Electrical Equipment In Hazardous Atmospheres
Basic Principles

Topics Covered
     Principles of Explosion Protection Zones of Use Gas Groups Temperature Classes Explosion Protection Categories

Conditions For An Explosion
 Three simultaneous conditions are required and are often shown in the form of an ignition triangle.


3 elements must be Present: – Fuel – Source of Ignition – Oxygen or Air .Ignition or Fire Triangle  In Order for Combustion (Fire or Explosion) to Occur.

Ignition Triangle Oxygen + Fuel (Gas. Vapor + Dust + Fibre & Flyings) = + Ignition Source (Sparks + Hot surface) .

Ignition Triangle .

Primary Explosion Protection  Elimination of Ignition Source. or Oxygen  Elimination of Fuel. orOxygen  Elimination Oxygen Fuel Ignition Source .

Ignition Source (Energy)  Heat – Light Fixtures (Lamp / Ballast)  Arcing / Sparking – Switches / Relays – Plugs and Receptacles  Potential Source – Terminals – Tools .

Hazardous Area Zones  Three Zones – How Likely? – For How Long? .

Hazardous Area Zones 2 1 0 Safe Area .

Examples of Zoning  Petrol Station Forecourt Safe Area Zone 2 Zone 1 .

Examples of Zoning  LPG Tanker Zone 2 Zone 1 Zone 0 .

How Likely? . or present for long periods.very likely For How Long? > 1000 hrs/yr .Definition of Zones  Zone 0 Zone in which an explosive atmosphere is continuously present.

Definition of Zones  Zone 1 Zone in which an explosive atmosphere is likely to occur in normal operation.likely For How Long? >10 hrs < 1000 hrs/yr . How Likely? .

and if it occurs it will exist only for a short time.Unlikely For How Long? < 10 hrs/yr .Definition of Zones  Zone 2 Zone in which an explosive atmosphere is not likely to occur in normal operation. Sometimes referred to as: “The remotely Hazardous Area” How Likely? .

Definition of Zones .Occurrence of Gas /Vapor & for How long Descriptions Zone 0 Zone 1 Zone 2 How Likely? Very likely Likely Not Likely For how long? > 1000 hrs/year > 10 < 1000 hrs/yr < 10 hrs /year .

Electrical Equipment In Hazardous Area  Concentrates on the ignition source  Different methods employed for prevention .

Principles Involved  Containment of explosion within apparatus Ex d .

.Types of Protection and Explosion Protection Symbol  Containment of Explosion in Apparatus – Flameproof (Ex d) Hazardous Gas. Dust etc. Vapor.

Methods Of Protection That “Contain an Explosion” Metal To Metal Joints Extra Care must be Tightened Taken to prevent Correctly Corrosion Housing “Contains” Explosion All Bolts Must Be Installed & .

Flame-path Flame-path Enclosure Wall .Flame-paths • Joints on covers or openings • Does not prevent explosion occurring are protected by the but contains the explosion and prevents ‘flame-path’ ignition of surrounding atmosphere.

Flame-paths • Flame paths Must be free from corrosion !!! • All bolts Must be tightened down correctly !!! 238 Exd Wellglass .

Ex de certified Flameproof and Increased Safety Floodlight Increased Safety (Exe) Terminal Box Flameproof Enclosure (Exd) .

• Lamp and sparking devices are contained within flameproof enclosure Cables connected To Exe Terminal block • Wiring enters enclosure via flameproof barrier gland Enclosure Wall Flameproof (Exd) EN50018 .

Types of Protection and Symbol  Avoidance of ignition condition  Increased Safety (Ex e)  Non . n) Hazardous Area .Sparking (Ex N.

Method Of Protection Ex “e” Increased Safety  Additional Protection Is Given to Components to Prevent Excessive Temperatures or Arcs and Sparks  Terminals Cannot Vibrate Loose. Deform Conductors and have Increased Creepage and Clearances  Other Factors High Temperatures or Sparks X X .

How does it work
Increased Safety (Ex e) / Non - Sparking (Ex n, N)
 Increased creepage and clearance distances for electrical connections.

