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Globally, there is a severe nursing shortage


that makes the profession in crisis.
Locally, the profession produces thousands of
nurses yearly. ut many of these nurses
intend to work outside the country to seek
better opportunities. After gaining the
mandatory experience, many seek work
outside the country which leaves


 
(he Philippines with untrained and unskilled
nurses who can be a risk factor to the health
care profession (Estella, 2 balde, 2 .
(he gap exists between the growing
demand of a rising population for the delivery
of quality and cost effective patient outcomes
in healthcare and the lack of a strong nursing
leadership.

  

 

s A process by which one inspires others to


work together for the achievement of a
common mission, goal or a social transaction
(erton, 
s A vital ingredient which transforms a mere

crowd into a functional and useful


organization. t can be thought that it is a
transferable skill (Adair, 

  

 

s(heprocessofinfluencingtheactivitiesofan
organizedgroupinitsefforttowardgoal
settingandgoalachievement(togdill, 

sAmeansofpersuasionandexamplebywhich
anindividualinducesagrouptotakeactionin
accordwithapurposecommontoeveryone
(Gardner,


 

sasocialinfluenceoraperson's
abilitytomoveotherpeopletoact.tis
initiatingandguidingandtheresultis
change.(heproductofrealleadership
isanewcharacterordirectionforan
organizationorsituationthatwould
neverhavehappened.


 

(heprivilegetohavetheresponsibilityto
directtheactionsofothersatvaryinglevels
ofauthorityandwithaccountabilitytoboth
successfulandfailedendeavors.(Roberts,

Leadingpeople,theabilitytolisten,translate,
decideandmotivateothers( hen2 


 

holeadersare
alues,motivesandpersonaltraits
hatleadersknow
Knowledge,skillsandabilities
hatleadersdo
ehaviors,habits,stylesandcompetencies
|  

 

sdefinedastheprocesswherethenurse
influencesoneormorepersonstoachieve
specificgoalsintheprovisionofnursing
careofoneormorepatients.tisamulti-
dimensionalprocess.- Gardner
  

 

Resources
's

Effective (heories
Efficient GOAL Principles
Leadership

anagement
Process
unctions
(

  

(he knowledge acquired from learning the


theories and principles of leadership and
management contributes to an empowered
nurse leader and manager. One simply has to
activate such knowledge that was learned to
address work related issues.
 



 
 

(he application of creative problem solving


strategies is accomplished through the four
functions of management: planning,
organizing, staffing, directing and controlling.
 



 
 
  
.eterminingphilosophy,goals,
objectives,policies,proceduresandrules.
2. arryingoutlongandshort-range
projections.
.eterminingafiscalcourseofaction
.anagingplannedchange.
 



  
   
.Establishingthestructuretocarryoutplans
2.eterminingthemostappropriatetypeof
patientcaredelivery.
.Groupingactivitiestomeetunitneeds.
.orkingwithinthestructureofthe
organization.
. nderstandingandusingpowerand
authorityappropriately.
 



  

!  
.Recruiting,interviewing,hiringand
orientingstaff.
2.chedulingstaffdevelopment,employee
socializationandteambuilding
 



  


 
.umanresourcemanagement
2.otivating
.anagingconflict
.elegating
. ommunicating
.acilitatingcollaboration
 



  

!  
.PerformanceAppraisals
2.iscalAccountability
.uality ontrol
.LegalandEthical ontrol
.Professionalandcollegialcontrol

"
 


 

Leadershipshouldbothbeefficientand
effective.Oneshouldbeabletoleadatthe
righttimeandmaximizeone'sresourcesto
attainthegoal.
##!(à$| à| à

##à!à|!%& à|((à|à(&
& abilitytomaximizetheuseoftimeand
resourcesinachievingorganizational
objectives.
##!(à$|& à|(à(
(à|&-abilitytodeterminewhether
appropriateobjectivesaremet.


