Human Biology

The Reproductive System

The Reproductive System
y Gonads ± primary sex organs
y Testes in males y Ovaries in females

y Gonads produce gametes (sex cells) and secrete hormones
y Sperm ± male gametes y Ova (eggs) ± female gametes

The Reproductive System
y Gonads ± primary sex organs
y Testes in males y Ovaries in females

y Gonads produce gametes (sex cells) and secrete hormones
y Sperm ± male gametes y Ova (eggs) ± female gametes

Male Reproductive System
y Accessory organs
y Seminal vesicle y Prostate gland y Bulbourethral gland

y External genitalia
y Penis y Scrotum

Male Reproductive System

Figure 16.2

Slide 16.2c

Testes

Figure 16.1

Slide 16.3a

Testes
y Each lobule contains one to four seminiferous tubules (sperm birth!)
y Tightly coiled structures y Function as sperm-forming factories y Empty sperm into the testis

y Sperm travels through the testis to the epididymis y Interstitial cells produce androgens such as testosterone
Slide 16.4

Epididymis
y Comma-shaped, tightly coiled tube y Found on the superior part of the testis and along the posterior lateral side y Functions to mature and store sperm cells (at least 20 days) y Expels sperm with the contraction of muscles in the epididymis walls to the vas deferens
Slide 16.5

Vas Deferens
y Carries sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct y Passes through the inguinal canal and over the bladder y Moves sperm by peristalsis y Spermatic cord ± Vas deferens, blood vessels, and nerves in a connective tissue sheath
Slide 16.6a

Male Reproductive System

Figure 16.2

Slide 16.2c

Ductus Deferens (Vas Deferens)

y Ends in the ejaculatory duct which unites with the urethra y Vasectomy ± cutting of the vas deferens at the level of the testes to prevent transportation of sperm

Slide 16.6b

Urethra

y Extends from the base of the urinary bladder to the tip of the penis y Carries both urine and sperm y Sperm enters from the ejaculatory duct

Slide 16.7a

Seminal Vesicles
y Located at the base of the bladder y Produces a thick, yellowish secretion (60% of semen)
y Fructose (sugar) y Vitamin C y Prostaglandins y Other substances that nourish and activate sperm
Slide 16.8

Male Reproductive System

Figure 16.2

Slide 16.2c

Prostate Gland

y Encircles the upper part of the urethra y Secretes a milky fluid
y Helps to activate sperm y Enters the urethra through several small ducts

Slide 16.9

Bulbourethral Glands
y Pea-sized gland inferior to the prostate y Produces a thick, clear mucus
y Cleanses the urethra of acidic urine y Serves as a lubricant during sexual intercourse y Secreted into the urethra
Slide 16.10

Semen
y Mixture of sperm and accessory gland secretions y Advantages of accessory gland secretions
y Fructose provides energy for sperm cells y Alkalinity of semen helps neutralize the acidic environment of vagina y Semen inhibits bacterial multiplication y Elements of semen enhance sperm motility
Slide 16.11

External Genitalia

y Scrotum
y Divided sac of skin outside the abdomen y Maintains testes at 3°C lower than normal body temperature to protect sperm viability

Slide 16.12

External Genitalia
y Penis
y Delivers sperm into the female reproductive tract y Regions of the penis y Shaft y Glans penis (enlarged tip) y Prepuce (foreskin) y Folded cuff of skin around proximal end y Often removed by circumcision
Slide 16.13a

External Genitalia

y Internally there are three areas of spongy erectile tissue around the urethra

Slide 16.13b

Spermatogenesis

y Production of sperm cells y Begins at puberty and continues throughout life y Occurs in the seminiferous tubules

Slide 16.14

Processes of Spermatogenesis
y Spermatogonia (stem cells) undergo rapid mitosis to produce more stem cells before puberty y Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) modifies spermatogonia division upon puberty.

