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Presented By: Shujaat Farooq


Pakistan Institute of Development Economics,
Islamabad.
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º Degraded soils, a decline in forest cover and rising
level of air and water pollution are the major
environmental issues in Pakistan.
º The 2010 flood in Pakistan has reinforced the
environment poverty-nexus as it is one of the
greatest humanitarian crises in the history of the
world.
º It has severe implications at both the macro and
micro levels in the short and long run.
º Prior to the flood, the economy has been facing
severe challenges at national and international
front
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Five objectives of this study
º analyze the extent of severity of the flood
across the districts and explore the systematic
issues behind the flood;
º examine socio-economic situation in the flood
affected districts before the flood 2010;
º examine the potential losses of the flood;
º to assess the implications of the flood on
poverty, health, education and migration; and
º to draw some policy implications
  


This is a reviewed study at the district level in which
all the 100 districts of Pakistan has been classified
into three categories
º Severally affected districts;
º Moderately affected districts; and
º Not affected districts
º Four different dimensions of poverty have used to
understand the severity of flood
º The assessment approach have been used to
analyze the damages of flood in the context of four
dimensions of poverty
º Various national and international sources of
dataset has been used
2010 Flood Affected Districts and Reasons
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10 10 9
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8 7 7
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Balochistan KPK* Punjab Sindh AJ&K GB

Severely Affected Moderately Affected

º The 2010 flood has affected an area of 10.518 million


acres with the twice scale and destruction than the Haiti
Earthquake 2010, Cyclone Nargis 2008, Pakistan
Earthquake 2005, Cyclone Katrina 2005, and Indian
Ocean Tsunami 2004.
º Four Systematic issues behind the flood
  
 

 

º Regarding the population density, the severely affected
districts are not different from others except the few.
º The demographic and socio-economic indicators show
the worst condition in the severely affected districts of
Punjab and Sindh as compared to the not-affected
districts or in moderately affected districts.
º High proportion of farm households exists in severely
affected districts of both Punjab and Sindh
º The severe affected districts in Punjab and Sindh also
lack the physical and social infrastructure


 


     

    





  
     
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º It is not common in Pakistan to estimate poverty at the


district level ; however, the district level estimates are
available for the year 2001-02 (Jamal, 2006) and for
2004-05 (Cheema, 2010 and Jamal, 2007).
º Rural poverty and Deprivation in severally flood affected
district of Punjab and Sindh was higher than the
moderately affected and not affected districts 41% in
2001 and 33% in 2004.
  
º About 1,961 persons died,2¢995 injured and 1.9 million dwellings were
damaged and their inhabitants moved out to nearby safe locations
º Out of the total 10.518 million acres flooded area, 59.3% was irrigated.
The major and minor crops of Î  have been severely affected with a
huge production loss in cotton, sugarcane, rice and fodder.
º Over 3.2 million heads of livestock and about 6 million poultry has been
lost, particularly in Sindh.
º The floods have caused a significant damage to public and private
infrastructure. In northern areas, almost all hydropower
installations, while in KPK, a number of grid stations and transmission lines
have been damaged. About 514 health facilities, 12,597 schools have been
damaged. About 283 km of road length has been damaged in KPK, 2,899
km road length in Punjab, 950 km in GB, and 12,000 km in Sindh. The
Pakistan Railway has suffered Rs 6.07 billion of infrastructure damages
which include the damage to bridges, breaches in the track, damages to
buildings etc.
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º The severe affected districts were already poor with less
diversification in their resources and further lost their resources.
º High prices of rice and wheat have been seen in flooded areas.
º The people who lost their income by more than 75%, 45 percent
were already below the national poverty line. 70% of the farmers
and 60% of the daily wage labourer has lost their income by more
than 50%.
º The poor households are coping with by selling their assets and
shifting their consumption to inferior food item and borrowings.
º Poverty is districts severely affected by the 2010 flood could be
around 50 percent, particularly in rural areas. Among the poor, the
proportion of extreme poor is also likely to have increased sharply.
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º about 6.7 million patient consultations have been reported. There
are 4.4 million women of child bearing age, 3.4 million children 0.6
million pregnant and lactating women at risk. Half of population is
not getting the acceptable intake (FCS)
º Regarding education, there were approximately 1.8 million affected
children, including 680,000 girls
º The flooded families would like that at least one family member of
the displaced may migrate to urban centres

! 
Î   " %$
"# $

Aater, sanitation and Hygenic 123.82 31.4

Health 50.83 32.1

Nutrition 27.6 65.1

Education 36.4 31.4

Child protection 12.98 47.8


 
 
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º The role of disaster management in relief and rehabilitation seems to be
inadequate. NDMA is relying on other institutions
º The government has defined six key priorities. About 90,000 households
have been benefited by ͚Aatan card͛ schemes
º Several clusters has been developed; however, the level of committed
resources, and the actual steps taken are not adequate for the
rehabilitation process.

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' "(# $ )*+,

Grant (US $ Million) Committed 739.40


Distributed 287.49
Committed 631.13
In-Kind (US $ Million)
Distributed 202
Implementing Agency(US $ UN/INGOs 1236.53
Million) GOP 634.38
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º The study has first examined the poverty situation before
the flood, then reviewed the flood losses to determine
their implications for poverty.
º The present analysis indicates that in the short term, 6-7
million people are likely to have pushed into poverty
because of the recent natural disaster.
º The right policies are the key to avoid the future possible
damages which include identification of unpopulated areas,
construction of new dams and the inspection of existing
system
º Three different polices are required to target farm
households, livestock households and non-agriculture
households.
º There is a need to improve the monitoring and governance
to avoid the ongoing inflation
º The government should impose the flood wealth tax on the rich
persons and the flooded victims should be properly compensated.
º The rural development with the restoration of farm and non-form
activities in the flooded areas is prerequisite to avoid the potential
threats of poverty, civil conflict and urbanization. A special attention
is required to the most backward areas.
º A cluster over the micro finance scheme should be also developed.
º The overseas employment opportunities should be provided in the
severe affected regions.
º There is a need to build the capacity of the non-functional disaster
management institutions
º To minimize the future potential environment threats, there is a need
to adopt a comprehensive policy to tackle the other human-induced
hazards which include poor quality of construction, urbanization,
poor land management, poor livestock and agriculture management
practices, deforestation and civil conflicts.
º The international community should provide the necessary training
and committed resources as well as the environment friendly
technology to the Pakistan
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