Basic Structure of a Cell

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Introduction to Cells
Cells are the basic units of organisms Cells can only be observed under microscope Basic types of cells:

Animal Cell

Plant Cell copyright Ineke,SKG

Bacterial Cell

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Number of Cells
Organisms may be:
‡ Unicellular ² composed of one cell ‡ Multicellularcomposed of many cells that may organize
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Cells May be Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic 
Prokaryotes include bacteria & lack a nucleus or membrane-bound structures called organelles Eukaryotes include most other cells & have a nucleus and membranebound organelles (plants, fungi, & animals)
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Prokaryotes
Nucleoid region contains the DNA ‡Cell membrane & cell wall ‡ Contain ribosomes (no membrane) to make proteins in their cytoplasm

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SKG 6 .Eukaryotic Cell Contain 3 basic cell structures: ‡ Nucleus ‡ Cell Membrane ‡ Cytoplasm with organelles copyright Ineke.

Two Main Types of Eukaryotic Cells Plant Cell Animal Cell copyright Ineke.SKG 7 .

SKG 8 .Organelles Very small size Can only be observed under a microscope Have specific functions Found throughout cytoplasm copyright Ineke.

SKG 9 .Organelles Found in Cells Examples of Organelles include: Endoplasmic reticulum (rough & smooth) ² canals for movement Golgi Bodies ² wrap & export proteins Nucleolus ² makes ribosomes Lysosomes ² digests & gets rid of wastes Ribosomes ² makes proteins copyright Ineke.

Golgi Bodies ‡ Stacks of flattened sacs ‡ Have a shipping side & a receiving side ‡ Receive & modify proteins made by ER ‡ Transport vesicles with modified proteins pinch off the ends copyright Ineke.SKG Transport vesicle 10 .

SKG 11 .Lysosome ‡ Contain digestive enzymes ‡ Break down food and worn out cell parts for cells ‡ Programmed for cell death (lyse & release (lyse enzymes to break down & recycle cell parts) copyright Ineke.

SKG 12 .Nucleolus ‡ Cell may have 1 to 3 nucleoli ‡ Inside nucleus ‡ Disappears when cell divides ‡ Makes ribosomes that make proteins copyright Ineke.

Smooth ER lacks ribosomes & makes proteins USED In the cell Rough ER has ribosomes on its surface & makes proteins to EXPORT Smooth & Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum copyright Ineke.SKG 13 .

Cell Powerhouse Mitochondrion ( mitochondria ) Rod shape Site of Cellular respiration copyright Ineke.SKG 14 .

In Animal Cells: Mitochondria Active cells like muscles have more mitochondria Burn sugars to produce energy ATP copyright Ineke.SKG 15 .

Surrounding the Cell Cell membrane Lies immediately against the cell wall in plant cells Made of protein and phospholipids Selectively permeable copyright Ineke.SKG 16 .

Cell or Plasma Membrane Cell membrane Living layer Controls the movement of materials into and out of the cell Selectively permeable copyright Ineke.SKG 17 .

Cell Wall Cell wall Nonliving layer Gives structure and shape to plant and bacterial cells copyright Ineke.SKG 18 .

Cytoplasm of a Cell Cytoplasm Jelly-like substance enclosed by cell membrane Provides a medium for chemical reactions to take place copyright Ineke.SKG 19 .

SKG 20 .More on Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Contains organelles to carry out specific jobs Examples: chloroplast & mitochondrion copyright Ineke.

SKG 21 .Control Organelle Nucleus Controls the normal activities of the cell Contain the DNA Bounded by a nuclear membrane Contains chromosomes copyright Ineke.

SKG 22 .More on the Nucleus Nucleus Each cell has fixed number of chromosomes that carry genes Genes control cell characteristics copyright Ineke.

SKG 23 .Plant Cell Organelles Chloroplast Contain the green pigment chlorophyll Traps sunlight to make to make sugars (food) Process called photosynthesis copyright Ineke.

Plant Cell Cell wall Dead layer Large empty spaces present between cellulose fibers Freely permeable copyright Ineke.SKG 24 .

Plant Cell Cell wall Made of cellulose which forms very thin fibers Strong and rigid Found in plant cells copyright Ineke.SKG 25 .

