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Style in Classical Music
Melody ± singable symmetrical, lyrical.
Harmony- diatonic, tonic to dominant
Rhythm ± regular and symmetrical
Texture- Homophonic with some
polyphony at times.
Folk elements: national themes, folk
themes, dances etc. used in instrumental

. Choral Music Principal Forms Mass: Tridentine Missa Romanum (Roman after the Council of Trent) Missa Solemnis (solemn or High Mass) Missa Brevis (short Mass or Kyrie & Gloria only) Requiem: Mass for the Dead Oratorio: The style of Handel updated to classical style by Mozart and Haydn.

and two Oratorios. From Church to Concert Hall. Missa Solemnis and began a Requiem. . Principal Forms Mozart wrote several Missa Brevis. Haydn wrote several Missa Solemnis.

18th century Opera was a potent social force . Classical Choral Music and Opera Desire for simplicity in Opera New forms of popular opera arose in the Classical period.

action emote action emotion & action . . Classical/Mozart recitative aria (solo) recitative   . action emote action emote action . .. . . .    . Baroque Opera evolution recitative aria (solo) recitative aria recitative . ..

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Recitative: In splendor bright« Accompagnato: full orchestra Chorus: Homophonic with polyphonic soloists. Classical Vocal Style Recitative And God Said Let there be lights« Secco recitative: dry or without full orchestral accompaniment. .

Classical Opera Shift from Opera Seria to Comic Opera Opera Buffa-Italy Opera Comique-France Singspiel-Germany Ballad or Dialogue Opera-England .

Opera Seria Grand Opera Sung in Italian Serious Subjects: Mythology History National Folk Heroes Art for the Aristocracy .

Gluck.Opera seria Opera buffa influenced music of opera seria Pietro Metastasio (libretti set as operas hundreds of times by Handel. Mozart et al) success in Venice led to becoming court poet in Vienna (1729). remained there for life .

models of merciful/enlightened rulers recitatives (action) & arias (soliloquies) .Pietro Metastasio (1698-1782) heroic operas present conflicts in human passions. promoted morality.

Opera seria Role of orchestra: simply to accompany singers Da capo aria: RA RB R¶A¶ (R=ritornello) fermatas indicate cadenzas Great master: Johann Adolph Hasse (husband of Bordoni) .

. Johann Adolph Hasse (1699-1783) The leading composer of opera seria around the middle of the 18th century.

one of the century's leading sopranos.Faustina Bordoni (1700-1781) Hasse¶s wife. .

Hasse Very popular in Europe mid-century and influenced Mozart and other composers Example of typical embellishment Excerpts from Cleofide: Act II. Digli ch¶io son fedele . Scene 9.

Digli ch¶io son fedele Embellishment by Porporino (castrato) .Hasse: Cleofide.

Love affair farces. Comic Opera Sung in the vernacular Farcical plots Satire on the Aristocracy Mild to raunchy sexual content. .

By the end of the Classical Period. audiences defined national styles. not the aristocracy. The Conflict« What is THE style of the STATE.´ Free theaters. People looked to the aristocracy to define the ³Music of the People. Rules handed down from the state regarding content in theaters. .

Reasons for the conflict Need for simplicity. Need for ³reality´ in entertainment. Need for musical entertainment that has mass appeal and not just entertainment for the ³royals. .´ Opera begins to be a social force by exposing reality on the stage.

Reasons for the conflict Opera exposes the true life of the royals.´ . Exposes the secrets and ideas of Free masonry and other ³secret societies.

miserly old men. dialog SUNG Caricatured aristocrats. vanity. commoners. lawyers/notaries. physicians. military Commedia dell¶arte & use of dialects . commedia in musica In Italy. deceitful spouses. servants. dramma comico. Opera Buffa Dramma giocoso (jocular drama).

simple harmonies Importance of Leonardo Vinci (4e zite µngalera. Spinsters in the Gallery) 1722 . Opera Buffa Comic cast + serious characters Rapid recitative called patter Dry/secco recitative Arias: short tuneful phrases.

descended from short comic musical interludes between acts of tragedies . The Intermezzo Type of Italian comic opera.

1733). and the arias used short tuneful phrases and periods over simple harmonies. by Giovanni Battista Pergolesi. Comic Opera The best-known intermezzo is 4a serva padrona (The Maid as Mistress. dialogue was set in rapid recitatives keyboard accompaniment. In opera buffa. as well as in the intermezzi. .

Giovanni Battista Pergolesi (1710-1736) .

La serva padrona excerpt (Vol II. quanto mi sta male Aria: Son imbrogliato io . 7) Recitative: Ah.

everyday people as characters 2 significant aspects demand for naturalness beginnings of musical nationalism . Comic Opera Differs by country but in vernacular. light in content.

but not farcical) Bass voice. pleasant. especially basso buffo roles Ensemble finale. unlike opera seria . Italy Opera buffa yields to opera giocoso (nontragic.

France Opéra comique. pop tunes (vaudevilles) 1752. started new genres with original ariettes introduced Querelle des bouffons (Quarrel of the comic actors) 1774 (Italian vs French opera) Alternating spoken dialogue + musical numbers was popular . 1710. lowly form of entertainment at parish fairs. including Pergolesi¶s 4a serva padrona.

England Ballad opera. The Beggar¶s Opera in 1728 .

The Beggar¶s Opera §he Beggar's Opera is a comic farce. poking accurate fun at the prevailing fashion in Italian opera as well as the social and political climate of the age .

John Gay¶s §he Beggar¶s Opera Ballad Opera: Dialogue opera Spoken dialogue Familiar tunes Bawdy texts Very funny for the time .

All professions be-rogue one another.Through all the employments of life Each neighbor abuses his brother. Thinks his trade as honest as mine. The priest calls the lawyer a cheat. And the statesman. Whore and rogue they call husband and wife. because he's so great. . The lawyer be-knaves the divine.

Lucy and Polly in a snit over one man. Familiar English Melody No Pow¶r on Earth Love song using cockney accent I like the Fox shall grieve Tune: §he 4ass of Patie¶s Mill« very familiar . Madam Flirt Part of the jealousy scene. The Beggar¶s Opera Direct satire on High Italian Opera ³Why how now.

The Beggar¶s Opera Excerpt from Scene 13 Air XV Air XVI .

Germany Singspiel was revived. translating ballad operas and opera comique works Johann Adam Hiller (Leipzig) Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf and his Doctor und Apotheker (1786) later Haydn .

no da capo arias. serve poetry. overture integral to opera Lessen contrast in recitative & aria . advance plot. singer excesses. Opera Reform Jommelli and Traetta Christoph Willibald Gluck Synthesized French & Italian Raniero de Calzabigi (librettist & collaborator with Gluck) Preface to Alceste (1767) remove abuses.

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e. Berlioz Change CD to NAWM 2. Spontini. 88 .   Beautiful simplicity. Che farò senza Euridice? His works became the models for others: Piccinni.g. Cherubini..

and Italian opera. He made some reforms in opera seria and revitalized opéra comique. German. Gluck¶s influence The following are reasons Gluck's work is historically significant: He established an equilibrium between music and drama. . He blended elements of French.

serious texts. spoken texts. Major Style Changes: Opera Baroque serious Italian Opera wanes in England and throughout Europe. Recognizable tunes. all sung. Italian language. John Gay¶s Beggar Opera provides a new style that was more appealing to the masses. Opera Seria: Serious Italian Opera. Opera Buffa: Comedic opera. mythology. elaborate. . history. satire of the aristocracy.

The end .