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# Stereographic Projection

Use a Projection

face planes)

## Fig 6.3 of Klein (2002)

Manual of Mineral Science,
John Wiley and Sons
Spherical Projection
Stereographic projection

## Representation of relationship of planes and directions in 3D on

a 2D plane. Useful for the orientation problems.

## A line (direction)  a point.

(100)
A plane (Great Circle)  trace
Pole and trace

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pole_figure
Great circle

Equal angle
with respect
to N or S pole
Standard projections of cubic crystals on
(a) (001), (b) (011)
Stereographic Projection
The outer sphere
is a spherical
projection
Plot points
where poles
intersect sphere
Planes now =
points
But still 3-D

Fig 6.3
Stereographic Projection
Gray plane =
Equatorial Plane
Want to use it as
our 2-D
representation
and project our
spherical poles
back to it
This is a 2-D
stereographic Fig 6.5 of Klein (2002)
projection Manual of Mineral Science,
John Wiley and Sons
Stereographic Projection
D and E are spherical
D' and E' are
stereographic
Distance GD' = f(r)
as r  90 D’  G
as r  0 D’  O

Fig 6.6 of Klein (2002) Manual of Mineral Science, John Wiley and Sons
Stereographic Projection
We can thus use
the angles and
calculate the 2-D
distances from
the center to find
the stereographic
poles directly
Or we can use
special graph
paper and avoid
the calculation Fig 6.5 of Klein (2002)
Manual of Mineral Science,
John Wiley and Sons
Inclined Planes and Great Circles
Great Circle as stereographic
projection calculated from angle r
Great circles on stereographic
projection = locus of all points
projected from the intercept of an
inclined plane to the equatorial plane
(bowl analogy)- structural geology
Use your hand for dip and a pencil for
the pole of (011) at 45o from vertical
This is the graph
paper for avoiding
calculating the
distance from the
center as a function of
r each time
increments of 20o
Back to Fig. 2.42
(111) (100) (111)
(011) (100) all
coplanar
(= zone)
Thus all poles in a
zone are on the
same great circle!!
How do we find the
zone axis??
Fig 6.3 of Klein (2002) Manual of Mineral Science, John Wiley & Sons
Small circles
Gives angles between any two points on a great
circle
= the angle
between 2
coplanar
lines!!

20o
The Wulff Net

Combines
great circles
and small
circles in 2o
increments
Stereographic Projection
How to make a stereographic projection of our crystal
Use a contact goniometer to measure the interfacial
angles (also measures normals: poles)

## Fig 6.2 of Klein (2002)

Manual of Mineral Science,
John Wiley and Sons
Plot Cardboard Model
Isometric System (p. 93)
Crystallographic Axes
“The crystal forms of classes of the isometric system
are referred to three axes of equal length that make
right angles with each other. Because the axes are
identical, they are interchangeable, and all are
designated by the letter a. When properly oriented,
one axis, a1, is horizontal and oriented front to +a3

## back, a2 is horizontal and right to left, and a3 is

vertical.” +a1 90

90 90

+a2
Plot (100) (001) (010) (110) (101) (011):
 = top half
o = bottom half
How plot (111) ?
a) Plot (110) & then plot (111) between (110) and (001)
(110)  (111) = 36.5o
- go in from primitive
b) No measure technique:
(111) must lie between (110) & (001) (zone add rule)
also between (100) & (011)
thus intersection of great circles  (111)
The finished product

## Fig 6.8 of Klein (2002)

Manual of Mineral Science, John
Wiley and Sons
symmetry elements
face poles and principal zones
Twinning
 Rational symmetrically-related intergrowth
 Lattices of each orientation have definite
crystallographic relation to each other
Twinning
Aragonite twin

## Note zone at twin

plane which is
common to each
part
Although aragonite is
orthorhombic, the twin looks
hexagonal due to the 120o O-C-O
angle in the CO3 group

## Redrawn from Fig 2-69 of Berry,

Mason and Dietrich, Mineralogy,
Freeman & Co.
Twinning
 Twin Operation is the symmetry operation which relates the two
(or more) parts (twin mirror, rot. axis)
1) Reflection (twin plane)
Examples: gypsum “fish-tail”, models 102, 108
2) Rotation (usually 180o) about an axis common to
both (twin axis): normal and parallel twins.
3) Inversion (twin center)
 The twin element cannot be a symmetry element of the
individuals. Twin plane can't be a mirror plane of the crystal
 Twin Law is a more exact description for a given type
(including operation, plane/axis, mineral…)
Contact & Penetration twins
Both are simple twins only two parts
Multiple twins (> 2 segments repeated by same law)
Cyclic twins - successive planes not parallel
Polysynthetic twins
Albite Law
in plagioclase
Twinning
Mechanisms:
1) Growth
Growth increment cluster adds w/ twin orientation
Epitaxial more stable than random
Not all epitaxis  twins
Usually simple & penetration
synneusis a special case
Twinning
Mechanisms:
1) Growth
Feldspars:
Plagioclase: Triclinic Albite-law-striations
a-c a-c

b b
Twinning
Mechanisms:
1) Growth
Feldspars:
Plagioclase: Triclinic Albite-law-striations
cyclic twinning in
Twinning inverted low quartz

Mechanisms:
2) Transformation (secondary)
SiO2: High T is higher symmetry

## High Quartz P6222 Low Quartz P3221

Twinning
Mechanisms:
2) Transformation (secondary twins)
Feldspars:
Orthoclase (monoclinic)  microcline (triclinic)
Monoclinic a-c Triclinic a-c
(high-T) (low-T)

b b
Twinning
Mechanisms:
2) Transformation (secondary)
Feldspars:
K-feldspar: large K  lower T of transformation

“tartan twins”

## Interpretation wrt petrology!

Twinning
Mechanisms:
3) Deformation (secondary)
Results from shear stress
greater stress  gliding, and finally rupture
Also in feldspars.
Looks like transformation, but the difference in
interpretation is tremendous
Mechanisms:
3) Deformation (secondary)
Results from shear stress. Plagioclase
Mechanisms:
3) Deformation (secondary)
Results from shear stress. Calcite