'() *

.|%
Referstoabudgetthatwouldallocatefor
anundertaking.
2|
Referstohumanresourcesthatare
neededtoachievethegoal.


+     

.!à|
Aredevicesthathelptheorganizationby
eitherperformingtasksfasterordoingwork
thathumanscannot.(heynormallyrequirean
energysource,alsoknownas|P (andare
expectedtoperformwork,alsoknownas
O (P (.eviceswithnorigidmovingpart
canbeconsidered(OOL.


&    

.(à 
Arephysicalresourcesusedasinputsin
thenursingprocess.
(
Refertothebodyoftechniquesfor
investigatingphenomena,acquiringnew
knowledge,orcorrectingandintegrating
previousknowledge.


&    

| à|(
saplannedprocedureintendedtoachieve
apredeterminedresult.(hemethodusually
consistsofdatagatheringfromboththe
resultsofactiveexperimentationandcausal
butcontrolledobservation,andthetesting
ofnewideasforvalidation.


&    

.|(
Referstotimeasafundamentalquantity
usedforseveralpurposes suchas
sequentialarrangement,comparisonof
differentevents,andmeasurementof
motionofobjects.


&    

(à||(istheorganizationof
tasksoreventswhichbeginswithestimating
howmuchtimeisneededforatask,and
learningtoadjusttounexpectedeventsthat
maypreventorjeopardizeitscompletionin
ordertocompletethetaskintheappropriate
amountoftime.


&    

|
sapersonresponsibleforplanningand
directingtheworkofagroupofindividuals,
monitoringtheirwork,andtakingcorrective
actionwhennecessary.
 
 


  

,
 - .

hoyouareandwhatyouare
hyyoudoandwhatyoudoonadailybasis
/0 - -

1..

2"  
.   

 



3! 
.

|  

  4

  

4.
  
 
- lead,love,learn
- enthusiastic,energetic
- assertive,achiever
- dedicated,desirous
- efficientandeffective
- responsible,respectful
à##|!4
-


à ||(
s à isdoingtherightthingwhile
||( isdoingthethingsright.
s à isa (à|à between

leaderandfollowersthatcangivelifetoan
organization.||( isa
 | (O|thatmustbeperformedinany
organization,
à##|!4
-

 à 
||(


 requiresmorecomplexskillsthan
management,andthat 

 isonly
oneroleofleadership
ùAjobtitledoesnotmakeapersonaleader 
onlyaperson¶sbehaviordetermines
leadership.
ù 

 emphasizescontrol


 emphasizeseffectiveness



4
-



  
 

ù  ù |
ù ayormaynot ù Officiallyappointed
haveofficial
appointmenttothe
position
ù estedwithpower ù estedwithpower
andauthoritybythe andauthoritybythe
group organization


  


ù nfluenceothers ù mplements
towardsgoal predetermined
setting goals,policies,
rulesand
regulations


  


ù Relatestopeople ù Relatestopeople
personally accordingtotheir
roles
ù eelsrewardedby eelsrewarded
personal when
achievement accomplishing
organizational
missionsandgoals


  

ù nterestedinrisk ù easurestherisksto
takingandexploring betakeninlinewith
newideas theexpectedresults
ù irectwilling irectwillingand
followers unwillingsubordinates
ù Emphasize Emphasizecontrol,
interpersonal decision-making,
relationships. decisionanalysis,and
results
à##|!4
-

 à
||(

Onemaybeagoodnurseleaderbutnota
goodmanager.ALEAER:
.Abletoinspireherfollowersorspecifically
herstafftodothingsbeyondtheircallofduty.
2.Abletoliftthestaff'smorale
.Abletomotivatethestafftothinksolutionto
anexistingproblem.

 

 


 #-
  
Eachdimensionsinfluencetheother.(he
accomplishmentofagivengoaldependsnot
onlyonthepersonalattributesoftheleader
butalsoonthefollowers'needsandthetype
ofsituation.
5(
 .


