SCIENCE FORM 2

CHAPTER 2

NUTRITION

Lunch Time…

Important of food
• • • • • Growth Provides energy for carrying out work Warms the body Builds new cells Repairs and replaces damaged tissues

CLASSES OF FOOD

Carbohydrate

Protein

Fat

Vitamins

Mineral salts

Water

Dietary fibre ( roughage )

CARBOHYDRATES • Main Source of energy • Made up of carbon.cellulose • Example: rice. bread and banana.starch . hydrogen and oxygen • There are three types of carbohydrate . .sugar . potato.

meat. hydrogen. • Used for building body tissues. milk. • Lack of protein will cause the disease known as kwashiorkor.PROTEINS • Important for growth • Made up carbon. . enzymes and hormones. oxygen and nitrogen. • Examples: fish. egg white and nuts.

hydrogen and oxygen Provide energy Protect vital organs Help to keep body warm .FATS • • • • Made up of carbon.

VITAMINS • Vital for healthy growth • Require in only small quantities. .

milk.Osteomalacia . tomato.Rickets . milk. . green vegetables . reproductive system.Scurvy (Bledding gum) .Vegetables oil.Helps in coagulation of blood.Maintains night visions.Maize.heals wounds.Type of vitamins Function Deficiencies .Prolonged bleeding .liver.Beri-beri . fish liver phosphorus.Maintains the function of the E .Infertility . green vegetables D . liver. egg B . milk K .Helps in the absorption of calcium and . . .Night blindness .Egg. papaya.Pellagra . A -carrot.Dry scaly skin .Keeps the skin healthy.Maintains healthy skin and gum.Unhealthy Skin . oil .Xerophthalmia . C . . sunflower.Orange.Anaemia .Anaemia . papaya. nut .Maintains nervous system for formation of red blood cells.

.MINERAL SALTS • Help to maintain our body’s health. • Require in only small quantities.

Goitre .Prolonged bleeding .Essential for the formation of blood plasma .Needed for the production of thyroxine hormones which ensure functioning of the thyroid gland.prawn. . egg SODIUM .MINERAL SALTS Type of minerals CALCIUM .Tiredness .Maintain body fluid Deficiencies . .Rickets .Built strong bones and teeth. fish IRON -Meat.Weak muscles .Assists Blood Clotting . .Rickets .Tooth decay .Maintain body fluid.Milk.Paralysis . liver PHOSPHORUS . .Build strong bones and teeth .Muscular cramps . fish POTASSIUM .Anaemia . .cheese IODINE .Needed for formation of haemoglobin .Common salt Function .Fatigue and muscular cramps.Preserves nervous system.Osteoporosis . .milk.Helps to maintain a healthy muscular system.

. • Deficiency of fibre in our diet causes constipation.FIBRES • Facilitate the movement of bowel. • The main source of fibre are vegetables and fruit.

. .maintain viscosity of the blood. .WATER • Made up of hydrogen and oxygen • Function: .dissolves and transports essential substances to various parts of the body.helps to regulate body temperature.

Questions Choose the number of questions below Good Luck! 1 6 2 7 3 8 4 9 5 10 .

meat .1. Which group of food contains a high content of carbohydrate? Kumpulan makanan yang manakah mengandungi kandungan karbohidrat yang tinggi. egg. fish. tomato D Banana. A Rice. milk B Potato. rice. rice. bread C Coconut.

Rice Fat . Which of the following pairs of food class and examples is correct? .2.Noodle .Fish Fibre .Potato Protein . yang manakah betul? A B C D Carbohydrate .Antara pasangan kelas makanan dan contoh bahan makanan berikut.

Meat . .Makanan-makanan di bawah ini merupakan sumber bagi satu kelas makanan.Daging . The food items in the list below are sources for a class of food.Ikan .Susu Antara yang berikut.Fish . yang manakah fungsi kelas makanan itu? A Protects the internal organs B Dissolves some vitamins C Repairs damaged tissue D Acts as the medium for chemical reactions in the body. .Milk Which of the following is the function of this class of food? .3. .

Spinach .Kangkung .Antara kelas-kelas makanan yang berikut yang manakah terdapat dengan banyak dalam makanan seperti di atas ini? . Which of the following classes of food can be found in large amounts in the food items listed below? .4.Buah limau .bayam .Kangkung A Water B Fibre C Protein D Mineral salts .Lime .

Vitamin X has the following characteristics.Promotes healthy skin . apakah vitamin X? A B C D Vitamin A Vitamin B Vitamin C Vitamin D . what is vitamin X? Vitamin X mempunyai ciri-ciri berikut: .Prevents scurvy .Found in lime Based on the given information.Memelihara kesihatan kulit .5.Terdapat dalam limau Berdasarkan maklumat yang diberi.Mencegah skurvi . .

6. Which class of food is used mainly to repair damaged tissue? Kelas makanan yang manakah berfungsi untuk memperbaiki kerosakkan tisu? A Water B Vitamins C Carbohydrates D Proteins .

