What is your personal definition of Leadership? .

DEFINITION OF LEADERSHIP Leadership is commonly defined as a process of influence whereby the leader influences others toward goal achievement researchers ² people endowed with authority are leaders 11 Some .

DEFINITION OF LEADERSHIP Leadership is a force that creates a capacity among a group of people to do something that is different or better ² what leaders do. the process of influencing a group to achieve goals Leadership .

LEADERSHIP The process of influencing people to accomplish goals innovate focus on people Leaders Leaders .

Leaders inspire thru personal trustworthiness & self-confidence communicate a vision that turns self-interest into commitment to the job Leaders .


LEADERS  Use a wide variety of interpersonal skills to influence others to accomplish a specific goal Have the capacity to earn and hold trust Must be personally authentic and accountable Must possess enthusiasm. and commitment    . energy.

17 . rather than as the head or leader of the group.FORMAL AND INFORMAL LEADERSHIP y Formal leadership is based on occupying a position in an organization. The informal leader can be considered to emerge as a leader when accepted by others and perceived to have influence. called assigned leadership y Informal leadership occurs when an individual demonstrates leadership outside the scope of a formal leadership role or as a member of a group.

What makes a person a leader? .


Leadership theory is an evolving field. Contingency. A leader may be effective in one situation. but perform poorly in another.EVOLUTION OF LEADERSHIP THEORY Trait Theory (1950s) Behavioral Style (1960s) Situational. Great leadership is based on what someone does. . while these highlight the most common theories of the last century. The path-goal theory suggests that subordinates are motivated to the extent that a leader can help them achieve a valued goal. more theories continue to be researched in the elusive search for a definitive understanding of leadership. More recent leadership theories are discussed on the following slides. Path/Goal Theories (1970s) Interaction between the leader and the situation is important. Leaders engage with followers to raise the level of motivation and morality in both the leader and the followers. Transformational Theory (1980s+) There are inherent attributes that some people are born with that make them great leaders.

success/effectiveness Aristotelian philosophy ² some people are born to be leaders while others to be led .GREAT MAN AND TRAIT THEORIES Great Man Theory Earliest approach Identify great person from masses Certain traits .

GREAT MAN AND TRAIT THEORIES Trait Theories Assume some people have certain characteristics or traits that make them better leaders than others Studied great leaders throughout history Power and situations were ignored .

GREAT MAN AND TRAIT THEORIES Contemporary theories said that leadership is a skill and can be developed Not inborn .

BEHAVIORAL THEORIES Pattern of actions used by different individuals determines leadership potential McGregor et al moved away from studying the traits of leadership«situation .

democratic and laissez-faire .BEHAVIORAL THEORIES Lewin. White and Lippit isolated common leadership styles y Autocratic.

CHARACTERISTICS OF AUTHORITARIAN Strong control over work group Others are motivated by coercion Others are directed with commands Communication flows downward Decision making does not involve others Emphasis is on difference in status Criticism is punitive .


RESULTS OF AUTHORITARIAN Results in well-defined group actions Results are predictable = reduce frustration in work group Productivity is usually high Creativity. self-motivation and autonomy are low Useful in crisis situation Common in large bureaucratic system .

CHARACTERISTIC OF DEMOCRATIC Less control is maintained Economic and ego awards are used to motivate Others are directed through suggestions and guidance Communication flows up and down Decision making involves others Emphasis is on ´weµ rather than ´Iµ and ´youµ Criticism is constructive .

ADVANTAGES OF DEMOCRATIC Appropriate for groups that work together for extended periods Promotes autonomy and growth of individual Effective when cooperation and coordination are necessary Takes time because of consultative process Frustrating for those who want decisions made rapidly Less efficient quantitatively .

with little or no control Motivation by support when requested by group Provision of little or no direction Communication upward and downward flow among members Decision making dispersed throughout the group Emphasis on the group Criticism withheld .CHARACTERISTICS LAISSEZ-FAIRE Permissiveness.

. That is.SITUATIONAL AND CONTINGENCY THEORIES Leader traits and/or leader behaviors are important aspects but must be taken in context. the situation matters.

SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP THEORY No single best way to lead Focus on maturity or readiness of followers y Ability and willingness .


emphasis on task and relationship behaviors according to the readiness of followers to perform their tasks Mary Follet
y y

social system of contingencies Need for ´integrationµ


Leadership Styles
low readiness, untrained and inexperienced employees Selling: low/moderate readiness, trained but inexperienced employees Participating: moderate/high readiness, able but unwilling, employees skeptical Delegating: high readiness, employees ready and willing to take responsibility


Hersey and Blanchard  Developed situational approach  Effectiveness of leader is based on level of maturity of followers  As followers mature = less task focus for leader


The . two scales range from 1 to 9 with 9 being a higher concern.Blake & Mouton·s Management Grid The foundation of this theory is that management should have concern for both human relations and completion of work tasks.

Blake & Mouton·s Management Grid Five (5) management styles are identified: y Impoverished Management ² low concern for both people and tasks y Country Club Management ² high concern for people and low concern for tasks .

Blake & Mouton·s Management Grid Five (5) management styles are identified: y Organizational Man Management ² adequate performance is accomplished by balancing staff morale and getting work done .

Blake & Mouton·s Management Grid Five (5) management styles are identified: y Authority Obedience ² high concern for tasks and low concern for people y Team Management ² high concern for both people and accomplishment of tacks .


9) (9.1) TASK (9.1) --------------------------------------------------------------------------1 9 CONCERNFOR PRODUCTION .THE MANAGERIAL GRID BLAKE & MOUTON 9 -------------------------------------------------------------------------COUNTRY-CLUB TEA M (1.5) IMPOVERISHED 1 (1.9) CONCERN FOR PEOPLE MIDDLE OF ROAD (5.

In which the style utilized depends on which style the leader feels will return him or her the greatest self-benefit. Such managers have great concern for both people and production. To them the task is less important than good interpersonal relations. They attempt to balance their concern for both people and production. 9. but they are not committed.9 Country Club management. Managers in this position have great concern for production and little concern for people.5 Organization Man Management. They work to motivate employees to reach their highest levels of accomplishment. This style of leadership is considered to be ideal. Often termed middle-of-the-road leadership. Leaders in this position have little concern for people or productivity.9 Team Management. and they understand the need to change. . 5.1 Authority-Compliance. avoid taking sides.) 9. Often referred to as Laissez-faire leadership. A style in which reward is promised for compliance and punishment threatened for non-compliance Opportunistic ³what¶s in it for me´ management. 1. (This is a soft Theory X approach and not a sound human relations approach. 9+9 Paternalistic ³father knows best´ management. and stay out of conflicts.1 Impoverished management. They consider creativity and human relations to be unnecessary. They do just enough to get by.The Major Leadership Grid Styles 1. They desire tight control in order to get tasks done efficiently. Their goal is to keep people happy. They are flexible and responsive to change. Leaders in this position have medium concern for people and production. Managers in this position have great concern for people and little concern for production. They try to avoid conflicts and concentrate on being well liked.

skill of manager and abilities of members .SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP Tannenbaum and Schmidt  Managers need a mixture of autocratic and democraric leadership behaviors or styles  Style depends on nature of situation.

task structure. position power . leader·s style and the demands of the situation Situational control Least preferred coworker Important variables y Leader/member relations.FIEDLER·S LEADERSHIP CONTINGENCY THEORY Reinforced contingency approach Group effectiveness depends on appropriate match bet.

There are three (3) dimensions that influence leadership style: y Leader-staff relations y Task structure y Position power .FIEDLER·S CONTINGENCY MODEL Suggests that no one leadership style is the best for every situation.

PATH-GOAL THEORY Rooted in Expectancy Theory Leader behaviors y Directive y Supportive y Achievement-oriented y Participative .

PATH-GOAL THEORY OF LEADERSHIP SITUATIONAL FACTORS Characteristics of subordinates Locus of control Experience Perceived ability Characteristics of environment Task structure Formal authority system Work group .

Path-Goal Leadership Styles Directive Supportive Achievement-oriented Participative .

Path-Goal leadership Style .

PATH-GOAL LEADERSHIP STYLES DIRECTIVE Lets subordinates know what is expected Plans and schedules work to be done Gives specific guidance ² what should be done and how it should be done Maintains clear standards of performance SUPPORTIVE Shows concern for well-being of subordinates Treats members as equals Does little things to make the work more pleasant Friendly and approachable .