   

4.- 6&4




ollowership

# 7 isnotapassiveagentin
leadership.Agoodfollowerleadsherselfby
assumingresponsibilitiesthusinfluencingher
ownperformance.
##!(à$# 7 areactive,
responsibleandautonomousintheirbehavior
andcriticalintheirthinkingwithoutbeing
insubordinateordisrespectful(ock,
(.
-
 '0

 8/99(*



ollowerswhoareindependentandcritical
yetpassiveintheirbehaviorresultingin
psychologicalandemotionaldistancewith
theirleaders.



ollowerswhoaredependentand
uncritical.(heysimplydoastheyaretold
bytheirleaders.
(.
-


%



ncriticallyreinforcethethinkingand
ideasoftheirleaderswithenthusiasm,never
questioningorchallengingtheleader'sideas
orproposalsbutdangeroustotheleader
becausetheyaremostlikelytogiveafalse
positivereactionandgivenowarningof
potentialpitfalls.
(.
-


""
(heleastdisruptiveandlowriskfollowers.
(heyperpetuallysamplethewind.(heirmotto
is´ettersafethansorry´

"
#-

elfleadersdonotrequireclose
supervision.(heyrecognizethattobean
effectiveleader,oneneedsgoodfollowers.
Ë 


"
-


.elf-management
orkwellwithoutclosesupervision
2. ommitment
akingprogresstowardachievingagoal
. ompetenceandfocus
ompetencecenteronmasteringskills
andfocuseffortsformaximumimpactthatwill
beusefultotheorganization.
Ë 


"
-


. ourage
ndependent,criticalthinkerswillfight
forwhattheybelieveisright.


 

 

ision
nfluence
Power
Authority
Responsibility
Accountability
$ 

Providesdirectiontotheinfluenceprocess
 
"
$   
.Appearasasimple,yetvibrant,imagein
mindoftheleader
2.escribeafuturestate,credibleand
preferabletothepresentstate
.Actsasabridgebetweenthecurrentstate
andafutureoptimumstate

"
" 

.Appeardesirableenoughtoenergize
.ucceedinspeakingtofollowersatan
emotionalorspirituallevel
1 
  ""
 
 : "  -:
.(heleaderortheheadoftheorganization
2.(hemembersorstaffoftheorganization
.(heenvironmentorthecommunityinwhich
theyfunction
(
1-
-:

- 4




  
"  8


  
4;
"
 

 

   
à 



  (heabilitytoobtainfollowers,
compliance,orrequest.
0à|#à|# |!
a.
"

iswhereonesendsdirect
messagestoothersandisabletostandupfor
herownrightswithoutviolatingthoseof
others.
0   


b.à    iswhereapersonmakes


anotherfeelimportantorgoodbefore
makingarequest.
c.  . isconvincingsomeoneofthe
meritsofadetailedplan,whichisusually
supportedbyinformation,reasoningor
logic.
0   


d.:  isahostiletypeofinfluence
whereapersonachievesthegoalof
influencinganotherpersoneitherwiththe
threatortheactualactofcuttingofffrom
communicationorinteractionwiththeother
personintendedtobeinfluenced.
e.!  isacollectiveformofinfluence
whereapersongetsseveralco-workersto
³backherup´whenmakingarequest.
0   


  isthepromiseofpunishmentin


thecaseofnon-cooperationandrewardin
caseofcooperation.
e.< 
involvesofferingafavourora
personalsacrificeasanincentiveforthe
performanceofarequest.
h. -  
 involvesobtainingsupport
fromahigher-uptopushsomeoneintoaction

"
 

    
 


Level:PO(O|(rightstitle
Level2:PERO|(relationship
Level:PRO (O|(results
Level:PEOPLEE ELOPE|(
(reproduction
Level:PERO|OO(respect
7

(heabilitytoefficientlyandeffectively
exerciseauthorityandcontrolthrough
personal,organizationalandsocialstrength.

