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Chethan raj D 3rd sem Mtech,CAID

Thyristors

Introduction. Thyristor Characteristics. Two-Transistor Model of a Thyristor. Thyristor Turn-On. di/dt Protection. dv/dt Protection. Thyristor Turn-Off. Thyristor Types. Thyristor converters Thyristor applications

Introduction

y A thyristor is on of the most important types of power semiconductor devices. y It thyristor can operate as a bistable switch (conducting or nonconducting). y A thyristor may be assumed as an ideal switch for many applications but practical thyristors exhibit certain characteristics and limitations. y Due to its voltage and current handling capabailities, a thyristor is the most commonly used semiconductor switch in power electronic applications for many years.

4.2

Thyristor Characteristics

4.3 Tow-Transistor Model of a Thyristor.

4.4, 4.7

Thyristor Turn-On

A thyristor is turned ON by increasing the anode current in one of the following ways. Thermal. Light. High Voltage. dv/dt. Gate Current. A thyristor is turned OFF by reducing the forward current below the IH. Line Commutation. Forced Commutation.

4.5, 4.6

di/dt and dv/dt Protection.

4.8 Thyristor Types.

Phase Controlled Rectifiers (SCRs) Fast-switching thyristors (SCRs) Gate-turn-off thyristors (GTOs) Bidirectional triode thyristors (TRIACs) Reverse Conducting thyristors (RCTs) Static induction thyristors (SITHs) Light activated silicon controlled rectifiers (LASCRs) FET-controlled thyristors (FET-CTHs) MOS-controlled thyristors (MCTs)

**Silicon Power Device Capabilities
**

Voltage

Thyristors

5 kv GTOs 4 kv

3 kv IGBTs 2 kv

MCTs Current BJTs 1 k Hz 10 kHz MOSFETs 100 kHz 1 MHz 3000 A

1 kv

Frequency

500 A

1000 A

1500 A

2000 A

2500 A

Half-wave Uncontrolled Rectifier

Half-wave Controlled Rectifier

Full-wave Uncontrolled Rectifier

Full-wave Controlled Rectifier

Thyristor Converters

Average dc voltage Vd can be controlled from a positive maximum to a negative minimum on a continuous basis The converter dc current Id can not change direction Two-quadrant operation Rectification mode (power flow is from the ac to the dc side): +Vd & +Id Inverter mode (power flow is from the dc to the ac side): -Vd & +Id Inverter mode of operation on a sustained basis is only possible if a source of power, such as batteries, is present on the dc side.

Basic thyristor circuits: Line-frequency voltage source connected to a load resistance In the positive half cycle of vs, the current is zero until [t=E, at which a gate pulse of a short duration is applied With the thyristor conducting, vd = vs vd becomes zero at [t = T By adjusting the firing angle E, the average dc voltage Vd and current Id can be controlled

Single-Phase Thyristor Converters

One thyristor of the top group and one of the bottom group will conduct If a continuous gate pulse is applied then this circuit will act like a full bridge diode rectifier and the web forms are as shown below E=0 for 1 and 2 and E=T for thyristors 3 and 4

1-Phase Thyristor Converter Waveforms

Assumptions: Ls=0 and purely dc current Id Edelay angle or firing angle Prior to [t=0, current is flowing through 3 and 4, and vd = -vs Beyond [t=0, thyristors 1 and 2 become forward biased, but cannot conduct until E. vd becomes negative between 0 and E as a consequence of the delay angle At [t=E, gate pulse applied and current commutation from thyristors 3 and 4 to 1 and 2 is instantaneous (Ls = 0), and vd = vs Thyristors 1 and 2 will keep conducting until 3 and 4 are fired

**Average dc Output Voltage
**

V dE Vd 0 0.9V s cos E 0.9V s

!

! cos E

The variation of Vd as a function of E Average dc voltage is positive until E=90o: this region is called the rectifier mode of operation Average dc voltage becomes negative beyond E=90o: this region is called the inverter mode of operation

3-Phase Thyristor Converters

Current Id flows through the one thyristor of the top group and one of the bottom group If a continuous gate pulse is applied then this circuit will act like a threephase full bridge diode rectifier and, as a result,

d0

! 35

LL

3-Phase Thyristor Converter Waveforms

**Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems DC DRIVES
**

AC-DC

2Vm T

+

50Hz 1-phase

Vo

2Vm cos E T

90o 180o

Vo

Average voltage over 10ms

2Vm T

3VL L ,m

50Hz 3-phase

T

+

T

3VL L ,m T

90o

1 0o

Average voltage over 3.33 ms

Vo

Vo !

3VL L , m

cos E

**Three Phase Dual Converters
**

y For four quadrant operation in many industrial variable

speed dc drives , 3 phase dual converters are used. y Used for applications up to 2 mega watt output power level. y Dual converter consists of two 3 phase full converters which are connected in parallel & in opposite directions across a common load.

Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao, E&C Dept., MSRIT

**Four Quadrant Operation
**

Conv. 2 Inverting E2 > 900

Conv. 1 Rectifying E1 < 900

Conv. 2 Rectifying E2 < 900

Conv. 1 Inverting E1 > 900

Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao, E&C Dept., MSRIT

There are two different modes of operation. Circulating current free (non circulating) mode of operation Circulating current mode of operation

**Non Circulating Current Mode Of Operation
**

y In this mode of operation only one converter is

switched on at a time y When the converter 1 is switched on, For E1 < 900 the converter 1 operates in the Rectification mode Vdc is positive, Idc is positive and hence the average load power Pdc is positive. y Power flows from ac source to the load

y When the converter 1 is on,

For E1 > 900 the converter 1 operates in the Inversion mode Vdc is negative, Idc is positive and the average load power Pdc is negative. y Power flows from load circuit to ac source.

Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao, E&C Dept., MSRIT

y When the converter 2 is switched on,

For E2 < 900 the converter 2 operates in the Rectification mode Vdc is negative, Idc is negative and the average load power Pdc is positive. y The output load voltage & load current reverse when converter 2 is on. y Power flows from ac source to the load

Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao, E&C Dept., MSRIT

y When the converter 2 is switched on,

For E2 < 900 the converter 2 operates in the Rectification mode Vdc is negative, Idc is negative and the average load power Pdc is positive. y The output load voltage & load current reverse when converter 2 is on. y Power flows from ac source to the load

Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao, E&C Dept., MSRIT

y When the converter 2 is switched on,

For E2 > 900 the converter 2 operates in the Inversion mode Vdc is positive, Idc is negative and the average load power Pdc is negative. y Power flows from load to the ac source. y Energy is supplied from the load circuit to the ac supply.

Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao, E&C Dept., MSRIT

**Circulating Current Mode Of Operation
**

y Both the converters are switched on at the same time. y One converter operates in the rectification mode while

the other operates in the inversion mode. y Trigger angles E1 & E2 are adjusted such that (E1 + E2) = 1800

Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao, E&C Dept., MSRIT

y When E1 < 900, converter 1 operates as a controlled

rectifier. E2 is made greater than 900 and converter 2 operates as an Inverter. y Vdc is positive & Idc is positive and Pdc is positive.

y When E2 < 900, converter 2 operates as a controlled

rectifier. E1 is made greater than 900 and converter 1 operates as an Inverter. y Vdc is negative & Idc is negative and Pdc is positive.

Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao, E&C Dept., MSRIT

Output voltage of a full-wave rectifier with controlled thyristors

y Rectifiers are also used to supply polarised

voltage for welding.

- In such circuits control of the output current is required and this is sometimes achieved by replacing some of the diode in bridge rectifier with thyristors, whose voltage ouput can be regulated by means of phase fired controllers.

Applications

y Speed control of DC motor in DC drives. y UPS. y HVDC transmission. y Battery Chargers.

Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao, E&C Dept., MSRIT

BATTERY CHARGERS

Microelettrica Power Devices is a leader in the design and development of high reliability substation chargers.

The chargers are configured with main transformer, fully controlled secondary thyristor rectifier, output load resistor and DC filter choke.

**Thyristor control is via the
**

industry standard P4500 analogue card, which allows for the firing of of thyristors in inverse parallel or DC bridge configuration with voltage and current feedback.

WONDERSTONE

Reverse-polarity water-cooled thyristor controlled rectifier The control system on this rectifier was developed by Microelettrica Power Devices and is the first of its kind in South Africa.

MEGAWATT POWER

High Power Heavy Industrial Equipment

16kA/159V water-cooled thyristor controlled rectifier for copper winning

Installed at Palaborwa Mining Company

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