 Reduction or controlling operating temperature of components
(eg. Lamps & ballast)  No Sparking components allowed, unless protected by another protection method, ie. Ex m, Exq or Ex d  Conditioning Test required if plastic parts used  Impact Test required on diffusers and enclosure bodies  Increased moisture/dirt ingress protection, ie. IP rating

Comparison Table – Ex e versus Ex n The reference standards are EN 50019 and EN 50021. The equivalent I EC standards are IEC 60079-7 and I EC 60079-15 Test Requirements I ncreased Creepage & Clearance distances of electrical connections Reduction or Control of Temperature of Components Ex e Ex n Remarks

For example at 275V the min creepage for group I material is 8mm, the min clearance is 6mm in air. Greater control over component temperatures, materials & construction of components. (Certified components normally used.). Ex e refers back to the explosive atmospheres general requirements EN 50014.

For example at 250V the min creepage for group I material is 3.2mm, the min clearance is 2.5mm in air. The components are tested within the luminaire and cannot exceed the manufacturers max rating. They must also not exceed the T-rating. Ex n mainly refers back to the product standard; in our case for luminaires EN 60598.

I n general the I EC 6641values are used with added factors As well as being required for T rating, reduced temperatures mean longer life. A common rule of thumb is that +10ºK halves the life.

Comparison Table – Ex e versus Ex n Test Requirements I mpact Test Light transmitti ng parts without guards. Low Risk 2J Ex e High Risk 4J Low Risk 1J Ex n High Risk 2J Remarks

Enclosures 4 J I P rating

7J I P 54 min.


3.5 J

The risk mentioned is that of mechanical damage. I EC 60079-15 has higher values for Ex n

I P 54 (Can be marked I P4X but would have special conditions for safe use.) Ex n also permits protection methods such as hermetically sealed, encapsulated, simplified pressurisation, restricted breathing etc, which are described within EN50021.

No sparking components allowed unless protected by another protection method eg. Exd

Sparking components must be protected by Exd, Exm, Exq.

The Ex n methods have sub-groups marked i.e. nR

Comparison Table – Ex e versus Ex n Test Requirements Conditioning Test Ex e For plastic parts; 4 weeks at 90% RH & 20ºK above max service temp. Or if greater than 75ºC two weeks at 95ºC & 90% RH followed by two weeks at 20ºK above max service temp. Zone = 1 and 2 Gives increased security against the possibility of excessive temperatures and of the occurrence of arcs & sparks inside and on external parts of electrical apparatus which does not produce arcs or sparks in normal service Ex n For plastic parts; 2 weeks at 90% RH & 10ºK above max service temp. Or if greater than 85ºC one week at 95ºC & 90% RH followed by one week at 10ºK above max service temp. Zone = 2 only I n normal operation the apparatus is not likely to ignite a surrounding explosive atmosphere. Ex n ensures that a fault is not likely to occur in normal operation. Remarks RH = Relative Humidity K = Kelvin

Zone of Use and Summary

Method Of Protection Ex “q” Prevention of fuel coming into contact with ignition source  Powder or Sand Filled – The Enclosure Is Filled With Sand or Ground Glass – Displaces Hazardous Gases – Isolates Hot or Arcing Components – Zone 1 and 2 Applicable X .

etc Hazardous Area .Types of Protection and Explosion Protection Symbol  Prevention of fuel coming into contact with ignition source .Potted capacitors.Oil Immersion (Ex o) . windings.Oil filled capacitors.Electronic Ballast. ballast.Encapsulation (Ex m) .Powder Filling (Ex q) . etc. etc. . capacitors. .

What type of Protection to use?  The hazardous zones are decided by local authorities.  Different Protection methods are suitable for different zones. . not the equipment manufacturer.

Apparatus Suitable for Zone 0  Intrinsically Safe Apparatus Type Ex i (a)  Special for zone 0 Type Ex s .

Apparatus Suitable for Zone 1  Any Apparatus Suitable for Zone 0 and – Flameproof Apparatus – Increased Safety Apparatus – Intrinsically Safe Apparatus – Encapsulated Apparatus m – Pressurized Apparatus – Sand Filled Apparatus – Special for zone 1 Type Ex d Type Ex e Type Ex i (b) Type Ex Type Ex p Type Ex q Type Ex s .

Apparatus Suitable for Zone 2 Any Apparatus suitable for Zone 0 and Any Apparatus suitable for Zone 1 and  Non-sparking apparatus  Oil Immersed Apparatus Type Ex N Type Ex n Type Ex o .

Gas Groups .

Gas Groups  Gases are divided into two major groups – Group I Mining (Underground) Other (Above Ground) – Group II .

IIC (Hydrogen & Acetylene) • Qualifying Properties – Maximum Explosion Pressures – Clearance of Clamped Joints .IIA (Propane) .IIB (Ethylene) .Gas Groups  Gas Group II is further sub-divided:.

