Classroom 2.

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Using collaborative technologies for teaching Gerald C (Jerry) Kane Department of Information Systems Carroll School of Management

The move to Web 2.0 (O’Reilly)
Web 1.0 Content Management Publishing Websites Email MP3 Directories Ofoto Chatrooms Britannica Online Web 2.0 Collaboration (Wiki) Participation Blogs Facebook Podcast Folksonomies Flickr/ YouTube Second Life Wikipedia

Characteristics of Web 2.0
(McAfee 2006)

Search – find what you’re looking for Links – identify what’s important Authoring – user created content Tags – user created organization Extensions – automated organization Signals – high level view

Wisdom of Crowds…
What were some of your favorite examples of group wisdom identified in this chapter? Why can groups can make better decisions than even “expert” individuals?
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Top 1% of knowledge held by 100 people consistently (not always) better than knowledge of top person. More available information…
Observation = information + noise

Why not use group decision-making more?
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Coordination Costs.

Coordination vs. Transaction Costs
Early economists (Coase 1937), suggested that this was the reasons companies existed.
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Transaction Costs: Costs associated with making an economic transaction in a market. Coordination Costs: costs associated with getting a team of people to work together.

If transaction costs high, create a firm. If low, create a market. IT changes the transaction cost structure.

Crowdsourcing
When transaction costs become very low, firms can turn to crowdsourcing: using markets to conduct what used to be done in house. Examples? Five characteristics of crowdsourcing: The crowd is dispersed The crowd has a short attention span The crowd is full of specialists The crowd produces mostly crap The crowd finds mostly the best stuff

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Review Readings
Innovation in the Age of Mass Collaboration Peer Innovation and Production Ideagora, a Marketplace for Minds Hack This Product, Please! The New Science of Sharing

“The Wisdom of Crowds”
(Surowecki 2004)

Under certain conditions, groups can consistently make better decisions than the best individuals.
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Diversity of opinion - Different people with different knowledge Independence - People aren’t “lobbying” for particular decisions. Decentralization - No single leader who controls communication Aggregation - Appropriate mechanism to assemble opinions

“Groupthink.”
The opposite of the wisdom of crowds, can occur when…
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Directive leadership. Homogeneity of members' social background and ideology. Insulation of the group from outside sources of information and analysis.

Symptoms:
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Excessive optimism that encourages risk taking. Discounting warnings that might challenge assumptions. An unquestioned belief in the group’s morality. Pressure to conform with group.

Examples:
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Bay of Pigs, Challenger Disaster, Iraq(?)

What about Wikis?
A website anyone can edit
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not complex technology (in fact, opposite). Public: Anyone can view/ edit Registered: Anyone can view, edit if you register Private: Anyone can view, you must be invited to register/edit Closed: You must be logged in to view, etc.

Different privacy settings = different purposes
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Best solution is to combine all (the intimacy gradient) Most famous wiki?

“BC Professors agree, Wikipedia not so reliable” (BC Heights 2006)
Wikipedia Editors Cost Entries Updates Founded Errors? Volunteers Free 2M (Eng.) Immediate 2001 ~ 4/ entry Britannica Paid Experts About $2K 120K/ 70K Years 1768 ~3/ entry

Jeff Garlin on Monday’s Daily Show (3:25)

When Wikis work…
(InformationWeek, 2005)

Wikis work best…
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Small Groups (less than 150) Common language (formal and informal) Non-controversial subjects Semi-formal setting (must relinquish control) Dynamic environment Environment of trust and respect

Does this describe our classroom?

When is a wiki not a wiki?
When it’s a mashup: a website or application that combines content from more than one source into an integrated experience. Several methods for combining:
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RSS – Real Simple Syndication Include – Embed elements from another website Del.icio.us - Folksonomies

Optimizing Interactions (Walsh 2007)
Tools can be a double-edged sword. Not about more student-professor interaction but improving valueaddedinteraction. Create opportunities for (and enforce) tiered interactions

Level 3: Student-Prof Level 2: Student - TA

Level 1: Peer-to-Peer

Web 2.0 in MI021…
Content Creation
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Find (and summarize) articles in press that I would never find. Individual/ group projects designed to create content for future classes.

Peer review
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Use one another to evaluate papers before submission (and evaluate submissions). Develop exam questions/ study resource.

Facilitate classroom interactions
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IT-enabled social networks (e.g. Facebook) can augment, create, and sustain relationships.

What I have learned…
The tool changes the conversation: professors and students become partners in course creation. It is not a magic bullet: incentives are a must.
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Carrot: bonus points improve quality Stick: course requirements improve quantity Both professors and students award incentives Web 2.0 tools are changing the nature, source, and value of knowledge. Need to adopt to stay relevant Need to adapt to lead knowledge creation

Opportunity and Threat:
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