(heabilitytoimposethewillofonepersonor
grouptobringaboutcertainbehaviourin
othergroupsorpersons.

-

.
 
-
& bestoweduponaleader
byagivenpositionintheorganization.
2.
- -
& derivedfromthe
manager'sabilitytogiverewardsto
subordinatesforcompliancewithher
ordersorrequest.
.!
"
-
& basedontheleader's
abilityfornon-compliancewithhis
directives.

-


.<
-
-derivedfromspecialabilities
orskillsuniquetotheleader.
.à   -
& derivedfrombeing
well-informedanduptodate.
.


-
-basedonrelationshipand
connections.
 (à(%

  :(herighttodecide
Representstherighttoexpector
securecompliance,backedbylegitimacy
## (à(%
, à| (à(%isdirectsupervisory
authorityfromsuperiortosubordinate.
a.!à|#!|isanunbroken
lineofreportingrelationshipthat
extendsthroughtheentireorganization.

  .
b. |à(%#!|statesthateach
personintheorganizationshouldtake
ordersfromandreportstoonlyone
boss.
c.|#!|( referstothe
numberofemployeesthatbeplaced
underthedirectionofoneleader-
manager.
#   .

2. (## (à(%isbasedonexpertise
andwhichusuallyinvolvesadvisingline
managers.
.( (à(%isgrantedtowork
teamswhoareempoweredtoplanand
organizetheirownworkandtoperform
thatworkwithaminimumsupervision.
|àà à(%


  Abilitytorespond
(hecorrespondingobligationand
accountabilityanswersforallactionsdone.
A(EGORE:
a.individual
b.organizational
!! |(à à(%


  Answeringfortheresultofone's
actionoromissions.
(heacceptanceofconsequencesof
theirdecisions,goodorbad.
Resultsinrewardsforgoodperformance,
anddisciplineforpoorperformance.
(%# 

.#  
Appointed,electedordesignated,
deliberatelychosenbytheadministration
andgiventheauthoritytoact.
2.à|#  
oesnothavetheofficialsanctiontodirect
theactivitiesofothers. hosenbythegroupas
insocialorchurchduetoage,andpersonality

"


.à$||&(à$
EA OR.(heleaderfeelsself-pityandis
lackingself-worth,actapologetically,easily
dominatedbyothersandspeakshesitantly.
2.AGGRE EEA OR.(heleader
talksloudlyoneverysubjectandoftenshows
insensitivitytothefeelingsofothers.ictates
actionsofothersandachievegoalsbyhurting
others.

"



.(à$$à 
(heleaderismidwaybetweenpassiveand
aggressive.
(heleaderexpressesopinionsandbelief
withoutinfringingonorbelittlingtherightor
beliefofothers.
Refusedtobemanipulatedordominated.
trivetoenhanceselfandothers.
.


 

.
isanimportantfactorintheleadership
managementprocess.tiswayin
whichsomethingissaidordone.
tisaparticularformofbehaviour
directlyassociatedanindividual.


 .

ishowaleaderuses
interpersonalinfluencestoaccomplishgoal.
.


 

. (!(à!=  


|urseleader-managerisauthoritycenter,
orbosscentered,alwaysconcernwithtask
accomplishment,communicationoccurina
closedsystemandwithlittletrustor
confidenceinworkers
 

(hestaffareexpectedtoobeyorders
withoutexplanations.(heyaremotivatedby
rewardsorpunishment. iewindividualasthat
ofcGregor(heory.
/4
 

(henurseleader-managermanages³by
thebook´.Everythingmustbedone
accordingtoprocedureorpolicy.
(hisstylecanbeeffectivewhen:
a.Routinetaskareperformed
b. ertainstandardsorproceduresaretobe
understood
4
 

c.Employeesareworkingwithdangerousor
delicateequipmentthatrequiresadefinite
setofprocedurestooperate
d.afetyorsecuritytrainingisbeing
conducted
e.Employeesareperformingtaskthatrequire
handlingofcases
1
 

Also 
  "
 .

