Perspectives on Knowledge

Subjective View

Objective view

Knowledge as state of Mind

Knowledge as Practice

Knowledge as Object

Knowledge as access to Information

Knowledge as capability

Subjective Knowledge
Definition of Objective and Subjective Objective is a statement that is completely unbiased. It is not touched by the speaker s previous experiences or tastes. It is verifiable by looking up facts or performing mathematical calculations. Subjective is a statement that has been colored by the character of the speaker or writer. It often has a basis in reality, but reflects the perspective through with the speaker views reality. It cannot be verified using concrete facts and figures.

When to Be Objective and Subjective
Objective it is important to be objective when you are making any kind of a rational decision. It might involve purchasing something or deciding which job offer to take. You should also be objective when you are reading, especially news sources. Being objective when you are meeting and having discussions with new people helps you to keep your concentration focused on your goal, rather than on any emotions your meeting might trigger.

Subjective can be used when nothing tangible is at stake. When you are watching a movie or reading a book for pleasure, being subjective and getting caught up in the world of the characters makes your experience more enjoyable. If you are discussing any type of art, you have to keep in mind that everyone s opinions on a particular piece are subjective.

Knowledge as State of Mind
y The perspective considers knowledge as a state of an

individual s mind.
y Organizational Knowledge is viewed as the beliefs of

the individuals with in the organization.
y The focus is on enabling individuals to enhance their

personal areas of knowledge so that they can apply them to pursue to organization goals.

Knowledge as Practice
y According to this perspective, Knowledge is also

consider subjective but it is viewed to be held by a group and not decomposable into elements possessed by individuals. y Thus in this perspective Knowledge is neither possessed by any one agent nor contained in the repository [Schultze 1999] y Knowledge resides not in any one s head but in practice. y Knowledge is composed of beliefs. y Beliefs are collective instead of individual.

Knowledge as Objects
y From this perspective knowledge is something that

can be stored, transferred, and manipulated.

y Consistent with the definition of knowledge as a

set of justified beliefs these knowledgeable objects can exist in variety of locations

Knowledge as Access to Information
y From this perspective knowledge is the condition of a

access to information.
y Thus knowledge is viewed as enabling access and

utilization of information.
y This perspective extends the preceding view of

knowledge as objects, emphasizing the accessibility of these objects.

Knowledge as Capability
y This perspective is consistent with the last two

perspectives of knowledge but differs in that the focus is on the way in which knowledge can be applied to influence action.
y This perspective places emphasis on knowledge as a

strategic capability that can potentially be applied to seek a competitive advantage.

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