cm2 S. Bottom Surface Dia.05 Table1.No.75 11. Graph 12 11 10 Top Surface Dia.75 Bottom Surface Dia mm 4.55 5. Nozzle Tip Distance .

3 Fig 1.Experiment No:1.NTD Vs Diameter of Hole Observation – 1.1 Machined Work piece at Pressure = 8 kgf/cm2 Thickness of material = 4 mm .3.

3 Effect of Nozzle Tip Distance on Dia of Hole Graph 12 11 10 Top Surface Dia.72 9. 1 2 3 4 Nozzle Tip Distance NTD (mm) 6 12 15 18 Top Surface Dia mm 7.96 6.81 Bottom Surface Dia mm 5.3.05 5.No.75 5.2 Graph of Diameter of Hole vs. Bottom Surface Dia.Observation Table Pressure = 8 Kgf/cm2 S.95 11.75 Table1. Nozzle Tip Distance .45 11. NTD (mm) Dia Of Hole (mm) 9 8 7 6 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Diameter of Hole (mm) NTD (mm) Fig1.

=6.1.1 Machined work piece for determination of MRR at Pr.5 kgf/cm2 Pressure 7.5 kgf/cm2 Initial weight = 140.2.5 kgf/cm2 Initial weight = 137.3 Machined work piece for determination of MRR at Pr.5 kgf/cm2 Pressure 6.1 Fig 2.1.370 gm Time = 20 sec Thickness = 8mm MRR = 400 mg/min .200 gm Final Weight = 141.130 gm Time = 20 sec Thickness = 8mm MRR = 210 mg/min Fig.=5.2 Machined work piece for determination of MRR at Pr.150 gm Time = 20 sec Thickness = 8mm MRR = 120 mg/min Fig 2.530 gm Final Weight = 137.190 gm Final Weight = 140.5 kgf/cm2 Initial weight = 141.Experiment No:2.5 kgf/cm2 Pressure 5.=7.1.Pressure Vs Material Removal Rate (MRR) Observation .2.

5 6.2. NTD = 12 mm S.No.0 6.1 Effect of Pressure on MRR Graph 400 350 300 MRR (mg/min) 250 200 150 100 5. Pressure kgf/cm2 5.5 6.Observation Table Thickness = 8 mm.4 Graph of Pressure vs.5 7.200 137.150 161.5 7.130 137.5 Initial Weight (gm) 140.5 Pressure (Kgf/cm ) Fig.370 Time (sec) 20 20 20 MRR (mg/min) 120 210 400 1 2 3 Table 2.1.0 2 7.530 Final Weight (gm) 140. MRR .190 141.

750 gm Final Weight = 201.2.=5.2.2 Machined work piece for determination of MRR at Pr.1 Machined work piece for determination of MRR at Pr.Experiment No:2.059 gm Time = 20 sec Thickness = 12mm MRR = 213 mg/min Fig 2.2.5 kgf/cm2 Initial weight = 207.5 kgf/cm2 Pressure 6.3 Machined work piece for determination of MRR at Pr.=7. 2.Pressure Vs Material Removal Rate (MRR) Observation .570 gm Time = 20 sec Thickness = 12 mm MRR = 90 mg/min Fig.2.590 gm Time = 20 sec Thickness = 12mm MRR = 480mg/min .5 kgf/cm Pressure 5.=6.5 kgf/cm2 Pressure 7.600gm Weight = 206.130gm Final Weight = 207.2.2 Fig.5 kgf/cm2 Initial weight = 201.5 kgf/cm2 Initial weight = 206.

2. NTD = 12 mm S.No.5 6. MRR . Pressure kgf/cm2 1 2 3 5.059 201.5 P s re K f/cm re su g Fig.5 7 .0 2 7 .2.2.2 Effect of Pressure on MRR Graph 50 5 50 0 40 5 MRR mg/min 40 0 30 5 30 0 20 5 20 0 10 5 10 0 5 0 5 .600 207.5 7.Observation Table Thickness = 12 mm.0 6 .570 207.590 Time (sec) 20 20 20 MRR (mg/min) 90 213 480 Table.750 Final Weight (gm) 206.4 Graph of Pressure vs.130 201.5 Initial Weight (gm) 206.5 6 .

the Top surface diameter and Bottom surface diameter increases 2.Conclusion: Abrasive Jet Machine was fabricated with following specification: 1. 3. As Nozzle Tip Distance increases. 2. 4. Diameter of nozzle = 3 mm Type of abrasive particle – aluminum oxide (AlO2) Pressure range – 5 to 8 kgf/cm2 Carrier gas used – Dry air From the experiment conducted it was observed that: 1. As the Pressure increases Material Removal Rate (MRR) also increases. .

By using different nozzle tip diameter. computer numerical control (CNC) . 4. 2. By using different work material. 3. By using different type of abrasive particles.Scope of Future Work: In this fabricated abrasive jet unit experiment can be conducted : 1. Also the abrasive jet machine can be improved by retrofitting. 5. By using different sizes of abrasive particles.

“Some Studies on Abrasive Jet Machining” Journal of the Institution of Engineers (India) vol 68 part PE 2 November 1987 Alok K. Seshan “Abrasive Jet Machining-Process Variables and Current Application”Metals Materials and Process.7 No. Pandey & H.References  M. Shan . C.New Delhi.S. Virginia “Parametric Study of the Efficacy of Cutting Process in Abrasive Jet Machining (AJM)” P. P. Grover “ CBS Publishing & Distributor Amitabh Ghosh & Ashok Kumar Malik “Manufacturing Process “East –West Press Private Limited . Edition 1995       .1995 Vol.Verma. Old Dominion University Norfolk. P K Ray and Dr A K Paul. Cheng Y. Roopa Rani and S.” Modern Machining “ Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company . Edition :1980 Maleev & Hartman “Machine Design “edited by O.4.Engineering Technology Dept. Lin Associate Professor . Edition : 1980 Production Technology HMT Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company .pp 279-290.

THANKS .