Dementia - is a serious loss of cognitive ability in
a previously unimpaired person, beyond what might be expected from normal aging. It may be static, the result of a unique global brain injury, or progressive, resulting in long-term decline due to damage or disease in the body.


(AD), is the most common form of dementia. This incurable, degenerative, and terminal disease was first described by German psychiatrist and neuropathologist Alois Alzheimer in 1906 and was named after him. Generally, it is diagnosed in people over 65 years of age.

is a slowly progressive disease of the brain that is characterized by impairment of memory and eventually by disturbances in reasoning, planning, language, and perception. Many scientists believe that Alzheimer's disease results from an increase in the production or accumulation of a specific protein (beta-amyloid protein) in the brain that leads to nerve cell death.

First Stage: ‡ Memory loss ‡ Lack of spontaneity ‡ Subtle personality changes ‡ Disorientation to time and date Second Stage: ‡ Impaired Cognition and abstract thinking ‡ Restlessness and agitation ‡ Wandering (Sun-down Syndrome) ‡ Inability to carry out ADL ‡ Impaired Judgment ‡ Inappropriate social behhavior ‡ Lack of insight, abstract thinking ‡ Repetitive behavior ‡ Voracious appetite Third Stage ‡ Emanciation, Indifference to food ‡ Inability to communicate ‡ Urinary and fecal Incontinence ‡ Seizures

Ten warning signs of Alzheimer's disease ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Memory loss Difficulty performing familiar tasks Problems with language Disorientation to time and place Poor or decreased judgment Problems with abstract thinking Misplacing things Changes in mood or behavior Changes in personality Loss of initiative

5 A¶s
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Amnesia Apraxia Agnosia Aphasia Anomia

Diagnostic Tests:
‡ PET Scan(positron emission tomography) ‡ EEG (Electroencephalogram) ‡ CT Scan (computerized tomography) ‡ MRI (Magnetic resonance imaging) ‡ Autopsy (as the most reliable)

Main Causes ‡ Cause(s) of Alzheimer's disease is (are) not known ‡ ´Amyloid cascade hypothesis" (most common) ‡ Mutations associated with Alzheimer's disease

1. 2. cholinesterase inhibitors partial glutamate antagonists.

Non Pharmacological: Non-medication based treatments include maximizing patients' opportunities for social interaction and participating in activities such as walking, singing, dancing that they can still enjoy. Cognitive rehabilitation, (whereby a patient practices on a computer program for training memory), may or may not be of benefit. Further studies of this method are needed

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