Permanent Deformation


Mechanical Working

Mechanical Working Is a permanent deformation to which metal is subjected to change its shape and/or properties.

• > 1200 °C • Austenitizing

• Grain Refinement • Recrystallization

• Grain Refinement • Precipitation

• Austenite Decomposition • Accelerated Cooling

• Precipitation • Phase transformation

Slab Chemistry Chemistry

(C, Mn, Ni, Cu, MAE)

Thickness & Temperature Reduction

PSL2: •YS (min/max) •UTS (min/max) •YS/UTS •CVN •DWTT Strength Toughness Ductility Steel Mechanical Properties Sour Resistance •HIC •SSCC Weldability •CEPcm …etc .

Steel Mechanical Properties Processing Parameters Chemistry 5 .

Man-made Ferrous Metals.Basic Metallurgy ْ ‫وأ َنزل ْنا ال ْحديد فيه بأ‬ ِ َ ٌ َ َْ َ ٌ ‫َ ِ َ ِ ِ َ س شديد‬ ‫وَمنافِعُ للناس‬ َ َ ِ ّ ِ 1.Telluric (Native) Iron (Grains or nodules of Iron in basalt that erupted through beds of coal) Rare 3.Meteoric Iron (5 – 30 % nickel) Limited 2. (Use charcoal to reduce iron from its oxides) Fe2O3 + 3CO → 2Fe + 3 CO2 .

"But Iron … Cold Iron … is master of them all !“ Rudyard Kipling. 1910 . silver for the maid Copper for the craftsman cunning at his trade.Basic Metallurgy Iron is so important that primitive societies are measured by the point at which they learn how to refine iron and enter the iron age! Gold is for the mistress ….

Basic Metallurgy Iron • Strong material • Easy to shape • Conduct heat and electricity • Unique magnetic properties • Iron is plentiful (5% of the Earth's crust) • Relatively easy to refine .

72 % iron • Limonite .Fe2O3 .Basic Metallurgy Iron ores are rocks that contain a high concentration of iron • Hematite .48 % iron Hematite .50 % to 66 % iron • Siderite FeCO3 .Fe3O4 .Fe2O3 + H2O .70 % iron • Magnetite .

Basic Metallurgy Grains Crystal Structure .

Basic Metallurgy Crystal Structure (Atomic Arrangement) Atom Y Z X Space Lattice: A collection of points that divided space into smaller sized segments. . Unit Cell: A subdivision of the lattice that still retains the overall characteristics of the entire lattice.

Basic Metallurgy Formation of Polycrystalline Material Solid (Unit Cell) Liquid a b Gra in arie ound B s c d a) Small crystalline nuclei b) Growth of Crystals c) Irregular grain shapes d) Final grain structure formed upon completion of solidification Grain Boundary: The zone of crystalline mismatch between adjacent grains. The lattice has different orientation on either side of the grain boundary .

Grain Boundary .

Delta Iron (δ ) Temperature 1400 oC FCC .Gamma Iron (γ ) 910 oC BCC .Alpha Iron (α ) .Basic Metallurgy Atomic Packing in Iron (Allotropic) 1540 oC BCC .

287 nm δ Lattice Parameter (a) = 0.293 nm Total 2 Atoms/Unit Cell a .Basic Metallurgy Body Centered Cubic (BCC) Alpha & Delta Iron (α . δ ) Squared Packed Layer α Lattice Parameter (a) = 0.

Basic Metallurgy Face Centered Cubic (FCC) )Gamma Iron (γ a γ Close Packed Layer Total 4 Atoms/Unit Cell Lattice Parameter (a) = 0.359 nm .

.Basic Metallurgy Effect of the Atomic Packing in Deformation Behavior Slip Distance Displacement High Dense Atomic Packing Slip Distance Displacement Low Dense Atomic Packing Slip occurs easily on closest packed plane (high atomic packing density) along the closest packed direction where the slip distance is minimum.

Basic Metallurgy Effect of the Atomic Packing in Deformation Behavior Smooth Surface Easy to slip with minimum power Example of closed Packed planes Uneven Surface Relatively high energy is required for limited slip Example of squared packed plans Rough Surface Extremely hard to slip Example of squared packed plans with high inter-atom spaces .

Basic Metallurgy STEEL = IRON + Alloying Elements ( C + Mn. …) What is the difference between “STEEL” and “CAST IRON” ? IRON + < 2 % Carbon = STEEL IRON + > 2 % Carbon = CAST IRON . Si. Ni.

Basic Metallurgy Solid Solution • Solid Homogenous Mixture of Elements with at least One Metal – Solute Dissolves in Base Metal • No Visible Signs of Presence – Structure & Metallic Characteristics as those of Base Metal – Hardness Increases with Solution • Distortion of Lattice Structure .