SKG 26 .Plant Cell Cell wall Protect and support the enclosed substances (protoplasm) Resist entry of excess water into the cell Give shape to the cell copyright Ineke.

& pigments copyright Ineke.Plant Cell Organelles Vacuole Have a large central vacuole Surrounded by tonoplast Contains cell sap Sugars. proteins. wastes.SKG 27 . minerals.

Different kinds of plant cells Onion Epidermal Cells root hair Guard Cells Root Hair Cell copyright Ineke.SKG 28 .

vacuole cytoplasm Animal cell No cell wall or chloroplast Stores glycogen in the cytoplasm for food energy copyright Ineke.SKG nucleus mitochondrion glycogen granule cell membrane 29 .

Animal Cell Organelles ‡ Near the nucleus ‡ Paired structures ‡ Help cell divide copyright Ineke.SKG 30 .

SKG Paramecium 31 .Different kinds of animal cells white blood cell Amoeba red blood cell muscle cell sperm cheek cells nerve cell copyright Ineke.

Similarities between plant cells and animal cells Both have a cell membrane surrounding the cytoplasm Both have a nucleus Both contain mitochondria copyright Ineke.SKG 32 .

SKG .Differences between plant cells and animal cells Animal cells Relatively smaller in size Irregular shape No cell wall Plant cells Relatively larger in size Regular shape Cell wall present 33 copyright Ineke.

Differences between Plant Cells and Animal Cells Animal cells Vacuole small or absent Glycogen as food storage Plant cells Large central vacuole Starch as food storage Nucleus at the Nucleus near cell center copyright Ineke.SKG wall 34 .

SKG 35 .Compound Microscope ‡ Instrument for observing small objects ‡ Magnify images up to 2000X their size copyright Ineke.

Different parts of a microscope copyright Ineke.SKG 36 .

SKG Eyepiece Body tube Coarse adjustment Fine adjustment Arm Stage Condenser control knob Base 37 .Revolving nosepiece Objective Clip Condenser Iris diaphragm Mirror copyright Ineke.

SKG 38 .The cell is the Basic Unit of Life ‡ Cell is the smallest unit of living organisms ‡ Unicellular organisms are made of one cell only ‡ The cells of multicellular organisms are specialized to perform different functions ² e. mesophyll cells for photosynthesis and root hair cells for water absorption copyright Ineke.g.

Levels of organization ‡ Cells are grouped together and work as a whole to perform special functions copyright Ineke.SKG 39 .

Tissue ‡ A group of similar cells to perform a particular function ² Animals : epithelial tissue.SKG 40 . mesophyll copyright Ineke. muscular tissue ² Plants : vascular tissue.

SKG 41 . nervous tissue and blood vessels ² Leaf : consists of epidermis.Organ ‡ Different tissues group together to carry out specialized functions ² Heart : consists of muscles. mesophyll and vascular tissue copyright Ineke.

SKG 42 .The Structures of a Leaf (Plant Organ) Chloroplast Palisade Mesophyll Cell Spongy Mesophyll Cell Air Space Stoma copyright Ineke.

The Structures of a Heart (Animal Organ) copyright Ineke.SKG 43 .

respiratory.SKG 44 . circulatory and reproductive systems ² Plant : root and shoot systems copyright Ineke. excretory.System ‡ Several organs and tissues work together to carry out a particular set of functions in a co-ordinated way ² Human : digestive.

Human Body Systems Examples of systems : Digestive System Respiratory System Circulatory System Nervous System Reproductive System copyright Ineke.SKG 45 .

SKG 46 .Examples of a Human Body System copyright Ineke.

SKG 47 .Examples of a Human Body System The Respiratory System copyright Ineke.

Examples of a Human Body System Circulatory System copyright Ineke.SKG 48 .

Examples of a Human Body System Nervous System copyright Ineke.SKG 49 .

nerve cells) TISSUES (muscle. stomach) SYSTEMS (circulatory system) ORGANISM (human) copyright Ineke. lungs.SKG 50 . epithelium) ORGANS (heart.Levels of Organization CELLS (muscle cells.

It·s You! copyright Ineke.SKG 51 .