Gas Groups  Any apparatus (lighting fixture) marked for Gas Group II or IIC can be used in ALL Gas Group area ie. IIA. IIB & IIC .

Gas Groups  Any apparatus suitable for Gas Group IIC can be used where Gas Group IIB or IIA is required  Any apparatus suitable for Gas Group IIA cannot be used where Gas Group IIB or IIC is required .

Gas Groups Gas Group of the Area/Zone II A Apparatus Gas Group II B    II C    II A § II B § II C §    .

Temperature Class .

. Called the ‘ignition temperature’ of the gas.Temperature Class  Gases are also grouped according to temperature above which a gas will instantly ignite.  Apparatus (luminaire) must have a maximum permissible surface temperature which is below ignition temperature of gas.

then T.Rating requirement is T3 (200o C). .What is the Ignition Temperature of the Gas/Dust Present? T-Ratings  T-Rating (Marked on the Fixture) It is the Maximum Operating Temperature range of a Luminaire or Fixture  Must Be Below the Ignition Temp of the Gas / Dust Present  Example: If gas present has ignition temp of 215o C.

Temperature Class Temperature Class Maximum Surface Temperature T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 450 ºC 300 ºC 200 ºC 135 ºC 100 ºC 85 ºC .

Rain falling at angle up to 60 degrees from vertical.5mm dia.Ingress Protection 1st Digit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Degree of Protection (Dust) No protection Large foreign bodies Ingress of medium sized foreign bodies. Ingress of foreign bodies > 2. Conditions on ships decks. Protection against liquid splashing . Ingress of foreign bodies > 1mm dia. 2nd Digit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Degree of Protection (Liquids) No protection Drops of condensed water Liquid falling at angle up to 15 degrees from vertical. Immersion in water. Water projected by nozzle from any direction. . Indefinite immersion in water as agreed with customer. Complete protection against dust. Dust sufficient to interfere with operation.

Explosion Protection Category Coding .

Explosion Protection Category s II 2GD Ex eqm II T4 Approved to ATEX Directive Group II. G=Gas. D=Dust . Category 2.

Explosion Protection Category Coding: Ex eqm II T4 “e” = Increased Safety (Primary Protection Method) “q” = Powder Filling (High Frequency Electronic Ballast) “m” = Encapsulation (Isolating Device) .

Explosion Protection Category  II 2GD Ex eqm II T4 – This means that the product has been certified to ATEX Directive Category 2 for Gas & Dust application and is suitable – for use in zone 1 and zone 2 areas. – for use in Gas groups IIA. IIB or IIC – and for gases with ignition temperatures classified as T4 (less than 135 degC) .

.ATEX DIRECTIVE     Must be fully implemented by July 2003 New zone classifications More stringent than existing standards Methods of protection not covered by existing standards will be allowed.

ATEX versus CENELEC (EN) CENELEC Zone 0 Zone 1 Zone 2 ATEX Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 .

World Standards .

European & IEC American Standards vs versus .

Zone 21 & 22 Fibres & Flyings NEC 500 Class 1 Division 1 & 2 Class 2 Division 1 & 2 Class 3 Division 1 & 2 .Comparison IEC/EN ~ NEC 500 IEC / EN Gas & Vapor .Zone 0. 1 & 2 Combustible Dust .

Zone 0.Comparison IEC/EN ~ NEC 505 IEC / EN Gas & Vapor . 1 & 2 NEC 505 Class 1 Zone 0. 1 & 2 .

N NEC Permissible Apparatus Zone 0 Zone 1 Zone 2 Ex ia As above Ex d As above Non Incendive . s As above Ex n. d. m. Ex s As above Ex e. q. ib.Comparison IEC/EN ~ NEC 505 IEC Zone 0 Zone 1 Zone 2 Permissible Apparatus Ex ia.

Comparison NEC vs IEC Maximum surface temperature (deg. C) 450 300 280 260 230 215 IEC T1 T2 - NEC T1 T2 T2A T2B T2C T2D .

C) ( 20 0 18 0 16 5 16 0 13 5 12 0 10 0 85 IE C T3 T4 T5 T6 NEC T3 T3 A T3B T3C T4 T4 A T5 T6 .Comparison NEC vs IEC Maxim um surface temperature deg.

