Is the HIV / AIDS same
Also called

Slim Disease

‡ AIDS - Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ‡ Caused by Retrovirus known as Human Immunodeficiency virus ‡ Breaks down the immune system leaving the victim vulnerable to opportunistic infection ‡ HIV invades the helper T cells to replicate itself

AIDS ‡ Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome ‡ HIV is the virus that causes AIDS ‡ Disease limits the body¶s ability to fight infection ‡ A person with AIDS has a very weak immune system ‡ No Cure 100% DEATH WILL OCCUR .

‡ Effecting >10million of people in less than 20yrs age. ‡ AIDS has evolved from a mysterious illness to a global pandemic .PROBLEM STATEMENT ‡ Recognized as an emerging disease only in the early 1980s. ‡ In many regions of the world incidence of HIV are concentrated among young people (1524yrs) they accounted 40% in 2006 incidence .

New HIV Infections in 2006 by Age Group .

Outline Overview: HIV epidemiology in 2006 Emerging and ongoing epidemics: 3 Case studies IDU in Eurasia MSM trends The Southern African epidemic Summary and conclusions .

2005 1.000 in µ05 Heterosexual MSM IDU 12.1 million 1.A global view of HIV infection.3 million in µ05 Heterosexual Source: UNAIDS 2006 Report on the Global AIDS Pandemic .5 million 200.6 million 830.000 in µ05 IDU 7.

Age of Coital Debut. Acute Infection. ARV Status Individual Risks for HIV Infection Widening Risk Contexts for HIV Infection . Viral Load. Circumcision. Marriage. HSV-2/GUD.Ecological Model for HIV Risk Condom Usage.

readily inactivated by ether. ethanol. ‡ Relatively resistant to ionizing radiation and ultraviolet light. .Agent factors ‡ HIV-I most commonly effecting virus throught the globe ‡ HIV-II recently recognized virus ‡ The virus is easily killed by Heat. acetone.

.Reservoir of infection cases and carriers Someone who is infected by HIV may not show any signs (carriers) of the illness for a long time.

uterine.Source of infection of HIV ‡ Greater concentration: ‡ Blood ‡ Semen ‡ CSF ‡ Lower concentration: ‡ Vaginal. cervical Secretions ‡ Breast Milk ‡ HIV has been isolated from : ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Brain tissues Lymph node Bone marrow cells Skin .

Host factors ‡ Age : MC 24-49 yrs sexually activegroup ‡ Sex : male homosexuals bisexuals are more common in North America. Australia and Europe. ‡ Certain sexual practices increases the disease pattern ex: Multiple sex partners .

Routes of Transmission of HIV Sexual Contact: Male-to-male Male-to-female or vice versa Female-to-female Blood Exposure: Injecting drug use/needle sharing Occupational exposure Transfusion of blood products transplanted organs Perinatal: Transmission from mom to baby Breastfeeding .

000 Amniotic Fluid 4.HIV in Body Fluids Blood 18.000 Vaginal Fluid 7.000 Saliva 1 Average number of HIV particles in 1 ml of these body fluids .000 Semen 11.

10 years Incubation period ‡ During this time.Incubation period ‡ 75% of HIV infected persons were developing AIDS On average. the virus is seriously damaging the infected person¶s immune system. ‡ The virus can be silent in the body for many years .

Pathogenesis of HIV / AIDS Infected T-Cell HIV Virus T-Cell HIV Infected T-Cell New HIV Virus .

Window Period ‡ This is the period of time after becoming infected when an HIV test is negative ‡ 90 percent of cases test positive within three months of exposure ‡ 10 percent of cases test positive within three to six months of exposure .

---------------Intermediate or Latent Stage-------------Flu-like Symptoms Or No Symptoms ---Illness Stage--- Symptom-free AIDS Symptoms ---- Infection Occurs Virus Antibody ---< 6 month ~ Years ~ Years ~ Years ~ Years .HIV Infection and Antibody Response ---Initial Stage---.

Four Stages of HIV .

Stage 1 . flu-like illness .occurs one to six weeks after infection ‡ no symptoms at all ‡ Infected person can infect other people .Primary ‡ Short.

Asymptomatic ‡ Lasts for an average of ten years ‡ This stage is free from symptoms ‡ There may be swollen glands ‡ The level of HIV in the blood drops to very low levels ‡ HIV antibodies are detectable in the blood .Stage 2 .

Symptomatic ‡ The symptoms are mild ‡ The immune system deteriorates ‡ emergence of opportunistic infections and cancers .Stage 3 .

HIV @ AIDS ‡ The immune system weakens ‡ The illnesses become more severe leading to an AIDS diagnosis .Stage 4 .

Opportunistic Infections associated with AIDS ‡ Bacterial ± Tuberculosis (TB) ± Strep pneumonia ‡ Viral ± Kaposi Sarcoma ± Herpes ± Influenza (flu) .

Opportunistic Infections associated with AIDS ‡ Parasitic ± Pneumocystis carinii ‡ Fungal ± Candida ± Cryptococcus .



Modes of HIV/AIDS Transmission .

Through Bodily Fluids ‡ Blood products ‡ Semen ‡ Vaginal fluids ‡ Breast Milk .

Through IV Drug Use ‡ Sharing Needles ± Without sterilization ‡ Increases the chances of contracting HIV .

Through Sex ‡ Intercourse (penile penetration into the vagina) ‡ Oral ‡ Anal ‡ Digital Sex .

Mother-to-Baby ‡ Before Birth ‡ During Birth ‡ Postpartum ± After the birth .

Testing Options for HIV .

Importance of Early Testing and Diagnosis ‡ Allows for early treatment to maintain and stabilize the immune system response ‡ Decreases risk of HIV transmission from mother to newborn baby ‡ Allows for risk reduction education to reduce or eliminate high-risk behavior .

HIV Testing ‡ Those recently exposed should be retested at least six months after their last exposure ‡ Screening test (EIA/ELISA) vs. confirmatory test (IFA) EIA/ELISA (Reactive) Repeat EIA/ELISA (Reactive) IFA (Reactive) Positive for HIV .

Administration ‡ Blood ‡ Urine ‡ Oral .

Blood Detection Tests ‡ Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/Enzyme Immunoassay (ELISA/EIA) ‡ Radio Immunoprecipitation Assay/Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Assay (RIP/IFA) ‡ Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) ‡ Western Blot Confirmatory test .

Urine Testing ‡ Urine Western Blot ± As sensitive as testing blood ± Safe way to screen for HIV ± Can cause false positives in certain people at high risk for HIV .

± As accurate as blood testing ± Draws blood-derived fluids from the gum tissue. ± NOT A SALIVA TEST! .Oral Testing Orasure ± The only FDA approved HIV antibody.

HIV Testing EIA/ELISA Test Negative No HIV Exposure Low Risk Negative HIV Exposure High Risk Repeat ELISA Every 3 months for 1 year Repeat every 6 months for continued High risk behavior End Testing Negative Positive Repeat Positive Run IFA Confirmation Positive Indeterminate Repeat at 3 weeks Negative Repeat at 2-4 months Positive HIV + .

Counseling .

Pre-test Counseling ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Transmission Prevention Risk Factors Voluntary & Confidential Reportability of Positive Test Results .

Post-test Counseling ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Clarifies test results Need for additional testing Promotion of safe behavior Release of results .

Treatment Options .





Antiretroviral Drugs
‡ Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase inhibitors
± AZT (Zidovudine)

‡ Non-Nucleoside Transcriptase inhibitors
± Viramune (Nevirapine)

‡ Protease inhibitors
± Norvir (Ritonavir)

Opportunistic Infection Treatment
‡ Issued in an event where antiretroviral drugs are not available

Prevention and control of HIV
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Education Prevention of blood born HIV transmission Anti Retro Viral treatment Combination therapy Post exposure prophylaxis Specific prophylaxis Primary health care

Four ways to protect yourself? ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Abstinence Monogamous Relationship Protected Sex Sterile needles .

or vaginal. anal. ‡ Refraining from sexual contact: oral.Abstinence ‡ It is the only 100 % effective method of not acquiring HIV/AIDS. ‡ Refraining from intravenous drug use .

Monogamous relationship ‡ A mutually monogamous (only one sex partner) relationship with a person who is not infected with HIV ‡ HIV testing before intercourse is necessary to prove your partner is not infected .

Protected Sex ‡ Use condoms (female or male) every time you have sex (vaginal or anal) ‡ Always use latex or polyurethane condom (not a natural skin condom) ‡ Always use a latex barrier during oral sex .

When Using A Condom Remember To: ‡ Make sure the package is not expired ‡ Make sure to check the package for damages ‡ Do not open the package with your teeth for risk of tearing ‡ Never use the condom more than once ‡ Use water-based rather than oil-based condoms .

± thoroughly rinse with water ± Do this between each person¶s use . it must be disinfected: ± Fill the syringe with undiluted bleach and wait at least 30 seconds.Sterile Needles ‡ If a needle/syringe or cooker is shared.

Needle Exchange Program ‡ Non-profit Organization. which provides sterile needles in exchange for contaminated ones .

HIV Post Exposure Prophylaxis .

HIV Occupational Exposure ‡ Review facility policy and report the incident ‡ Medical follow-up is necessary to determine the exposure risk and course of treatment ‡ Baseline and follow-up HIV testing ‡ Four week course of medication initiated one to two hours after exposure ‡ AZT (200mg)-TID +lamivudine(3TC)(150mg)BID x 4days ‡ Nelfinavir (750 mg) TID .AZT/3TC ‡ Exposure precautions practiced .

HIV Non-Occupational Exposure PREVENTION --.FIRST ‡ ‡ No data exists on the efficacy of antiretroviral medication after non-occupational exposures The health care provider and patient may decide to use antiretroviral therapy after weighing the risks and benefits Antiretrovirals should not be used for those with low-risk transmissions or exposures occurring more than 72 hours after exposure ‡ .

In 2006.Why the world needs an AIDS vaccine Despite the international community's best efforts. the HIV pandemic continues unabated. Over four million people became newly infected with HIV and an estimated 2. more than 39 million people were living with HIV worldwide. .8 million lost their lives to AIDS.


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