Basic elements: 

Roof: A roof may be defined as the uppermost part of
the building, provided as a structural covering to protect the building from weather. Lean-toLean-to-roof: This is the simplest type of sloping roof provided either for a room of small span or for the verandah. Gable roof: This is the common type of sloping roof which has slopes in two directions. the two slopes meet at ridge. Hip roof: This roof is formed by four sloping surfaces in four directions. Gambrel roof: This roof is like gable roof, slopes in two directions but there is a break in each slope.   


Deck roof: A deck roof has slopes in all the four directions but a deck or plane surface is formed at the top. Span: It is the clear distance between the supports of an arch, beam or roof truss. Rise: It is the vertical distance between the top of the ridge and the wall plate. Pitch: It is the inclination of the sides of a roof to the horizontal plane. Ridge: It is defined as the apex line of the sloping roof. Eaves: The lower edge of the inclined roof surface is called eaves. Hip: It is the ridge formed by the intersection of two sloping surfaces. 



Verge: The edge of gable running between the eaves and ridge is known as eaves. Common rafters: These are inclined wooden members running from the ridge to the eaves. Purlins: These are horizontal wooden or steel members used to support common rafters of a roof when span is large. Wall plates: These are long wooden members which are provided on top of brick wall. Cleats: These are short sections of wood or steel which are fixed on the principal rafters of trusses to support the purlins. Battens: These are thin strips of wood called scantlings which are nailed to rafters for lying roof materials above. Template: This is a square or rectangular block of stone or concrete placed under a beam or truss.

Types of roofs
1) Pitched or sloping roof 2) Flat roofs or terraced roofs 3) Curved roofs

Pitched roofs: A roof with sloping surface is
known as a pitched roof. The selection of this type of roof depends upon shape or plan of the building, climatic conditions of area and type of constructional materials available. Pitched roofs may be broadly classified into following:

a) single roofs 1)lean-to-roof 1)lean-to2)couple roof 3)couple3)couple-close roof 4)collar beam roof  b) double or purlin roof  c) triple-membered or trussed roofs triple1)king1)king-post roof truss 2)queen2)queen-post roof trus 3)combination of king-post and queen-post kingqueentrusses 4)mansard roof truss 5)trucated roof truss 

6)bel6)bel-fast roof truss 7)composite roof trusses 8)steel sloping roof trusses

Single roofs: These roofs are those which consists
of only the rafters which are supported at the ridge and at the eaves. Such roofs are used only when the span is limited to 5metres, otherwise the size of the rafters will be uneconomical. Single roofs are of four types: 1)lean-to1)lean-to-roof 2)couple roof 3)couple close roof 4)collar beam roof 

Lean-to-roof: Lean-to-

This is the simplest type of sloping roof in which rafters slope to one side only. It is also known as pent roof. The wall to one side of the room is taken higher. Than the wall to the other side. A wooden wall plate is supported either on steel corbel or a stone corbel which are provided at 1m centre to centre. The wall plate is embedded on the other side to the wall or pillars. these are provided for sheds, out-houses attached to outmain building, verandahs. 


roof: This type of roof is formed by

pair of rafters which has slope to both the sides of the ridge of the roof. 

The upper ends of each pair of rafter is nailed to a common ridge piece and their lower ends are nailed to the wooden wall plates embedded in the masonry on the top of the outer walls. 


close roof: A couple close roof is

similar to the couple roof except that the ends of the couple of common rafters is connected by horizontal member called tie beam. The tie beam may be a wooden member or steel rod. A couplecouple-close roof is economically suitable for spans upto 4.20m. 


beam roof: when the span increases

or when the load is more, the rafters of the couple close roof have the tendency to bend. This is avoided by raising the tie beam and fixing it at one-third to one-half of the vertical oneoneheight from wall plate to the ridge. this raised beam is known as collar beam. Thus a collar beam roof is similar to a close couple roof except that in the latter case a tie beam is provided at the level of wall plates while in this case a collar beam is provided at the raised level. 


or purlin roofs: these roofs have

two basic elements: 1)rafters 2)purlins The purlins give intermediate support to the rafters and are supported on end walls. the intermediate support so provided in the form of purlins reduce the size of the rafters to the economical range. Such roof is also known as purlin roof. For larger roofs two or more purlins may be provided to support each rafter. 


roofs: when the span of the roof 


exceeds 5m and where there are no inside walls to support the purlins, framed structures known as trusses. There are various types of trusses. 1)king1)king-post truss 2)queen2)queen-post truss 3)combination of king-post and queen-post trusses kingqueen4)mansar truss 5)truncated truss 6)bel6)bel-fast truss 7)steel truss 8)composite truss 

King-post King-

truss: The king-post truss king-

consists of the following components: 1lower tie beam 2two inclined principal rafters 3two struts 4 king post  The trusses are supported on the bed blocks of stone or concrete, embedded in the supporting walls so that load is distributed to a greater area.the common rafters may be connected to eaves board or to pole plate at the other end.pole plates are horizontal timber sections which run across the tops of the tie beams at their ends. 

Queen-post Queen-

truss: A queen-post truss queen-

differs from a king-post truss in having two kingvertical posts, rather than one. The vertical posts are known as queen-posts. two struts queenare provided to join the feet of each queenqueenpost to the principal rafter. these are the tension members. These trusses are suitable for spans between 8to12metres. 

of king-post and queenkingqueen-

post truss: 

QueenQueen-post trusses are suitable for spans upto 12metres. For greater spans, the queen-post queentruss can strengthened by one more upright member called princess-post to each side. princess- 


roof truss: It is a two-storey truss two-

with upper portion consisting of king-post truss kingand the lower portion of queen-post truss. the queenuse of this truss results in economy in space, since a room may be provided between the two queenqueen-posts. 

Truncated truss: A truncated truss is
similar to mansard truss, except that its top is formed flat with a gentle slope to one side. this type of truss is used when it is required to provide a room in the roof between the two queenqueen-posts of the truss. 

Bel-fast Bel-

roof truss: This truss consists of

thin sections of timber with its top chord curved. If the roof covering is light this roof truss can be used upto 30m span. The roof truss is also known as latticed roof truss. 

roof truss: Roof trusses made

two materials such as timber and steel are known as composite roof trusses. In this truss tension members are made of steel while compression members are made of timber. special fittings are required at the junction of steel and timber members. 


roof trusses: steel trusses are

more economical for larger spans. However steel trusses are more commonly used these days for all spans-small or spanslarge since they are :  1)more economical  2)easy to construct  3)fire-proof 3)fire 4)more rigid  5)permanent

Doors and windows

Technical terms 

Door: A door may be defined as an openable barrier in a wall opening. Window: a window is also a vented barrier secured in a wall opening. Frame: It is an assembly of horizontal and vertical members, forming an enclosure to which the shutters are fixed. Shutters: these are the openable parts of a door or window. Head: this is the top or uppermost horizontal part of a frame. Sill: this is the lowermost or bottom horizontal part of a window frame.     

Top rail: This is the top most horizontal member of a shutter. Lock rail: This is the middle horizontal member of a door shutter to which locking arrangement is fixed. Pannel: This is the area of shutter enclosed between the adjacent rails. Hold flats: These are mild steel flats generally bent into Z-shaped to fix or hold the frame to Zthe opening. Jamb: This is the vertical wall face of an opening which supports the frame.

Size of doors 

The common width height relations used in India are: 1)width =0.4 to 0.6 height 2)height =(width+1.2)metres. The following are generally adopted sizes of doors for various types of buildings: 


of residential buildings: 

1) external door (1.0mX2m)to(1.1mX2m) 2)internal door (0.9mX2m)to(1mX2m) 3)doors for bathrooms and water closetsclosets(0.9mX2m)to(0.8mX2m) 4)garrages for cars-2.25m(height)X2.25m(width)to cars2.25m(height)x2.40m(width)   

Public buildings such as schools, hospitals, libraries etc. 1)1.2mX2.0m 2)1.2mX2.1m 3)1.2mX2.25m Door frames: A door frame is an assembly of horizontal and vertical members to which door shutters are fixed. Door frames are made of following materials: 1)timber 2)steel sections 3)aluminium sections 4)concrete and stone.

Types of doors 

and ledged doors: This is the

simplest type of doors specially suitable for narrow openings. The door is formed of vertical bonds known as battens which are usually grooved and are fixed together by horizontal supports known as ledges. These ledges are provided at top, middle, bottom. 

ledged and braced doors:

These doors are improved versions of bettened
and ledged doors in which additional inclined members called races are provided. these doors can be used for wider openings. 


ledged and framed doors:

This door is also an improved form of simple battened and ledged door in which frame work for the shutter is provided in the form of two verticals known as styles. 

ledged, braced and framed

doors: this door is the modification of type3
door with provision of additional braces provided diagonally between the ledges to increase its strength, durability and appearance. 


and panelled doors: these type

of doors are widely used in almost all types of building since they are strong and give better appearance than battened doors. 

or sash doors: glazed doors are

provided where the visibility of the interior of the room is required from the adjacent room. such doors are commonly used in residential as well as public buildings like hospitals, schools, colleges etc. 


doors: flush doors are becoming

increasingly popular these days because of their pleasing appearance, simplicity of construction less cost, better strength and greater durability. 

doors: louvered doors permit free

ventilation through them and at the same time maintain the privacy of the room. These doors are generally used for bath rooms of residential and public buildings. 
Wire-gauged Wire-

doors: these types of doors

are used for refreshment rooms, hotels, cupboards containing food and eatables and sweet shops etc. 


doors: such doors are provided

only in public buildings such as libraries museums banks etc. where there are constant visitors. such a door provide entrance to one and exit to the other person. 

doors: In such a door the shutter

slides on the sides with the help of runners and guide rails. The doors may have one sliding shutter ,two shutters or even three shutters depending upon the size of the opening. 

doors: A swing door has its leaf

attached to the door frame by means of special double action spring hinge so that the shutter can move both inward or outward as desired. 


steel doors: Such doors are

used in godowns, workshops, sheds, public buildings etc, for providing increased safety and protection to property. 

steel shutter door: These doors

are commonly used for garages, shops etc, since they are quite strong and offer proper safety to the property. 

steel sheet doors: these

doors are exactly the same as above except that corrugated steel sheets are welded to the shutter frame in place of mild steel sheets. 


metal doors: these doors have

appearance like wooden doors but are much stronger. 

covered plywood doors: these

doors are composite doors made of plywood and mild steel and are reasonably fire-proof. fire-


A window is comprised of two parts: 1)window frame 2)shutter frame    


Window frames are fixed to the opening in the wall by means of suitable hold fasts. The shutter frames are fixed to the window frames by means of suitable hinges. The selection of size, shape, location and number of windows in a room depends upon the following factors: size of the room location of the room Utility of room climatic conditions direction of wall

Types of windows 

Fixed windows Pivoted windows Double hung windows Sliding windows Casement windows Sash windows Louvered windows Metal windows Bay windows Corner windows Dormer windows Gable windows Lantern windows Skylights ventilators 


the purpose of admitting light and providing vision in the room.

windows: These windows are provided for windows: 

Pivoted  Double

In these windows the shutters are allowed to swing round pivots fixed to the window frame. This type of window consists of a frame and a pair of shutters arranged one above the other which can slide vertically within the grooves provided in the window-frame. window-

hung windows: 


These windows are similar to sliding doors. The shutters move either horizontally or vertically on small roller bearings. such windows are provided in trains , buses and shops and bank counters.



windows: These are the main or

common types of windows usually provided in buildings. 

or glazed windows: A sash window

is a type of casement window in which the panels are fully glazed. The frame of each shutter consists of two vertical styles, top rail and bottom rail. 

windows: These are similar to

louvered doors. such windows are provided for ventilation and they do not permit any outside vision. 


windows: Metal windows made of

mild steel is becoming increasingly popular in private as well as public buildings because of their strength and less cost. 

windows: Bay windows project outside windows: This is a special type of windows: A dormer window is a

the external wall of the room. This projection may be triangular, circular, rectangular in plan. 

window which is provided in the corner. 

vertical window provided on the sloping roof. roof. 

Gable windows: It is a vertical window
provided in the gable end of a pitched roof 


windows: Such windows are

provided over the flat roofs to provide more light and air to the inner rooms of a building. 

lights: A sky light is provided on a

sloping roof to admit light. 

ventilators are small windows fixed at a greater height than the window, generally about 30to50cm below roof-level. roof-

Ventilations and air-conditioning air  


Ventilation: ventilation may be defined as supply of fresh outside air into an enclosed space. Functional requirements of ventilation system: 1)air changes or air movement 2)humidity 3)quality of air 4)temperature    

Air changes: In enclosed space, where people are working or living air has to be moved or changed to cause proper ventilation. the minimum rate of air change is one per hour, while the maximum rate of air change is sixty per hour. Humidity: It is defined as the ratio of amount of water vapour present in the air to the amount of water vapour if the air were saturated at the same temperature. Quality of air: The ventilating air should be free from impurities, organic matter and inorganic dust. Temperature: It is desirable that the incoming ventilating air should be cool in summer and warm in winter before it enters the room. 


Systems of ventilation: i) natural ventilation ii) artificial ventilation Natural ventilation: It is the one in which ventilation is effected by the elaborated use of doors, windows, ventilators and skylights. It is usually considered suitable for residential buildings and small houses. Artificial ventilation: the system is more useful for large buildings, assembly halls, factories, theatres etc. though the system is more costly it results in considerable efficiency of the persons using the building.

Air conditioning: 

It may be defined as the process of treating air so as to control simultaneously its temperature, humidity, purity and distribution to meet the requirements of the conditioned space. 

Essentials of air conditioning:

i) Temperature control ii) Humidity control iii) Air velocity control iv) Air quality control 

Temperature control: It is one of the most essential
factor for giving comfort to the user. The temperature range in which comfort is obtained for the majority of people is different during summer and winter conditions. 


control: humidification is the

addition of moisture to the dry air which otherwise would cause great strain and irritation to the membranes of nasal passages. 

velocity control: high velocity of

conditioned air may cause greater temperature difference between outside and inside. A velocity of 6to9m per sec is considered desirable. 

quality control: The air should be free

from odour, toxic gases, bacteria and other micromicro-organisms.

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