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Conceptualization and operationalisation Conceptualization is the refinement of abstract ideas (variables, their behavior and relationships) while operationalization is the development of specific research procedures (operations) that will result in empirical observation representing behavior and their relationships in the realistic situations. It starts with a problem identification and preparation of a Research Design.
Research Problem: A Research Problem is an interrogative sentence or statement that asks: a) about the behavior of a variable/event b) about the relationship between two or more variables or events. A researcher identifies a research problem or a researchable topic with a certain procedure. HN 1
With the help of data we a) support or not support a hypothesis or b) Reject or accept a Hypothesis (with some significance levels) .Problem statement Leads to the formulation of Hypothesis.e. H0) A Priori Reasoning precedes the formulation of Hypothesis. Hypothesis is a conjectural statement on the behavior of a variable or relationship or interrelationship between variables. Hypothesis are in declarative sentence form (usually in the null form i.
However they try to answer the following questions in the process. .Problem Identification-Hypothesis and Research Design Research Activity starts with the research problem. The researcher need to prepare a Research Design to address the research problem. What is a Research Design? Authors have defined 'Research Design' in various ways.
The questions which are asked by the researcher to himself What is the study about ? Why is the study being made? Where will the study be carried out? What type of data are required? Where the data could be found out? What is the time period of the study? What will be the experiment/sample design? What techniques of data collection will be used? .
What is the rationale of using the technique? How will the data be analyzed? In what style the report be prepared? These questions helps in formulation of a research design.Contd«. .
Definition of a Research Design-With special reference to Social Research 'Research Design' has been defined in several ways by different authors. but for social science the following may be more relevant. (HN 2) The definitions are different in approach.. Structure and Strategy of investigation conceived so as to obtain answers to research questions and to control variance.by Kerlinger . Research Design is a Plan.
Plan. Structure and strategy in Research Design. For Example: The logic and necessity of a sampling procedure and types of statistical techniques to be used in analyzing the data. Plan: The plan refers to the overall scheme or program of research. . Structure refers to the out line of the operation of variables where as strategy refers to the logic inherent in gathering and analyzing the data.
. The Research Design has two basic purposes.The Purpose of a Research Design. research designs are carefully worked out to yield dependable and valid answers to the questions epitomized by the Hypotheses. a) To provide answers to the Research Questions/Problems Since research problems can be and are stated in the form of hypotheses.
E. Maximization of experimental variance will lead to Minimization of error variance.g. Minimize error variance. The above three variances are interrelated.b) Control of variance By constructing an efficient research design the researcher attempts to Maximize experimental variance Control variance due to extraneous variables. .
before going to formulate a research design a researcher has to clearly identify the type of study and the mode. subject matter and problem solving on the one hand and different descriptors with respect of the type of study and modus operandi on the other. Therefore.Types of Research and Research Design The foregoing discussion on research design may suggest that the research design may differ with respect to the type of research such as disciplinary. .
a) Research Question Crystallization. Often refers to first stage of problem identification.Classification of Research Designs with respect to different descriptors Research Designs can be classified using a few descriptors. Exploratory and formal studies Exploratory studies tend towards loose structure with the objectives of discovering future research task. Formal study begins where exploration leaves off. .
. In communicative study the researcher questions the subjects and collects their responses with the help of a tool.b) Method of Data collection Monitoring and communicative study. In monitoring study the researcher inspects activities of a subject with out attempting to elicit response from any one. It record the activities.
. In the Ex Post Facto design the researcher has no control over the variables in the sense of being able to manipulate them. The researcher can only report the existing facts.c)Researchers' Control of Variables In the experimental design the researcher can control/ manipulate the variables under study keeping the objectives in view.
then the study is descriptive.d)The Purpose of the study The purpose of the study may be descriptive or causal. when or how . If the research is concerned with finding out who. what. where. . But along with the above in addition to 'why' the study becomes causal where we try to explain why there is a relationship between variables.
Panel study is a mix of both. .series or Longitudinal and Panel type( mix of time series and cross section data) Cross sectional studies are carried out once for one point of time. With respect to the time dimension the study could be Cross-sectional(including bench mark). Time-series studies are done to check the changes/relationships overtime.e)Time Dimension. Time.
case studies focus on contextual analysis. They are less efficient in generalization of behaviour. As contrast to this. .F)Study on a Sample & a case This relates to finding /testing relationships in the sample and generalizing the behavior or sample characteristics with respect to the population with statistical tests.
g) Research Environment Research design differs with respect to the research environment such as field condition and laboratory condition. In the field condition the research is done in the holistic approach. In the laboratory condition explicability is possible with utmost control over all the variables. No control or little control on extraneous variables is there. .
This is more so in the survey type of research relating to marketing or any other aspects. Therefore. the research design has to be so framed as to minimize the error.h) Participants Perception Participants perception influences the outcome of research through his/her thought process on the study being made. .
However. policy implication and recommendation. It may differ with respect to the type of research. in social research a common procedure is adopted.objectives and modus operandi. . Theory/Literature -Research problem & Hypotheses-Test to validate the theory or recast the theory-conclusion.A concluding remark The research design is not unique.