  "
.
asitencouragesstafftobe
partofthedecisionmakingandproblem
solvingresponsibilities.(heyareconsidered
rationalindividualswhocanperformtask
efficientlyandeffectivelyaccordingtothe
standardssetbytheprofessionor
organizationornursingpractice.

 

(hestafflikethetrusttheyreceiveand
respondwithcooperation,teamspiritand
qualitymorale,opensystemcommunication,
andfriendly. iewascGregor¶s(heory.
emocraticleaders:
a.evelopsplantohelpemployeesevaluate
theirownperformance
b.Allowsemployeestoestablishgoals

 



c.Encouragesemployeestogrowonthejob
andbepromoted
d.Recognizesandencouragesachievement
e.harestheproblemsolvinganddecision
makingtothestaff
f.Encouragesteambuildingandparticipation
2 
& 

Alsoknownasthe³handsoff´style,
permissiveandultraliberal.(hereislittle
ornodirectionfromtheleaderandthestaff
hasmuchfreedom,authorityandpowerand
determinegoals,makedecisionsandresolve
problemsontheirown.

& 
 .
 

"

-

a.Employeesarehighlyskilled,experienced,
educatedandtrustworthy
b.Employeeshaveprideintheirworkand
drivetodoitsuccessfullyontheirown
c..Employeesareexpert,suchas
specialistsorconsultantsandhighly
motivatedprofessionalgroup.
.


 
  
  
  
& 

oncept Authority Group |odirection


entered entered

mage Autocrat ureaucrat (eamLeader

rameof ³(hey´ ³e´ ³ou´


Reference

Roleof ritic Regular |one


Leader
.


 
  
  
  
& 

ourceof Leader Ruler Group elf


Authority

Personal (rialanderror Rolesand Participation oyourown


Approach Repetition and thing
nvolvement

Objectives evelopself evelop evelop eafriendto


systems Group all

Leader|eeds ependent tability Acceptance


.


 
  
  
  
& 

ehavior ependent onsistent elonging riendly


esired

ocus ork Organization anagement |one


emands group

emandson Employees ooperation |one


Employee

limate Authoritarian Official emocratic Permissive


.


 
  
  
  
& 

oraleof Antagonistic Apathetic (eamOriented


Employees

eakness hangeability risis |o


Proneness ooperation

trength ecisionand tandardsand Group


Action |orms Response
! 
 8(

  

efinitionof(erms
. (

& arespeculativeideaorplanas
tohowsomethingmghtbedone.trequires
considerableevidenceinsupportofa
formulatedgeneralprincipleexplainingthe
operationofcertainphenomenon.
! 
 8(

  

efinitionof(erms
2.! 
 - arethoughts,ideasand
generalnotionaboutaclassofobjectthat
formabasisforactionordiscussion.(hey
tendtobetruebutnotalwaystrue.
! 
 8(

  

efinitionof(erms
.  
arefundamentaltruths,laws
ordoctrinesonwhichothernotionsarebased.
tprovidesguidancetoconceptsandto
thoughtoractioninasituation.
! 
 8(

  

General onceptsandPrinciplesof
Leadershipandanagement
.Leadershipisviewedbysomeasoneof
management¶smanyfunctions.
2.Othersmaintainthatleadershiprequires
morecomplexskillsthanmanagementand
thatmanagementisonlyoneroleof
leadership.
! 
 8(

  

General onceptsandPrinciplesof
Leadershipandanagement
.anagementemphasizescontrol.
Leadershipemphasizeseffectiveness.
.Ajobtitledoesnotmakeapersona
leader,onlytheperson¶sbehaviordetermines
leadership.
à % à(à
(hesetheoriesfocusonthetraitsand
behaviorsofleaders.
A.(RA((EORE
³Greatan´(heory
Assumesthatthecapacityforleadership
isinherent,thatgreatleadersarebornnot
made.
 % à(à