Gas Grouping and Classification Gas NEC Gas Group Group A Group B Groups B + C Ethylene Propane Group C Group D Group IIB+H2 Group IIB Group IIA IEC Gas Group Group IIC Acetylene Hydrogen .Section 505-5.

Comparison NEC vs IEC Product Gases and Vapours Symbol Zone Group EN Symbol Zone 0 EEx d 1 Group open IIA IIB IIB & IIC IIC Ex n Ex N 2 2 open The use of electrical devices is not recommended Class I Division I (Zone 0 & 1) Group D Group C Group B Group A Class I Division II (Zone 2) Group D Group C Group B Group A .

Chemical Dusts – High Resistance • Qualifying Properties – Electrical Conductivity – Dust Particle Size . Charcoal. Plastic. Grain.Nature Of Hazardous Substance Dust Groups – Low Resistance / Conduct Electricity ­ Group F – Carbonaceous Dusts . and Coal ­ Group G – Flour.Carbon Black. Cocoa.

Nature Of Hazardous Substance  Class III ­ No Groups Established ­ Fibers and Flyings • Qualifying Properties ­ Quantity Present ­ Effects of Overheating .

Methods Of Protection That “Contain an Explosion” Miniature Explosion Proof Housing Metal Explosion Proof Enclosure .

Types of Protection and Explosion Protection Symbol  Exclusion of Fuel From Atmosphere – Pressurization Ex p Hazardous Area .

Nature of Hazardous Substance NEC Gas Groups • Class I Test Gas Acetylene Hydrogen or Gases of Equiv. Hazard Ethylene Propane ­ Group A ­ Group B ­ Group C ­ Group D • Qualifying Properties –Maximum Explosion Pressures –Clearance of Clamped Joints .

Degrees C 450 300 280 260 230 215 200 180 165 160 135 120 100 85 Max. Temp. Temp. Degrees F 842 572 536 500 446 419 392 356 329 320 275 248 212 185 .NEC Class I Locations T Codes (identification numbers) Identification Number T1 T2 T2A T2B T2C T2D T3 T3A T3B T3C T4 T4A T5 T6 Max.

Temperature Class Temperature Classification of Zone Apparatus Temperature Class T1  T1 §  T2 §  T3 §  T4 §  T5 §  T6 § T2       T3       T4       T5       T6       .

Temperature Class  T6 apparatus is suitable for use in a T5. etc. to T1 areas  T2 apparatus is suitable for use in T2 and T1 areas only . T4.

Primary Explosion Protection  Elimination of Fuel Oxygen Fuel Ignition Source .

Primary Explosion Protection  Elimination of Oxygen Oxygen Fuel Ignition Source .

Ignitable Dusts – Class III .Type of Fuel Potentially Present – Class I .Fibers & Flyings . Vapors – Class II .What is the Classification of the Hazardous Location?  Class .Gases.

(Gases or Vapors) Applications Petrochemical Refineries Steel Mills Chemical Plants Oil & Gas (Production)  Sewage Treatment       Tank Farm  Fuel Service  Aircraft Hangers  Paint Spray  Power Plants .

etc. Cocoa.Class II (Ignitable Dusts) Applications  Pharmaceutical  Mines  Grain Silos  Coal Fired Power Plants  Food Processing (Flour.)  Fertilizer Plants  Metal Grinding  Pulp & Paper .

Class III (Fibers & Flyings) Applications  Textile Mills  Rope Manufacturing  Lumber & Saw Mills  Cotton Gins  Cotton Seed Mills  Flax Processing Plants .

Occurrence of Hazard  Division 1 / Zone 0 and 1 – Hazardous Substance Present Under Normal Conditions. Closed System Storage Tanks . Open System Using Flammable Liquid to Manufacture End Product  Division 2 / Zone 2 – Hazardous Substance Present Only Under Abnormal Conditions.

Principles Involved  Limitation of energy in system to safe level .

Types of Protection and Explosion Protection Symbol  Energy Limitation – Intrinsic Safety Ex i .

Ex i .  Zenner barriers are used to isolate the intrinsic circuit from non protected circuits  This includes the occurrence of:– ia – ib 2 fault conditions 1 fault condition .Intrinsic Safety (EN 50020)  Circuit is controlled to reduce potential spark energy to below that which would ignite any flammable gas present.

Potentially Explosive Atmosphere  An area in which there can be a flammable gas. liquid or vapour present at some point in time. .

. if ignited.Hazardous Areas  An area containing a potentially explosive atmosphere. which. could give rise to damage to property or injury to persons.