Nutrien apakah yang paling banyak terkandung dalam makanan tersebut? A Protein B Fibre C Water D Fats . What nutrient are present large quantities in the food? .7. Figure 1 shows a food.Rajah 1 menunjukan sejenis makanan.

8. Rickets is caused by a lack of which nutrient? Kekurangan zat makanan yang manakah akan menyebabkan penyakit riket? A Calcium B Iodine C Iron D Potassium .

His meal is not balanced because it does not contain Abu memakan dua keping roti canai bersama kari ikan.9. Abu ate two pieces of roti canai with fish curry and two fried chicken nuggets. Selepas itu dia memakan dua ketul nugget ayam yang digoreng. Pemakanan Abu adalah tidak seimbang kerana ia tidak mengandungi A Fats B Fibre C Proteins D Carbohydrates .

Ahmad Suffering the Goitre disease.10. Which is mineral lacks in his diet? Ahmad menghidap penyakit goitre (beguk). Antara mineral berikut yang manakah kekurangan dalam gizi makanannya? A Sodium B Iodine C Iron D Calcium .

WATER CARBOHYDRATES VITAMIN NUTRITION PROTEINS FATS FIBRE MINERAL .

vitamin.BALANCED DIET • Contain the right amount of carbohydrates.Supplying material for growth 3. fats. fibre and water to meet daily requirment of the body. minerals.Supplying nutrient to maintain good health . proteins.Supplying the requirement amount of energy 2. • Why we need a balanced diet? 1.

bread. pasta. potatoes) .Healthy Eating Pyramid Carbohydrates: take most food from this group (rice.

Healthy Eating Pyramid Fruit and vegetables: take 5 portions a day from this group Carbohydrates: take most food from this group (rice. potatoes) . bread. pasta.

fish and dairy: take something from this group Fruit and vegetables: take 5 portions a day from this group Carbohydrates: take most food from this group (rice. potatoes) .Healthy Eating Pyramid Meat. bread. pasta.

fish and dairy: take something from this group Fruit and vegetables: take 5 portions a day from this group Carbohydrates: take most food from this group (rice. pasta. bread. potatoes) .Healthy Eating Pyramid Foods high in fats and sugars: take only small amounts from this group Meat.

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BALANCED DIET Class of food Carbohydrates Fats Proteins Water & Fiber Vitamin & Mineral Amount to be take 80% 10% 10% Sufficient amount Sufficient amount .

Calorific Value of Food • The energy contained in food is determined in calories and joules 1 calorie 1 kilocalories = 4.2 kilojoules (kJ) • One calories is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water by 1°C .2 joules (J) = 4.

2 kJ per gram .2 kJ per gram 17.5 kJ per gram 22.Average Calorific Value Class of food Fat Protein Carbohydrate Calorific value 38.

One balanced diet for adult Class of food Percentage Number of kilojoules 10000 Weight (gram) Carbohydrates 80% 580 Proteins 10% 1250 56 Fats 10% 1250 32 .

QUIZ 1 Calorific value (J/100 gram) The calorific value for fish. cabbage and vegetable oil are determined and presented in a bar graph shown in figure 1. Identify the graph for each food Fish A B C D Z Z X Y Cabbage X Y Z X Vegetable oil Y X Y Z .

09 kilocalories per gram Fish: 5.28 kilocalories per gram Vegetable oil: 9.QUIZ 2 • The label below shows calories value for the fish fried rice. 150 gram of fish and 20 gram of vegetable oil.16 kilocalories per gram • Ahmad want to make fish fried rice with 500 gram of rice. How much energy (kilojoules) in fish fried rice that Ahmad produced? . Rice: 4.

09 kcal x 500 gm = 2045 kcal) fish: (5.ANSWER Quiz 1 • Answer: A.28 kcal x 150 gm = 792 kcal) . because vegetable oil high in calorific value. follow by fish and lastly cabbage Quiz 2 • Answer: rice: (4.

2 = 3020.2 x 4.ANSWER vegetable oil: (9.2 kcal Convert to kJ = 3020.16 kcal x 20 gm = 183.84 kilojoules .2 kcal) Sum all food = rice + fish + vegetable oil 2045 + 792 + 183.84 kilojoules *Energy that produce by Ahmad is 12684.2 = 12684.

THE HUMAN DIGESTIVE SYSTEM a) Salivary gland h) Oesophagus b) Liver i) Stomach c) Gall bladder j) Bile duct d) Duodenum k) Pancreas e) Pancreatic duct l) Small intestine f) Large intestine m) Appendix g) Rectum n) Anus .

THE HUMAN DIGESTIVE SYSTEM .

THE HUMAN DIGESTIVE SYSTEM • Human digestive system is a complex series of organs and glands that processes food. our body has to break the food down into smaller molecules. . • In order to use food we eat.

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