(à((%
Assumesthatpeopleinheritextraordinary
qualitiesandtraitsthatmakethemsuitedtobe
aleader.uchtraitsliketirelessambition,zest
forlife,greatoratorskills,irresistiblegood
looksandextremepersuasiveness.
( 


|  AL ARA (ER(EOR


assumesthatthesepeoplehaveinnate
characteristicsthatmadethemgreatleaders.
E.tall,attractive,intelligent,self-reliant,
creative
( 


/! (   




.Positive(raits- (hisleadersbring
peopletoprogress.(heyarecheerful,
forgiving,intelligentandgoodlooking
menandwomen.
Effectiveleadersbuildleaders
whileleading«.
( 


/! (   




2.|egative(raits- (hisleadertakepeople
todestruction.(heydestroyratherthan
build.(heyarebitter,aggressive,loud-
mouthedanduglypeople.
neffectiveleadersbuildincompetent
followers
( 


AccordingtoReeves,2,the
followingaresomeofthetraitsofaleader.
.Emotionaltabilityand omposure
calm,confident,andpredictable
2.AdmittingError
Owningupto
mistakesratherthanputtingenergyinto
coveringup.
( 


.Goodinterpersonalskills- ableto
communicateandpersuadeothers
withoutresorttonegativeorcoercive
tactics.
.ntellectualbreadth
ableto
understandawiderangeofareas,
ratherthanhavinganarrowareaof
expertise.
( 


!à " !  
(
.
(hesepeoplehaveinnate
characterthatmadethemgreatleaders.
istinctivephysicalandpsychological
individualcharacteristicsaccountfor
leadershipeffectiveness.(hosewho
arenaturallytaller,attractive,intelligent,
selfreliantandcreativearechosento
lead.

" (


oncernwithwhatleadersdoandactthan
whotheleaderis.(heactionsofthe
leadersandnottheirmentalqualitiesor
traitsmakethemleaders.
elievethatleadersaremade,notborn.
Peoplecanbetaughttobecomeleaders
throughexperienceandobservation

" 
 

0 ( 7à|',>?9&,?2(*
Aneminentpsychologistwhoproposed
thattheworker'sbehaviorisinfluencedby
interactionsbetweenthepersonality,the
structureoftheprimaryworkgroupandthe
socio-technicalclimateoftheworkplace
(iner,2
0
-

ategorized

  .
as
authoritarian,democraticandlaissez-faire
(Lewin,
evelopedthe³#
 (
.
 
"´(Lewin,which
believedthatpeopleactthewaytheydo
dependingonselfperceptionsandtheir
environments.
! 

'
- 8,?3,*

st stage: 

  Overcominginertiaand
dismantlingtheexisting³mindset´.Replace
thepreviousculturelearnedwiththenewone.
2nd stage: ! 
  Periodof
confusionandtransition.Oldwaysarebeing
challengedbutthereisnoclearpictureto
replacethemwithyetmaybereadytoaccept
newrole.
! 


rd stage: 
&

  (henewmindsetis
crystallizingandone'scomfortlevelis
returningtopreviouslevels.aveinternalized
newrolesandcanadapttonewenvironment
andculture

" 
 

!à%à',?/1*anorganizational
psychologistwhosoughttostudythewaypeoplein
anorganizationactandreactwitheachother.
evelopedtheconcepts:

à 


isbasedontheideathat
individualsselectdatatoprocessinterpretanddraw
conclusionsfromtheavailabledata.
!  .

4
 
   sawlearningasa
processofdetectingandcorrectingerrorsthat
focusonproblemsolving.
 $à|(## ',?/>*examined
technologyanditsimpacttotheworldandthe
reactionsandchangestothesociety.

" 
 

|à à0(',?91&,?>,*
 evelopedthe :
 
and  : 
 
 whichusetheconceptof . to
characterizedthedesirablesocialinteraction
betweendifferentworkunits
:


. nderthisapproach:uperiorsand
subordinatestrusteachother,information
flowsfreelydownwardandlaterally,high
groupparticipation,setsrealisticgoals,
decisionsaredonethroughdemocratic
process,traininghumanresourcesandcontrol
sdoneoften.