Slide 16.15a

Processes of Spermatogenesis
y Spermatogenesis takes 64 to 72 days

Slide 16.16

Female Reproductive System
y Ovaries y Duct System
y Uterine tubes (fallopian tubes) y Uterus y Vagina

y External genitalia
Slide 16.21a

Female Reproductive System

Figure 16.8a

Slide 16.21b

Ovaries
y Composed of ovarian follicles (sac-like structures)

Figure 16.7

Slide 16.22

Ovarian Follicle Stages
y Primary follicle ± contains an immature oocyte y Graafian (vesicular) follicle ± growing follicle with a maturing oocyte y Ovulation ± when the egg is mature the follicle ruptures
y Occurs about every 28 days y The ruptured follicle is transformed into a corpus luteum
Slide 16.23

Uterine (Fallopian) Tubes
y Receive the ovulated oocyte y Provide a site for fertilization y Attaches to the uterus y Does not physically attach to the ovary y Supported by the broad ligament
Slide 16.25

Uterine Tube Function
y Fimbriae ± finger-like projections at the distal end that receive the oocyte y Cilia inside the uterine tube slowly move the oocyte towards the uterus (takes 3±4 days) y Fertilization occurs inside the uterine tube
Slide 16.26

Uterus
y Located between the urinary bladder and rectum y Hollow organ y Functions of the uterus
y Receives a fertilized egg y Retains the fertilized egg y Nourishes the fertilized egg
Slide 16.27

Walls of the Uterus
y Endometrium
y Inner layer y Allows for implantation of a fertilized egg y Sloughs off if no pregnancy occurs (menses)

y Myometrium ± middle layer of smooth muscle y Serous layer ± outer visceral peritoneum
Slide 16.30

Vagina
y Extends from cervix to exterior of body y Behind bladder and in front of rectum y Serves as the birth canal y Receives the penis during sexual intercourse y Hymen ± partially closes the vagina until it is ruptured
Slide 16.31

Oogenesis
y The total supply of eggs are present at birth y Ability to release eggs begins at puberty y Reproductive ability ends at menopause y Oocytes are matured in developing ovarian follicles
Slide 16.34

Oogenesis

Figure 16.10

Slide 16.37

Menstrual (Uterine) Cycle
y Cyclic changes of the endometrium y Regulated by cyclic production of estrogens and progesterone y Stages of the menstrual cycle
y Menses ± functional layer of the endometrium is sloughed y Proliferative stage ± regeneration of functional layer y Secretory stage ± endometrium increases in size and readies for implantation
Slide 16.38

Hormonal Control of the Ovarian and Uterine Cycles

Figure 16.12a, b

Slide 16.39a

Hormonal Control of the Ovarian and Uterine Cycles

Figure 16.12c, d

Slide 16.39b

Mammary Glands
y Present in both sexes, but only function in females
y Modified sweat glands

y Function is to produce milk y Stimulated by sex hormones (mostly estrogens) to increase in size
Slide 16.42

Stages of Pregnancy and Development
y Fertilization y Embryonic development y Fetal development y Childbirth

Slide 16.44

Fertilization
y The oocyte is viable for 12 to 24 hours after ovulation y Sperm are viable for 12 to 48 hours after ejaculation y Sperm cells must make their way to the uterine tube for fertilization to be possible
Slide 16.45

Development from Ovulation to Implantation

Figure 16.15

Slide 16.52

The Zygote
y First cell of a new individual y The result of the fusion of DNA from sperm and egg y The zygote begins rapid mitotic cell divisions y The zygote stage is in the uterine tube, moving toward the uterus
Slide 16.47

The Embryo
y Developmental stage from the start of cleavage until the ninth week y The embryo first undergoes division without growth y The embryo enters the uterus at the 16-cell state y The embryo floats free in the uterus temporarily y Uterine secretions are used for nourishment
Slide 16.48

The Blastocyst
y Ball-like circle of cells y Begins at about the 100 cell stage y Secretes human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to produce the corpus luteum to continue producing hormones y The blastocyst implants in the wall of the uterus (by day 14)