PATH-GOAL LEADERSHIP STYLES ACHIEVEMENT-ORIENTED Sets challenges goals Expects subordinates to perform at the highest level Seeks improvement in performance. while showing confidence in workers PARTICIPATIVE Consults with subordinates Solicits suggestions Takes suggestions seriously into consideration before making decisions .

SUPPORTIVE LEADERSHIP Reduce boredom Make job more tolerable Increase the intrinsic valence of work Supportive Leadership Increase effort Increase self-confidence Lower Anxiety Increase effortperformance expectancy .

DIRECTIVE LEADERSHIP Reduce role ambiguity Increase effortperformance expectancy Directive Leadership Increase size of incentives Increase outcome valences for task success Increase subordinate effort Strengthen reward contingencies Increase performancereward expectancies .

PATH-GOAL THEORY Causal Variables Leader Behavior Intervening Variables Subordinate expectations Outcome Variables Subordinate effort and satisfaction Situational Moderator Variables Characteristics of task and environment Characteristics of subordinates .


and empowers others with vision is termed as transformational leader y . has a vision.TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP Burns (1978) Both leader and followers have the ability to raise each other to higher levels of motivation and morality y Traditional manager ² concerned with day-today operations termed as transactional leader Manager who is committed.

idea-oriented. arouses intense feelings Communicates high expectations and a need for a change Unpredictable y y y y Relies on referent or charismatic power Raises level of awareness and commitment Gets followers to transcend their selfinterests Requires trust and belief in the vision presented .TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP Inspirational. visionary Dramatic.

Transactional Leadership Exchanges rewards for services Management by exception (Watches for deviations) Keeps the system operating smoothly y y y y Uses reward and coercive power bases Recognizes what workers want and tries to deliver it Rewards according to worker effort Responsive to worker self-interests .

TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP Transformational Leadership ‡Idealized Influence ‡Inspiration ‡Intellectual stimulation ‡Individualized consideration Broadening and elevating follower goals Performance beyond expectations Transactional Leadership ‡Contingent reward ‡Management by exception (active or passive) ‡Laissez faire Leader/follower exchange Agreed upon performance .

Leadership Styles Transactional leadership Transformational leadership .

Transactional leadership ‡Contingent Reward ‡Management by Exception ‡Laissez Faire .


Transformational leadership ‡Individualised consideration ‡Charisma ‡Inspiration ‡Intellectual stimulation .

TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP ´Transformational leaders concentrate on motivating and developing staff members so the organisation and its staff achieve a shared vision.µ (Dixon 1997) . Key stakeholders within the organisation are empowered to build a culture that supports this vision.

TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP Transactional leader Transformational leader Focuses on management tasks Is a caretaker Uses trade-offs to meet goals Does not identify shared values Examines causes Uses contingency reward Identifies common values Is committed Inspires others with vision Has long-term vision Looks at effects Empowers others .

INTERACTIONAL LEADERSHIP THEORIES Interactional theory Leadership behavior is determined by the relationship between the leader·s personality and the specific situation .

INTERACTIONAL LEADERSHIP THEORIES Schein (1970) Human as complex beings whose working environment was an open system to which they responded System ² objects. with relationships between the objects and its attributes .

INTERACTIONAL LEADERSHIP THEORIES Brandt (1994) Leaders develop work environment that fosters autonomy and creativity through valuing and empowering others Affirms uniqueness of individuals y Contribute unique talents to a common goal y Peter Drucker ² leadership is a responsibility rather than a rank or privilege .

INTERACTIONAL LEADERSHIP THEORIES Kanter (1989) Title and position authority were no longer sufficient to mold a workforce. subordinates are encouraged to think for themselves and instead managers must learn to work synergistically with others .

LEADERSHIP ROLES Guiding Directing Teaching Motivating for goal setting Motivating for achievement .

CHARACTERISTICS OF LEADERS Honesty Vision Competence Communication Motivation Knowledge Decisiveness Risk-taking Caring Balance Humor Self-awareness .

CHARACTERISTICS OF LEADERS Intelligence Knowledge Judgment Decisiveness Oral fluency Emotional intelligence Independence Personable Adaptability Creativeness cooperativeness Alertness Confidence Personal integrity Emotional balance and control Ability Able to enlist cooperator Interpersonal skills Tact Diplomacy Prestige Social participation Nonconformity .