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Poverty and Environment Links Case Study from Rural Cambodia
By: Tong kimsun and Sry Bopharath 24-26 November 2010 New Delhi, India

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Key environmental problems Objective of the study Methodology Empirical results Mitigating and coping strategies Conclusion



Key environmental problems in Cambodia Declining biodiversity (fish stock, wildlife)  Deforestation  Land degradation  Natural disasters e.g. floods, drought, windstorms and water pollution 


Slide 3 Pem1 Do you mean habitat loss? Also, why mention fish stock only in declining biodiversity? What about Cambodia's flora and fauna (or wildlife)?
R F Catalla, 11/15/2010

Objective of the study 

Examine the impact of environmental degradation on poverty in Cambodia by focusing on:
the impact of environmental income (forestry and hunting) on poverty and environmental variables such as flood, drought and land erosion on poverty.


Objective of the study 

Examine household risk coping strategies and limitations in response to environmental change, as well as the government¶s mitigation and coping strategies



Simple descriptive methods to assess the impact of environmental income (forestry and hunting) on poverty (Cavendish, 1999). Regression method is adopted to investigate the impact of flood, drought and land erosion on poverty. FGDs in three villages located at wetland area that was severely hit by drought for three continuous years (2008-2010).


Cambodia Socio-Economic Survey in 2007 (CSES 2007)



Empirical results
ural per capita I c me Plai i est c restr a ricultural t ers Wa e T tal i est c restr a ricultural t ers Wa e T tal ample ize urce Aut rs calculati % % % % % % r m E

A re ate I c me T le ap

urces i riels astal Plateau a u tai T tal

% % % % % %

% % % % % %

% % % % % %

% % % % % %

Empirical results
u l e Etimte r i e ra rt s a s ri e s re cm au s e cm i c s e ir m l cm ec s e ir m l e lui eta e lui eta i cm i cm e e e ie e rt rec s e rt e rt e rt He acut e a s rit He rt p ee acut e a s rit He rt p ee acut e a s rit rt p ee la i le a p ata sl la a a te u uta i

ta l u e u rs c lc la r m E rc t a u ti

Empirical results
escripti e tatistics atural isasters at Villa e e el ull ample lai ea le ap ea t astal ea ural lateau a u tai ea t tal ea

ea atural isaster i t e past ears ru t ru t ru t ru t ru t l l l l l ample i e urce ut rs calculati













Empirical results
ural ert ea c u t e ei a lai isaster i t e illa e uri r u t i t e illa e uri l i t e illa e uri Yes Yes Yes tal te ert rate is estim ate c sum pti appr ac urce ut rs calculati r m E atural isaster le ap astal lateau a u tai tal


Empirical results
Empirical esults r it el el el *** * el ar i al e ects el *** ** *** * *** *** *** * *** *** *** *** * *** *** *** *** ** *** *** *** *** ** *** *** *** ** *** *** *** ** *** *** *** *** *** ** *** el el el aria les atural isaster = es r u t = es l = es a pr ucti it a e ri i ater = es a i t ilet = es use l si e e er = ale a e a e square marital status = es race = mer e ucati ears lai umm le ap umm astal umm um er ser ati s i r > i li eli seu square urce ut rs calculati r m E

*** *


Mitigating and coping strategies (National level) 

he Cambodian government has considered renewable energy, improved cooking stoves, energy efficient building codes, tax relief for renewable energy and mass transit, reforestation, forest protection, intermittent irrigation, organic matter management.


Mitigating and coping strategies (National level) 

he improvement of irrigation systems, water supply and sanitation, and the establishment of Farmer ater User Communities; the construction of water culverts, dams, pumping facilities, water gates and canals.


Mitigating and coping strategies (National level) 

More recently, the Cambodian National daptation rogramme of ction for ) has been Climate Change (N developed to provide a framework to guide the coordination and implementation of adaptation initiatives.


Mitigating and coping strategies ( ousehold level ± from the FGDs) 

Most FGD participants do not have proper mitigating strategies. Few villagers have used new type of rice seed to adapt to extreme weather. Most rely on common property resources. FGD participants¶ immediate responses are to sell durable assets, put household members (including children) into labour force, and migration.


overty rate will increase if rural households are unable to access forestry and hunting. Drought and land erosion are more likely to increase the poverty rate. Flood has negative effect on poverty. he Cambodian government has undertaken numerous activities to tackle climate change, Cambodian households still largely depend on self-insurance strategies.