Slide 16.49

Development from Ovulation to Implantation

Figure 16.15

Slide 16.52

Development After Implantation
y Chorionic villi (projections of the blastocyst) develop
y Cooperate with cells of the uterus to form the placenta

y The embryo is surrounded by the amnion (a fluid filled sac) y An umbilical cord forms to attach the embryo to the placenta
Slide 16.53

Development After Implantation

Figure 16.16

Slide 16.54

Functions of the Placenta
y Forms a barrier between mother and embryo (blood is not exchanged) y Delivers nutrients and oxygen y Removes waste from embryonic blood y Becomes an endocrine organ (produces hormones) and takes over for the corpus luteum
y Estrogen y Progesterone y Other hormones that maintain pregnancy
Slide 16.55

The Fetus (Beginning of the Ninth Week)
y All organ systems are formed by the end of the eighth week y Activities of the fetus are growth and organ specialization y A stage of tremendous growth and change in appearance
Slide 16.56

Childbirth (Partition)
y Labor ± the series of events that expel the infant from the uterus y Initiation of labor
y Estrogen levels rise y Uterine contractions begin y The placenta releases prostaglandins y Oxytocin is released by the pituitary y Combination of these hormones produces contractions
Slide 16.60

Initiation of Labor

Figure 16.18

Slide 16.61

Stages of Labor

y Dilation
y Cervix becomes dilated y Uterine contractions begin and increase y The amnion ruptures

Slide 16.62a

Stages of Labor

y Expulsion
y Infant passes through the cervix and vagina y Normal delivery is head first

y Placental stage
y Delivery of the placenta

Slide 16.62b

Stages of Labor

Figure 16.19

Slide 16.63

Developmental Aspects of the Reproductive System
y Gender is determined at fertilization
y Males have XY sex chromosomes y Females have XX sex chromosomes

y Gonads do not begin to form until the eighth week

Slide 16.64a

Developmental Aspects of the Reproductive System
y Testes form in the abdominal cavity and descend to the scrotum one month before birth y The determining factor for gonad differentiation is testosterone

Slide 16.64b

Developmental Aspects of the Reproductive System
y Reproductive system organs do not function until puberty y Puberty usually begins between ages 10 and 15 y The first menses usually occurs about two years after the start of puberty y Most women reach peak reproductive ability in their late 20s
Slide 16.65

Developmental Aspects of the Reproductive System
y Menopause occurs when ovulation and menses cease entirely
y Ovaries stop functioning as endocrine organs

y There is a no equivalent of menopause in males, but there is a steady decline in testosterone
Slide 16.66

Human Sexual Response, Intercourse, and Fertilization
‡ Human sexual response: excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution
± Male sexual response: orgasm, marked by ejaculation ± Female sexual response: orgasm, marked by rhythmic muscular contractions

Contraceptive Methods: Failure Rates

Table16.3

Birth Control Methods
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Abstinence (only birth control that is 100%) Surgical sterilization: vasectomy, tubal ligation Hormonal methods: pills, injections, implants IUDs: small plastic or metal piece inserted into uterus ‡ Diaphragms and cervical caps: block the cervix ‡ Chemical spermicides: kill sperm cells

Birth Control Methods (cont.)
‡ Condoms: trap ejaculated sperm ‡ Natural alternatives: rhythm method, withdrawal ‡ Morning-after pills: prevent pregnancy from continuing ‡ Abortion: terminate pregnancy ‡ The future: male birth control pill; vaccines for women

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs): Worldwide Problem
‡ Bacterial: gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia ‡ Viral: HIV, hepatitis B, genital herpes, genital warts ‡ Other: yeasts (Candida), protozoan (Trichomonas), arthropod (pubic lice) ‡ Prevention
±Strategies: choose partner wisely, communicate, use suitable barriers, get tested and treated

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