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Sampling technique

DR ANSHULI TRIVEDI

IIIRD YEAR RESIDENT

DEFINITIONSampling is that part of statistical practice concerned with the selection of an unbiased or random subset of individual observations within a population of individuals intended to yield some knowledge about the population of concern, especially for the purposes of making predictions based on statistical inference. ´ Sampling frame-The sampling frame operationally defines the target population from which the sample is drawn and to which the sample data will be generalized.

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NEED FOR SAMPLINGAdvantages of sampling´ cost is lower ´ data collection is faster ´ Since the data set is smaller it is possible to ensure homogeneity and to improve the accuracy and quality of the data.

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CHARACTERISTIC OF SAMPLING METHODPrecision-Depends on sample size. ´ Precision=¥n ´ s n=sample size, s=SD ´ By increasing sample size, increase accuracy and decrease margin of error ´ The smaller the population, the larger the needed ratio of the sample size to the population size ´ Aim for is a 95% confidence level. ´ Unbiased character.

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**PROCESS OF SAMPLING PROCESS
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Defining the population of concern Specifying a sampling frame, a set of items or events possible to measure Specifying a sampling method for selecting items or events from the frame Determining the sample size Implementing the sampling plan

**TYPES OF SAMPLINGProbability ´ Non probability
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PROBABILITY SAMPLING´

A probability sampling scheme is one in which every unit in the population has a chance (greater than zero) of being selected in the sample, and this probability can be accurately determined.

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Types-

**Simple Random Sampling Systematic Sampling
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Stratified Sampling

Cluster Sampling. Multistage Sampling.

**SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLING:
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Each member of the population has an equal and independent chance of being selected in the sample. Used when the population is small, homogeneous and readily availableRandomness by Lottery method(Population is small) Table of Random numbers (Population is large).

Ex-Suppose we have to select a sample (n) of 100 subjects from a population of 500 (N). We first make a serial list of each and every subject of the 500 subjects in the population. Then from the random number table,

random numbers are selected row wise or column wise.

**Random Number Table
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32 50 92 46 24 81 34 70 46 99 45 11 49 20 50 13 56 08 38 43 64 61 65 94 30 38 09 93 01 49 95 76 09 00 24 97 30 78 89 23 69 48 93 77 87 27 95 04 69 59 86 16 75 80 55 12 11 01 21 41 17 51 54 45 85 43 06 09 24 42 54 15 04 34 41 44 66 18 71 83 47 17 29 36 55 71 30 74 42 36 33 98 93 66 76 13 87 08 47 98 41 22 96 26 64 23 23 21 65 14 58 61 05 09 82 08 21 74 18 91

**STRATIFIED RANDOM SAMPLING:
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Population under study is first divided into homogeneous groups called STRATA & a sample is drawn from each Stratum by simple Random Sampling method Useful when population is not homogeneous.

This method is useful where one is interested in analyzing the data by a certain characteristics of population like, religion, caste, occupation or age groups, Gender etc.

For example-if we draw a simple random sample from a population, a sample of 100 may contain only 10 to 15 high income groups, 20 to 30 middle income groups and 80 to 90 low income groups.

Stratify each SE-Class

Take simple random no. from each size as per the sample size.

The advantage is that minority group is not left out but we require a sampling frame for each stratum separately.

**SYSTEMATIC RANDOM SAMPLING: (Quasi)
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systematic random sample is obtained by selecting one unit on a random basis and then choosing additional units at evenly spaced intervals until the desired number of sample size is obtained.

Used when- Systematic sampling is a commonly employed technique, when ´ complete and up to date list of sampling units is available. The advantage of systematic sampling is that it is easier to draw, but the demerit is that the sample may exhibit a pattern or periodicity.

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For example, if there are 100 students (N) in a class and we wish to select a sample of 20 students (n) from them by systematic random. first step is to write the names of 100 students in alphabetical order or their roll numbers one below the other. In the systematic sampling procedure we divide N by n to get the sampling fraction (k).Thus in the example k=100/20 = 5. Next we randomly select any number between 1 to k i.e. between 1 to 5. Suppose the number we select is 4. Then the student number 4 is selected in the sample. Thereafter every kth student is selected in the sample until we reach the last one. Thus the student·s corresponding to numbers 4, 9, 14, 19, «..99 are to be selected in the sample.

**CLUSTER RANDOM SAMPLING:
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Any method of sampling where in a group is taken as a Sampling Unit is called Cluster Sampling Cluster is a group consisting of units such as villages, wards, factories, slums, town, children of a school etc.

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A special form of cluster sampling called the ´30 cluster samplingµ, has been recommended by the WHO for field studies in assessing vaccination coverage. In this a list of all villages (clusters) for a given geographical area is made. 30 clusters are selected using Probability Proportional to Size (PPS). From each of the selected clusters, 7 subjects are randomly chosen. Thus a total sample of 30 x 7 = 210 subjects is chosen.

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Multistage SamplingIn this method, the whole population is divided in first stage sampling units from which a random sample is selected. The selected first stage is then subdivided into second stage units from which another sample is selected. Third and fourth stage sampling is done in the same manner if necessary. For example, in an urban survey in a state, a sample of towns may be taken first and then in each of the selected towns, a second stage sample of households may be taken. If needed, further from each of the selected household, a third stage sample of individuals may be selected. Since the samples are selected at each stage the method is called ¶Multi stage sampling·.

MULTI PHASE SAMPLING´

**Information is collected from whole sample & part of information from subsample.
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Montux test is done on whole population

Mtx +ve are screened by X-ray

Xray +ve are tested by Elisa

NON PROBABILITY SAMPLING´

It is a sampling method where some elements of the population have no chance of selection or where the probability of selection can't be accurately determined. Hence, because the selection of elements is nonrandom, non-probability sampling does not allow the estimation of sampling errors. These conditions give rise to exclusion bias placing limits on how much information a sample can provide about the population. Information about the relationship between sample and population is limited, making it difficult to extrapolate from the sample to the population.

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Non-probability Samples Convenience Purposive Quota

Convenience Sample Subjects selected because it is easy to access them. No reason tied to purposes of research. Students in your class, people on State,Street, friends

PURPOSIVE SAMPLING: (Judgmental Sampling or deliberate sampling) ´ Cases that serve specific purpose are chosen for study. ´ Ex-Clinical trials are done on volunteers who agree to take part in study.

QUOTA SAMPLING: Startified random sampling minus randomization. Ex-Imagine that in a town there are 50 % farmes ,25% small busimessman,25% workers. When we want to take the sample in the population the sample should have the same % of these groups.

COMPARISON OF ALL SAMPLING METHODSMethod Simple Desired size of Merits target population Small y Scientific y More representative De merits

Stratified Small

y Needs complete list of study population. y Less number of subjects sample is not true representative y Time & cost due to travel can be high. y More y Difficult to divide pop. representative. into homogenous group. y Greater accuracy. y Sometimes there may be y More economical overlap.

Method

Desired size of target population

Merits

De merits

stematic

Medium

imple con enient to adopt. Allo small no.of target pop. To be sampled. Allo large scale sur e s

sed onl hen pop. is homogenous. ample ma not be representati e

Cluster

Large

Multistage

Ver large

Requires sampling fame onl for each nested unit.

Multiphase

Large

Less cost,less labor Cumbersome More purposeful

SAMPLE SIZE DETERMINATION´

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Quantitative data-N=4(SD)² SD= Standard Deviation, E=Allowable error E² Ex-Mean pulse rate of a population is believed to be 70/min with standard deviation of 8 beats. Calculate the minimum size of sample to verify this. E=+ 1beat at 5% risk. N=4×8×8=64 1×1

Qualitative Data-N=4PQ P=+VE Character,Q=1-P, E=Allowable error E² Ex-Incidence rate in last, Influenza epidemic was found to be 5% of the population exposed. What should be sample size to find rate in current epidemic in E=0.005. P=0.05,Q=0.95,E=0.005 N=4×0.05×0.95=7600 0.005×0.005

Thanks Happy Diwali

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