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Use a Projection

face planes)

Manual of Mineral Science,

John Wiley and Sons

Spherical Projection

Stereographic projection

a 2D plane. Useful for the orientation problems.

(100)

A plane (Great Circle) trace

Pole and trace

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pole_figure

Great circle

Equal angle

with respect

to N or S pole

Standard projections of cubic crystals on

(a) (001), (b) (011)

Stereographic Projection

The outer sphere

is a spherical

projection

Plot points

where poles

intersect sphere

Planes now =

points

But still 3-D

Fig 6.3

Stereographic Projection

Gray plane =

Equatorial Plane

Want to use it as

our 2-D

representation

and project our

spherical poles

back to it

This is a 2-D

stereographic Fig 6.5 of Klein (2002)

projection Manual of Mineral Science,

John Wiley and Sons

Stereographic Projection

D and E are spherical

D' and E' are

stereographic

Distance GD' = f(r)

as r 90 D’ G

as r 0 D’ O

Fig 6.6 of Klein (2002) Manual of Mineral Science, John Wiley and Sons

Stereographic Projection

We can thus use

the angles and

calculate the 2-D

distances from

the center to find

the stereographic

poles directly

Or we can use

special graph

paper and avoid

the calculation Fig 6.5 of Klein (2002)

Manual of Mineral Science,

John Wiley and Sons

Inclined Planes and Great Circles

Great Circle as stereographic

projection calculated from angle r

Great circles on stereographic

projection = locus of all points

projected from the intercept of an

inclined plane to the equatorial plane

(bowl analogy)- structural geology

Use your hand for dip and a pencil for

the pole of (011) at 45o from vertical

This is the graph

paper for avoiding

calculating the

distance from the

center as a function of

r each time

It is graduated in

increments of 20o

Back to Fig. 2.42

(111) (100) (111)

(011) (100) all

coplanar

(= zone)

Thus all poles in a

zone are on the

same great circle!!

How do we find the

zone axis??

Fig 6.3 of Klein (2002) Manual of Mineral Science, John Wiley & Sons

Small circles

Gives angles between any two points on a great

circle

= the angle

between 2

coplanar

lines!!

20o

The Wulff Net

Combines

great circles

and small

circles in 2o

increments

Stereographic Projection

How to make a stereographic projection of our crystal

Use a contact goniometer to measure the interfacial

angles (also measures normals: poles)

Manual of Mineral Science,

John Wiley and Sons

Plot Cardboard Model

Isometric System (p. 93)

Crystallographic Axes

“The crystal forms of classes of the isometric system

are referred to three axes of equal length that make

right angles with each other. Because the axes are

identical, they are interchangeable, and all are

designated by the letter a. When properly oriented,

one axis, a1, is horizontal and oriented front to +a3

vertical.” +a1 90

90 90

+a2

Plot (100) (001) (010) (110) (101) (011):

= top half

o = bottom half

How plot (111) ?

a) Plot (110) & then plot (111) between (110) and (001)

(110) (111) = 36.5o

- go in from primitive

b) No measure technique:

(111) must lie between (110) & (001) (zone add rule)

also between (100) & (011)

thus intersection of great circles (111)

The finished product

Manual of Mineral Science, John

Wiley and Sons

symmetry elements

face poles and principal zones

Twinning

Rational symmetrically-related intergrowth

Lattices of each orientation have definite

crystallographic relation to each other

Twinning

Aragonite twin

plane which is

common to each

part

Although aragonite is

orthorhombic, the twin looks

hexagonal due to the 120o O-C-O

angle in the CO3 group

Mason and Dietrich, Mineralogy,

Freeman & Co.

Twinning

Twin Operation is the symmetry operation which relates the two

(or more) parts (twin mirror, rot. axis)

1) Reflection (twin plane)

Examples: gypsum “fish-tail”, models 102, 108

2) Rotation (usually 180o) about an axis common to

both (twin axis): normal and parallel twins.

Examples: carlsbad twin, model 103

3) Inversion (twin center)

The twin element cannot be a symmetry element of the

individuals. Twin plane can't be a mirror plane of the crystal

Twin Law is a more exact description for a given type

(including operation, plane/axis, mineral…)

Contact & Penetration twins

Both are simple twins only two parts

Multiple twins (> 2 segments repeated by same law)

Cyclic twins - successive planes not parallel

Polysynthetic twins

Albite Law

in plagioclase

Twinning

Mechanisms:

1) Growth

Growth increment cluster adds w/ twin orientation

Epitaxial more stable than random

Not all epitaxis twins

Usually simple & penetration

synneusis a special case

Twinning

Mechanisms:

1) Growth

Feldspars:

Plagioclase: Triclinic Albite-law-striations

a-c a-c

b b

Twinning

Mechanisms:

1) Growth

Feldspars:

Plagioclase: Triclinic Albite-law-striations

cyclic twinning in

Twinning inverted low quartz

Mechanisms:

2) Transformation (secondary)

SiO2: High T is higher symmetry

Twinning

Mechanisms:

2) Transformation (secondary twins)

Feldspars:

Orthoclase (monoclinic) microcline (triclinic)

Monoclinic a-c Triclinic a-c

(high-T) (low-T)

b b

Twinning

Mechanisms:

2) Transformation (secondary)

Feldspars:

K-feldspar: large K lower T of transformation

“tartan twins”

Twinning

Mechanisms:

3) Deformation (secondary)

Results from shear stress

greater stress gliding, and finally rupture

Also in feldspars.

Looks like transformation, but the difference in

interpretation is tremendous

Mechanisms:

3) Deformation (secondary)

Results from shear stress. Plagioclase

Mechanisms:

3) Deformation (secondary)

Results from shear stress. Calcite

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