   


.
4. :

.< "
&  "

a.Leasteffectiveperformance
b.anagersshowlittleconfidenceinstaff
associatesandignoretheirideas
c.taffassociatedonotfeelfreetodiscuss
theirjobswiththemanager
d.Responsibilityfororganization'sgoalison
thetop goalsareestablishedthroughorders.
/4

"
&   "

a.anageriscondescendingtostaff
associates
b.taffassociates'ideasaresometimes
soughtbuttheydonotfeelveryfreetodiscuss
theirjobswiththemanager
c.(opandmiddlemanagementare
responsibleforsettinggoals
d.ecisionsaremadeatthetopwithsome
delegations.
/4

"
&   "

e.taffassociatesareoccasionallyconsulted
forproblemsolving
.!  "

a.(hemanagerhassubstantialconfidencein
staffassociates
b.(heirideasareusuallysoughtandtheyfeel
freetodiscusstheirworkwiththemanager
c.Responsibilityforsettinggoalsisfairlygen.
/4

"
&   "

d.anagersarequitefamiliarwiththe
problemfacedbytheirstaffassociates.
.  "

a.Associatedwiththemosteffective
performance
b.anagershavecompleteconfidenceintheir
staffassociates
  "

c.deasarealwayssought
d.anagersareverywellinformedaboutthe
problemsfacedbytheirstaffassociatesand
decisionmakingiswellintegratedthroughout
theorganizationwithfullinvolvementofstaff
associates.

" 
 

s ( 0 @| (|


(heydevelopedthe 
 

whichattemptstoconceptualize
managementintermsofrelationsand
leadershipstyleand2behavioraldimensions
. oncernfortaskorproduction
2. oncernforpeople
1   

4
 
 
 ' :
A *

.Leaderslaysomewherealongthe
continuumofconcernforproductivityto
concernforpeople.
2.(hereisno³onebestway´ofleadership
.ifferentstylesareneededfordifferent
situations
 
 ' :
A *

.à"
.
',,*

 Leadershavelowconcernfor
bothpeopleandproduction. 



5 

4.
 6
!  
   (hemainconcernisnotto
beheldresponsibleforanymistakes,which
resultsinlessinnovativedecisionand
passive
 
 ' :
A *

 isorganization,dissatisfaction,disharmony
amongpeopleandbehaviorisdirectedtowards
selfpreservation.
2.! .!4.
',?*

 Leadershashighconcernforpeople
andlowconcernforproduction. Referredtoas
³countryclubmanagement
!  
  (heleaderisattentivetoher
peoples'needsandhasdevelopedsatisfying
relationshipsandworkculture,butattheexpenseof
achievingresults.
 
 ' :
A *

! .!4.
',?*   


Atmosphereisusuallyfriendlybutnot
necessarilythatproductive. amaraderieand
harmonyaretheprimaryconsiderations.
 
 ' :
A *

1

 .
'?,*

  ithhighconcernforproduction
andlowconcernforpeople. anagersare
task-orientedandautocratic
 
 ' :
A *

1
 &    
!  
  (heleaderconcentrates
almostexclusivelyonachievingresults.
Peopleareviewedascommoditytobeused
togetthejobdone. ommunicationis
unidirectionalfromtoptobottomandthe
feelingsofpeopleareignoredorsuppressed.


 
 ' :
A *


  ighoutputisachievedinashort
timebutbecomescostlyasthereishighlabor
turnover.
2

  .
'33*

 Leadertrytobalancebetween
companygoalsandworkers'needs.Also
knownasmanagementbycompromise.
2

  .
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ituational(heoriesstatedthatdifferent
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hentheprinciplesofquantumleadershipare
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goalsettingandgoalachievementinthe
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