Tin in Iron) that occupy the same sit as the parent atoms.Basic Metallurgy Solid Solution Hardening Interstitial Atoms Small solute atoms (e. 100 - 10 20 30 Alloying Elements % . Carbon in Iron) that sit in the space between parent atoms. 300 - Be Yield Strength (MPa) 200 - Si Sn Al Ni Zn Substitutional Atoms Large solute atoms (e.g.g.

67 Hypereutectic Hypoeutectoid Steel Cast Iron Weight Percentage .1% Temperature (oC) Eutectic (γ + Fe3C ) 1000 910 800 - (α +γ ) Eutectoid 727 °C 600 - Ferrite (α ) 400 - Ferrite + Pearlite Cementite (Fe3C)+ Pearlite 200 - 0- 0.5% Liquid (L) ) 1400 Delta Ferrite (δ ) 1200 - Peritectic ( δ + γ 0.Iron Carbon Phase Diagram 1600 1540 1495 (δ + L ) 0.0 Hypereutectoid 2.3% 6.18% (γ 1150 °C + L ) Austenite (γ ) 2.0 Hypoeutectic 4.8% 1.0 4.1% 0.0 3.

Gamma Iron (γ ) BCC .Basic Metallurgy Atomic Packing in Iron (Allotropic) BCC .Alpha Iron (α ) .Delta Iron (δ ) FCC .

7% C Ferrite + Pearlite Cementite (Fe3C)+ Pearlite Ferrite (α ) 400 - 200 - 0- 0.35% C 0. 5% C 0.Basic Metallurgy 1600 1540 1495 Ferrite Cementite (δ + L ) Liquid (L) ) 0. 8% C 0. 5% C (γ (α +γ ) Eutectoid + Fe3C ) 727 °C 800 - 0.2% C 1.8% 1.0 1.2% C 600 0.0 2.2% C 0. 7% C 0. 8% C 1400 Delta Ferrite (δ ) Peritectic ( δ + γ (γ + L ) 1150 °C Temperature (oC) 1200 Austenite (γ 1000 910 ~0% C ~0% C ) 0.35% C Weight Percentage Carbon .2% C 0.

Basic Metallurgy Fundamental Mechanical Properties Fundamental Mechanical Properties • Strength: Ability to withstand loads (Tensile & Compressive Strength) • Ductility: Ability to deform under tensile loads without rupture • Bending Ability Ability to bend without Fracture • Toughness Ability to absorb energy in shock loading (Impact Strength) • Hardness Resistance to penetration • Weldability Ability to be welded without cracking .

Malleability &  Strength. Hardenability & Impact  Strength & Toughness  Grain Refinement   Strength & Toughness  Manganese (Mn): Aluminum (Al): De-oxidizer. Ti & Nb):  Grain Refinement   Strength. Hardenability Strong De-oxidizer. Sulfur (S): Harmful Strength  Ductility. Weldability Strength & Impact MAE (V.Basic Metallurgy Effect of Alloying Elements Effect of Alloying Elements Carbon (C): Silicon (Si):  Strength & Hardness Weldability De-oxidizer. Hardenability & Toughness . Strength  Ductility.

Strain Basic Metallurgy Stress: Force per unit area Measuring the internal resistance of the body.Stress – Vs . Strain: Unit deformation Measuring the change in dimensions of the body )Force (F F σ = F/Ao ε = (L1 – Lo)/Lo Lo L1 L1 .

Strain Basic Metallurgy S B Stress Y P P: Elastic Limit Y: Yield Point S: Max. Plastic Deformation Strain .Stress – Vs . Load Value B: Breaking Point O Elastic Def.

This Type of deformation involves breaking of a limited number of atomic bonds. This type of deformation involves stretching of the bonds without permanent atomic displacement. .Elastic & Plastic Deformation Basic Metallurgy Elastic Deformation: Deformation of a material that recovered when the applied load is removed. Plastic Deformation: Permanent deformation of a material that is not recovered when the applied load is removed.

Which is easier to cut? .Basic Metallurgy Microstructural Defects Theoretical yield strength predicted for perfect crystals is much greater than the measured strength. The existence of defects explains the difference.

Basic Metallurgy Braking all atomic bonds at once requires grater energy in perfect crystal .

c) small substitional atoms.Basic Metallurgy Microstructural Defects 1) Point defects: a) vacancies. . b) interstitial atoms. that form a twodimensional plane within the crystal. d) large substitional atoms. 2) Surface defects: Imperfections. such as grain boundaries. … etc.

Basic Metallurgy Microstructural Defects 3) Line defects: dislocations (edge. screw. . mixed) Dislocation: A line imperfection in the lattice or crystalline material They are typically introduced into the lattice during solidification of the material or when the material is deformed. Interface with movement of dislocations helps explain how materials are strengthened. Movement of dislocations helps to explain how materials deform.

Continued movement of the dislocation eventually creates a step (deformation) direction (C) . causing the dislocation to move one step (Burger’s vector) in the slip (b).Basic Metallurgy Motion of Dislocation When a shear stress is applied to the dislocation in (a). the atoms displaced.

35 .

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