Multiple goals of science and technology and the changing focus on national security policy

THE MULTIPLE GOALS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY
‡ Science and technology policy represents an excellent opportunity to explore the concept of multiple goals or multidimensionality in public policy. ‡ Scientific and technical knowledge and guidance influences many of today¶s public policies ‡ Science and technology policy is concerned with the allocation of resources for and encouragement of scientific and engineering research and development, the use of scientific and technical knowledge to enhance the nation¶s response to societal challenges, and the education in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

science and technology policy
‡ concerned with the allocation of resources for scientific research and technical development. It includes government encouragement of science and technology as the roots of strategy for industrial development and in economic growth; but it also includes the use of science in connection with problems of the public sector. ‡ defined as all issues and programs related to nonagricultural, nonmedical, and non-communications related civilian activities of a scientific or technological nature.

science policy ‡ concerned with
´the incentives and the environment for discovery and innovation«..with the effect of science and technology and considers how they can best serve the public. The purpose of science policy is to advance societal aimsµ

OVERVIEW OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY: POLICY:
Science and technology has four facets: science for policy, technology for policy, policy for science, and policy for technology reflect how policy makers consider the policy advice they are given by the scientific and technical community.

Science for Policy and technology for policy
When scientists, engineers, and health professionals provide analysis, knowledge, and data to inform policymakers with the goal of enhancing their ability to make wise decisions. E.g., global climate change. Policymakers debate questions such as at what point actions, if any, should be taken to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions.

Policy for Science and Policy for technology
When policymakers take actions that influence the S&T community or the actions in which they engage such as research or S&T-business related activities (e.g., patent law). Policymakers should invest in related research, whether or not establish programs and organizations that set priorities for this research, and what technologies federal agencies should investigate further

Relationship between Science and Technology and Policymaking
Policy influencing Science Science and Technology and Technology Informing Policy SCIENCE Policy for Science e.g., Should the U.S federal governments support embryonic stem cell research Policy for Technology e.g., Should the emerging field on nanotechnology be supported and regulated? Science for Policy e.g., Should the United States take action on climate change

TECHNOLOGY

Technology for Policy e.g., Should policy actions be taken to enhance the implementation of new vehicle technologies that might reduce the nation s fossil fuel consumption?

HISTORICAL CHANGES IN U.S SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY
Early History
‡ the focus of science and technology policy was on science for policy and technology for policy. ‡ scientific and technical knowledge became important for issue related to the military and issues related to the welfare state such as care for the needy and universal education and literacy

Recent History
‡ the role of application of research to provide technology for both military and economic purposes became evident ‡ Policy for technology focused on areas such as weaponry, communications, and medical needs such as surgical innovations

‡ Congress
± ± ± ± Legislative Committees House Committees Senate Committees Caucuses (adhoc committees)

‡ Executive Branch
± The President and the White House
‡ Office of budget & Management ‡ Other S&T Policy Related Offices ‡ Office of S&T Policy

± Federal Agencies

‡ Judicial Branch
± Equivalent to the Supreme Court

WHO MAKES DECISIONS REGARDING SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY?

WHO MAKES DECISIONS REGARDING SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY?
Congress makes decisions regarding all four of the S&T policy facets: 
   science for policy technology for policy policy for science policy for technology

Congress makes influence S&T issues such as funding of research and technological development, setting priorities for that funding, and supporting science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education

CONGRESS
‡ Congress receives advice from internal sources
± (congressional staff) ± S&T policy fellows, hearings, and ± congressional support agencies as well as external sources (e.g., Congressional budget office)

‡ vast majority of bills follow the normal process of being considered in committee before reaching the floor,

Legislative Role of Committees
‡ Act as authorizing committees for research activities of many federal agencies; ‡ The authority to review and study on the continuing basis laws, programs, and Government activities relating to nonmilitary research and development.
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) House Science; Senate commerce, Science and Transportation; Senate Aeronautical and Space Sciences, House Appropriations; and Senate Appropriations

Aggregate analysis across chambers
‡ Committee hearings and referrals ‡ Discussions and debates on some areas of S&T policy are strongly influenced by committees ‡ Refers to ³venue shopping´ for policymaking, whether it has any impact on political and budgetary outcomes

EXECUTIVE LEVEL
‡ involve multiple agencies; have budgetary, economic, national security, or foreign policy dimensions; or are highly visible to the public ‡ Presidents attempted to expand their sources of S&T advice through a series of advisory boards and committees

JUDICIARY LEVEL
‡ The Supreme Court of the judicial branch uses scientific and technical knowledge in making its decisions. ‡ The S&T community provides this knowledge to the judiciary through its writings and expert testimony. ‡ the courts are involved with two types of cases:
± involving charges of scientific misconduct, such as research with human subjects; ± and those related to religious or moral opposition to particular kinds of scientific research or the teaching of science

BARACK OBAMA AND JOE BIDEN¶S PLAN FOR SCIENCE AND INNOVATION
‡ Restoring integrity to U.S. science policy
± They will swiftly appoint to key federal leadership positions individuals who bring strong backgrounds in science and engineering, as well as a grasp of the practical challenges associated with designing effective national programs. ± As president, Obama will:
‡ Restore and Enhance the Status of the President¶s Science and Technology Advisor: ‡ Appoint Individuals with Strong Science and Technology Backgrounds to Key Positions ‡ Ensure Independent, Non-ideological, Expert Science and Technology Advisory Committees: ‡ Restore Scientific Integrity in Government Decision Making

BARACK OBAMA AND JOE BIDEN¶S PLAN FOR SCIENCE AND INNOVATION
‡ Doubling over a 10 year period the federal investment in basic research
± As president, Barack Obama will:
‡ Double the Research Budgets of Key Science Agencies over a Decade ‡ Actively Encourage Multidisciplinary Research and Education (e.g. the transition to a low carbon economy

‡ Making a national commitment to science education and training ‡ Encouraging American innovation to flourish ‡ Addressing the ³grand challenges´ of the 21st century

THE CHANGING FOCUS OF NATIONAL SECURITY POLICY

National Security Policymaking
‡ National security policy makers may consider foreign, defense and intelligence policies as separate dimensions or attributes of a vexingly complex problem or as separate problems altogether. ‡ Policy integration would coordinate the intermediate goals of both foreign and defense policies. ‡ The rational integration of instruments would coordinate support for other nations with support for the U.S. military.

American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers
‡ Instruments of Foreign Policy
± Three types of tools:
‡ Military ‡ Economic ‡ Diplomatic

± Military is the oldest and still used ± Economic is becoming more powerful ± Diplomatic is the quietest of the tools

American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers
‡ U.S. Military Interventions in Central America and the Caribbean Since 1900

American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers
‡ Actors on the World Stage
± ± ± ± ± International Organizations (UN) Regional Organizations (NATO, EU) Multinational Corporations Nongovernmental Organizations Individuals

American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers
‡ The Policymakers
± The President ± The Diplomats (secretary of state) ± The National Security Establishment (secretary of defense, Joint Chiefs of Staff, NSC, CIA) ± Congress

‡ Isolationism:
± Foreign policy where the U.S. tries to stay out of other nation¶s conflicts, particularly in Europe.

‡ Monroe Doctrine:
± U.S. official statement of isolationism

‡ World War I:
± Basically ended the policy of isolationism

‡ The Cold War
± Containment Abroad and Anti-Communism at Home ± The Swelling of the Pentagon (arms race) ± The Vietnam War

American Foreign Policy: An Overview

‡ The Era of Détente
± Détente: a slow transformation from conflict to cooperation ± Strategic Arms Limitations Talks: effort to limit the growth of nuclear arms ± Originally applied to the Soviet Union, and then to China ± Not favored by everyone

‡ The Reagan Rearmament
± Defense budget had been declining since the mid1950¶s. ± Reagan added some $32 billion to the defense budget in his first term in office to oppose the Soviet buildup. ± Strategic Defense Initiative: using computers and other equipment to defend against Soviet missiles from space (³Star Wars´).

American Foreign Policy: An Overview

‡ The Final Thaw in the Cold War.
± George H.W. Bush proposed to move beyond containment to integrate the Soviet Union into the community of nations. ± Leadership of the Soviet Union supported the ending of communism and split into separate nations. ± East and West Germany united.

American Foreign Policy: An Overview

‡ The War on Terrorism
± War on terrorism became highest priority of George W. Bush administration after 9/11. ± Bush supported preemptive strikes against terrorists and hostile states. ± International relations has entered an era of improvisation.

American Foreign Policy: An Overview

‡ Defense Spending
± Currently takes up about one-fifth of the federal budget. ± Conservatives argue against budget cuts that would leave the military unprepared. ± Liberals argue for budget cuts to provide more money for programs here in the U.S. ± Military spending is hard to cut since it means a loss of jobs in congressional districts.

The Politics of Defense Policy

Trends in Defense Spending

The Politics of Defense Policy

‡ Personnel
± 1.4 million active and reserve troops ± More reliance on National Guard and reserve troops.

‡ Weapons
± Reliance on nuclear triad (ICBMs, SLBMs, and strategic bombers) is expensive. ± Treaties (START) were signed to reduce some nuclear missiles. ± High-tech non-nuclear weapons are becoming more important.

The Politics of Defense Policy

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‡ The Decreasing Role of Military Power
± Military power is losing much of its utility in resolving many international issues. ± Economic Sanctions
‡ Nonmilitary penalties imposed on foreign countries as an attempt to modify their behavior. ‡ Generally the first ³shot´ in a crisis. ‡ Can be effective, but critics argue they only hurt U.S. businesses and provoke a nationalist backlash.

The New Global Agenda

‡ Nuclear Proliferation
± Only a few countries have known nuclear weapon capabilities. ± Fear is that other ³rogue´ countries will have nuclear weapons capabilities and use them against their neighbors or the U.S. ± U.S. will focus on discouraging the deployment of developed nuclear weapons.

The New Global Agenda

The New Global Agenda
‡ The Spread of Nuclear Weapons

‡ The International Economy
± Interdependency: Mutual dependency, in which the actions
of nations reverberate and affect one another¶s economic lifelines.

± International Trade
‡ Tariffs (a tax on imported goods) are used to protect American business. ‡ NAFTA and GATT are ways to lower tariffs and increase trade.

± Balance of Trade: The ratio of what is paid for imports to what is earned for exports.

The New Global Agenda

‡ The International Economy (continued)
± Energy
‡ America depends on imported oil, but not as much as other nations. ‡ Much of the recoverable oil is in the Middle East which is often the site of military & economic conflicts. ‡ OPEC controls the price of oil and amount its members produce and sell.

± Foreign Aid
‡ Foreign aid is used to stabilize nations friendly to the United States. ‡ A substantial percentage of foreign aid is military. ‡ Foreign aid has never been very popular with Americans

The New Global Agenda

‡ National Security Policymaking and Democracy
± Americans are more interested in domestic than foreign policy. ± The opinions of the people are rarely ignored. ± Pluralism is pervasive in foreign policymaking.

‡ Foreign and Defense Policymaking and the Scope of Government

Understanding National Security Policymaking

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