H.Khorrami Ph.D. Ph.D.

y By lactotrop cells (20% in both sexes) y A single chain polypeptide hormone y 199 AA y 3 disulphide bridges y Half life:20-30min y Single gene on chromosome 6 y More than 300 effects y Mostly by modulation

y Biologically active y Immunoreactive  Some patients with hi prolactin has no galactorhea

y Little

22000mw y Big 50000mw lower activity y Big-big 100000mw lower activity y Glycosylated 25000mw

Prolactin actions
y Stimulate learning y Stimulate immune responses y Stimulate opioidergic system y Reduce body temperature y Inhibits libido y Stimulate corticosteroid secretions y Testosterone productions  Maintain LH receptors y Stimulate dopamine turnover in nucleus accumbens y Reduce dopamine turnover in sub. nigra

Prolactin stimulate transcription of mRNA of
y Casein y Lactalbumin y Beta-lactoglobulin y Galactosyl transferase y N-acetyl lactosamine synthetase

Prolactin inhibitors
y Dopamine from arcuate nucleus & VMN  On D2 receptor

Decrease cAMP 

Blocked by estrogen Blocked by phenothiazine or metoclopramide

y y y y y y y

GnRH-associated peptide Histamine(H2) Diphenhydramine((H1blocker) GABA SST Ach Bromocryptine

y Dopamine y GnRH-associated peptide

Prolactin stimulators
y TRH y Oxytocin y VIP y ACTH y Beta-LPH y Estrogen y GnRH y GHRH y Histamine(H1) y Cimethidine(H2antagonist) y Angiotensin II y Bombesin y Secretin y Gastrin y Galanin y Calcitonin y Melatonin y Platelet-activating F y Epidermal GF y


Prolactin increases with
y Puberty (female) y Pregnancy 

y Feeding y Exercise y Stress 

Near the term 10fold

y Puerperium y Nursing y In fetus higher than

Hypoglycemia Surgical stress

y Orgasm(10fold) y Nocturnal sleep

mother near the term y Neonate 2-3 week after birth

Plasma prolactin concentration during & after dopamine infusion in normal male/female subjects

Effect of L-dopa on PRL secretion

Serum PRL & cortisol in normal fasting volunteers before & after regular mixed meal or sham*

*Seeing and chewing

Acute elevation of PRL after sleep

Prolactin levels in pregnant women


Estrogen, Progesterone

2. Lactogenesis  Estrogen, Progesterone, prolactin, Placental lactogen, Growth hormone, Insulin, Cortisol, T3, T4 3. Galactopoiesis  Prolactin, oxytocin y Estrogen increase the number of lactotropes

Relaxin and prolactin on myometrial activity

Hyperprolactinemia effects
y Stimulate dopamine turnover in some brain areas  Nucleus accumbens y Decrease dopamine turnover in some brain areas  Substantia nigra y Stimulate learning y Stimulate immune response y Stimulate oxytocin y Stimulate opioidergic system y Decrease gonadotropins y Decrease testosterone in male(indirect) y Decrease libido in both sex (impotence) y Reduce bone mineral density (osteoporosis)

y Is more frequent in girls with:  Father absent  Alchoholic father y As a psychosomatic reaction y Pseudopregnancy

This is MARS But we have one EARTH yet!

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