Submitted By: Sanjeet Singh

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Formation of river Three stages of river Young stage Middle stage Old stage This lovely mountain meadow shows a stream flowing in a very gently sloping bed .

You can see why people call this "white water". The water winds its ways through alpine meadows and begins its downward journey. Rivers begin high in the mountains. . where melting snow gathers in small streams.‡ The place where a river begins is called its source. The water twists this way and that around the rocks. This picture shows a young river flowing in its stony bed.

There are three types of river:- oMiddle stage oOld Stage oYoung Stage Young Stage Of River .

its tributaries. V-shaped valley with steep sides.‡ The young river flows swiftly. it is joined by other steams. ‡ As the river flows. and the river's bed is not so steep. with many rapids and waterfalls. Notice the very steep sides of this valley and the powerful waterfall. The river has a greater flow of water now. It erodes its bed and cuts a narrow. The valleys become wider. The tributaries are also eroding the sides of the valley. and the walls of the valleys slope more gradually .

When there is a lot of water catastrophic flooding can destroy human communities . In the mountains the streams form meadows where aspens and willows begin to grow. and the water can spread out when the snows melt.‡ The valley floor becomes almost flat. Further down the river's course the valley becomes a flood plain.

. These loops and turns are called meanders. Because the plain is nearly level. A meandering river flowing through a floodplain is called a mature river. the river can wander across it in a winding. snaking pattern.‡ In the last part of a river's journey. it flows through a gently sloping flood plain.

It has started cutting a V shaped valley again .‡ A mature river carries a heavy load of sediment. the sediment settles to the bottom. This picture shows the beginning of a meander pattern that this river formed when the green terraces in the picture were the floor of the floodplain. When the flow of water slows. Sand bars begin to appear.

.‡ The final stage in the life of a river is its joining with the sea. By now the river is traveling smoothly and carrying a lot of sand and clay. and the sediment drops out. a broad. triangular river mouth with many sand bars and water channels. Merging with the sea slows the water flow even more. This often leads to the formation of a delta.

Estuaries are important nurseries for the young of aquatic animals.‡ The delta becomes an estuary. They are highly productive because they provide nutrients washed down from the land in an environment that is sheltered. The sand bars become islands with grass and trees that provide cover and nesting sites for birds. and shallow enough to encourage the growth of water plants . an area with sheltered waters and a constant stream of nutrients from the land.

‡ ‡ Yahoo .com ‡ Scribd.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful