STEPS IN RESEARCH PROCESS

D r. Va s u d ev P. I y e r

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DEFINE THE RESEARCH PROBLEM R E V I E W O F T H E L I T E R AT U R E F O R M U L AT E T H E H Y P O T H E S I S RESEARCH DESIGN (INCLUDING SAMPLE DESIGN) C O L L E C T I O N O F D ATA A N A LY S E T H E D ATA ( T E S T I N G O F T H E HYPOTHESIS) INTERPRET AND REPORT 2 .

y T h e q u e st i o n t o b e a n sw e re d o r t h e p ro b l e m t o b e s o l ve d m u st f i rst b e c l e a r l y d ef i n e d . y S p e c i f i c q u e st i o n y Va l u e v /s co st o f re s e a rc h 3 .

co nfe re n c e p ro c e e d i n g s etc . G o ve r n m e nt re p o r t s .y E x te n s i ve s u r vey o f t h e l i te rat u re y T h e re a re n o p ro b l e m s fo r w h i c h a n sw e rs h ave n eve r b e e n s o u g ht y B o o ks . J o u r n a l s . y U s e t h e re s o u rc e s o f a go o d l i b ra r y 4 .

y Wo r k i n g hy p o t h e s i s i n c l e a r t e r m s y H o w t o fo r m u l at e ? y Discussions with colleagues and experts y Examination of existing data and records y Pilot surveys 5 .

y C o n c e pt u a l st r u c t u re o f t h e re s e a rc h y G e n e ra l fo r m s o f re s e a rc h d e s i g n y N o n . 6 .ex p e r i m e nt a l y E x p e r i m e nt a l y I n a n o n .ex p e r i m e nt a l d e s i g n s a re f i e l d st u d i e s a n d s u r veys .ex p e r i m e nt a l d e s i g n . t h e re s e a rc h e r d o e s n o t co nt ro l o r a l te r a ny o f t h e i n d e p e n d e nt va r i a b l e s . y T h e t w o m a j o r n o n .

the researcher may alter the independent variables. y There are two broad categories of experimental designs: field and laborator y.y In experimental design. y Field experiments are done in a natural setting . whereas laborator y experiments are undertaken in a simulated setting 7 .

y Methods of selecting sample 1 ) Deliberate sampling Selection from a universe according to convenience ‡ Based on judgment 2 ) Simple random sampling ‡ Ever y item has equal change of inclusion ‡ 8 .

. 5 ) Quota sampling ‡ To select a specified percentage of sample from a sub-population. ever y 10 th house so on. 4 ) Stratified sampling ‡ Population drawn from a number of non-overlapping sub-populations.y Methods of selecting sample 9 (contd) 3 ) Systematic sampling ‡ Select ever y 15 th name on a list.

y Methods of selecting sample (contd) 6) Cluster sampling ‡ Grouping of population and then selecting the clusters. 7) Area sampling ‡ The area to be covered is divided into a number of smaller sub-areas from which a sample is selected at random within these areas. 10 .

y Methods of selecting sample (contd) 8) Multi-stage sampling ‡ ‡ Extension of cluster sampling Used when research covers large geographical areas 9) Sequential sampling ‡ S a m p l e s i z e f i xe d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e progress achieved ‡ 11 Complex .

y D ata ca n b e p r i m a r y o r s e co n d a r y O R B OT H y P r i m a r y d ata ca n b e co l l e c te d i n t h e f i e l d o r t h e l a b o rato r y t h ro u g h co m m u n i cat i o n a n d o b s e r vat i o n y S e co n d a r y d ata refe r to d ata gat h e re d b y o t h e rs o r f ro m o t h e r st u d i e s . 12 .

13 . y C a ref u l c h e c ks s h o u l d b e m a d e .y Ve r y i m p o r t a nt st a ge y S h o u l d b e d o n e i n a syste m at i c m a n n e r and in time.

‡ ‡ completeness legibility checking for any omissions making sure that handwriting is understandable so that answers will be coded correctly ‡ comprehensibility understandable making sure the answer is ‡ consistency respondent checking for consistent answers from the ‡ uniformity checking to see that responses are recorded in the same manner 14 .

te st etc . stat i st i ca l a n a l y s e s ca n b e p e r fo r m e d to c re ate u s ef u l i n fo r m at i o n fo r t h e re s e a rc h e rs . ‡ G e n e ra l i zat i o n s a n d i nte r p ret at i o n 15 . ‡ U s e o f va r i o u s te st s l i ke C h i s q u a re te st . t .‡ D ata s p re a d s h e et . F .te st .

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