ASSALAMU·ALAIKUM WARAHMATULLAHI WABARAKATUH

&

GOOD MORNING
RESPECTED LADIES AND GENTLEMENTS

THE PLANNING OF WESTERN AND ISLAMIC WORLD
BY

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR DR. HASSIM MAT
hassim@usm.my / drhasmat14@gmail.com
04-6532844 Pusat Pengajian Perumahan, Bangunan & Perancangan, UNVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA PULAU PINANG

INTRODUCTION
‡The best creator ‡Have perfect brain ‡In need of shelter, food & clothing ‡Must make afford in order to survive ‡Need mobility facilities ‡Overall planning

HISTORIC CITIES FORMATION PROCESS
Neolithic Revolution; 8,000 years before the existence of settlement known as city ‡Living in groups and society ‡Crops cultivation & livestock rearing ‡Started selling and buying after excess products ‡Pengkhususan pengeluaran barangan ‡Agriculture , administration, military, commercial, religious leader, carpenter & etc ‡Those not engaged in agriculture need not live in the farming area

HISTORIC CITIES FORMATION PROCESS

THE EXISTENCE OF NON AGRICULTURE COMMUNITY RESIDING ON THE NON AGRICULTURE LAND WAS THE STARTING OF CITY PATTERN LIVING

HISTORY OF ANCIENT CITIES
20,000 years BC, Babylon at Mesopotamian Valley with an area of 8.2 km square Mohenjodaro at Sind, India with an area of 2.5 km square Harappa at Punjab, India with an area of 6.5 km square These cities was estimated to have between 5,000 to 25,000 people. 1,900 year BC, Hotep-Sanusert at Foyum, Egypt less than 1 km square had 2,000 people Thebes with 20 km square had 225,000 people

HISTORY OF ANCIENT CITIES
Most ancient cities were the government administrative centre. The existence of ancient cities and settlements at North Africa, around Mediterranean Ocean, Persian Gulf, India, China & Latin America. But the cities were not long lasting; destroyed or demolished due to wars, disasters and epidemics.

Location of Ancient Cities
Mediterranean Ocean Persian Gulf

China

North Africa

India

Latin America

ANCIENT CITIES STRUCTURE
‡Well structured & organizes cities ‡Royal palace located at the centre ‡Surrounded ministers & military ‡Merchants stayed outside the fort ‡ Market/bazare located near the palace/religious building ‡ Functions as Capital city - administration, defence, commercial and cultural centre ‡ Usually located at fertile river valley or near the sea, river estuary or river bed which are an important passage

PROSES PERBANDARAN AWAL
‡ Technology development lead to industrial revolution ‡ The invention modern technique and technology in agriculture, manufacturing, transportation & industrial together with the changing of political system, administration & education ² the thinking and situation of the people started to change ‡ The invention of steam engine in the 19th century had changed the people way of life

FACTORS LEADING TO FORMATION OF WESTERN CITIES
‡Industrial development; utilization of water and wind power, invention of steam engine (coal) & fuel operated engine ‡Agricultural development, invention in commercial and services technique ² able to obtain food from outside ‡Community changed; from being influenced by religious leader and noble groups

AIM OF TOWN PLANNING
Usually town planners are more concern to only physical aspects: Site Town size ² total population Land use types Design and layout of buildings

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Taking into consideration environmental factors; ‡ Land condition ‡ Topography ‡ Water sources

CITY STRUCTURE CONCEPT

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Main Land Use Component: Residential areas City centre/Commercial Industries Public facilities and amenities Road networks Public transport routes Open spaces

CITY STRUCTURE CONCEPT
Land use are divided and arranged to form a city structure such as: Garden City Radial medieval Grid iron Radial neighborhood unit Rectangular Radial linear Parallel linear Linear city region Circuit linear Double circuit linear

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

CITY STRUCTURE CONCEPT

Sir Ebener Howard Garden City

CITY STRUCTURE CONCEPT

Radial mediaval

Grid Iron

CITY STRUCTURE CONCEPT

Radial Neighbourhood Unit

Rectangular

CITY STRUCTURE CONCEPT

Radial Linear

Parallel Linear

CITY STRUCTURE CONCEPT

Linear City Region

Circuit Linear

CITY STRUCTURE CONCEPT

Double Circuit Linear

Polynucleated

NEIGHBOURHOOD & COMMUNITY CONCEPT

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

There are various city form concept: Radburn superblock Flank Lloyd Wrights Perry Jose Sert Clarence Steins New Town

NEIGHBOURHOOD & COMMUNITY CONCEPT

Radburn superblock Neighborhood Units surrounded by main road connecting to other areas Pedestrian priority Residential unit planned surrounded the cul-de-sac Garden or open space within residential areas Residential are far away from main road

NEIGHBOURHOOD & COMMUNITY CONCEPT

Flank Lloyd Wrights

Linear pattern All administration, commercial, residential etc located along the main road which provide access to the highways

NEIGHBOURHOOD & COMMUNITY CONCEPT

Perry Primary school is the planning focus point Within an area of 100 acres, one quarter mile radius Mobility or travelling is very safe Main traffic is not allowed to pass through residential areas

NEIGHBOURHOOD & COMMUNITY CONCEPT

Jose Sert
Primary school is the main focal point Population density; 40-50 people per acre Groups of neighborhood units formed a city; between 56,000 ± 80,000 people A secondary school for every 4 neighborhood units

NEIGHBOURHOOD & COMMUNITY CONCEPT

Clarence Steins
Primary school as a focal point in a neighborhood unit And located within half mile distance Commercial center located at the center of neighborhood concept Green area surrounding residential areas Secondary school located within one mile distance

NEIGHBOURHOOD & COMMUNITY CONCEPT

New Town
Each countryside has 2 to 3 villages ± 5,000 people Each countryside has a secondary school and commercial center ± walking distance of 5 ± 8 minutes Pedestrian walkway connecting main activity areas

NEIGHBOURHOOD & COMMUNITY CONCEPT

New Town

EXAMPLE OF CITY STRUCTURE
There are some examples of city structure: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Miletus Palma Nova, Venice Milton Keynes Brasillia Runcorn Islamabad Chandigarh Radburn Amsterdam Tsukuba Science City

EXAMPLE OF CITY STRUCTURE

Miletus

EXAMPLE OF CITY STRUCTURE

Palma Nova, Venice

EXAMPLE OF CITY STRUCTURE

Milton Keynes

EXAMPLE OF CITY STRUCTURE

Chandigarh

EXAMPLE OF CITY STRUCTURE

Runcorn

EXAMPLE OF CITY STRUCTURE

Runcorn

EXAMPLE OF CITY STRUCTURE

Islamabad

EXAMPLE OF CITY STRUCTURE

Islamabad

EXAMPLE OF CITY STRUCTURE

Brasillia

EXAMPLE OF CITY STRUCTURE

Brasillia

EXAMPLE OF CITY STRUCTURE

Radburn

EXAMPLE OF CITY STRUCTURE

Amsterdam

EXAMPLE OF CITY STRUCTURE

Amsterdam

EXAMPLE OF CITY STRUCTURE

Tsukuba Science City Japan

EXAMPLE OF CITY STRUCTURE

Tsukuba Science City Japan

EXAMPLE OF CITY STRUCTURE

Yishun New Town, Singapore

EXAMPLE OF CITY STRUCTURE

Tampines New Town Singapore

EXAMPLE OF CITY STRUCTURE

Tampines New Town Singapore

EXAMPLE OF CITY STRUCTURE

Artist impression of Putrajaya

EXAMPLE OF CITY STRUCTURE

Putrajaya

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful