# Seismic Interpretation

Components of Petroleum System

There are five components of Petroleum System. These all components are required in an given area for oil & gas      Source Rock Reservoir rock Cap Trap Migration Path

Seismic technique and Hydrocarbon traps
The most common and important use of seismic method is to reveal information about the reservoir. The following information can be obtained using the seismic exploration technique  The dip of the reservoir rock;  The presence of trapping faults  Three-dimensional picture of the reservoir body.
Anticlinal Structure Trap

seismic tecjnique is now contributing to the search for stratigraphic traps. To a smaller extent.Seismic technique and Hydrocarbon traps The great successes of seismic method in the past have been in the search for structural traps. Stratigraphic Trap . and with much less certainty.

Mostly seismic reflections are used in oil & gas exploration. Usually we find this contrast at the boundaries of different lithologies. . The basic physical property that governs the reflections is acoustic impedance.Basic Concepts Acoustic Impedance Seismic exploration technique uses sound waves to investigate subsurface geological information. Acoustic impedance= Interval velocity*density Reflections are created at the surfaces/boundaries where we have acoustic impedance contrast.

we would not be able to detect the change in lithology by using using seismic reflection.Basic concept Acoustic Impedance: If there is no acoustic impedance contrast at the boundaries of different lithologies.3 g/cm3 and velocity 2300 m/s and lower layer density=2. Exercise Can we detect the boundary of two lithologies using seismic technique having upper layer with density=2.5 g/cm3 and velocity 2116 m/s .

Basic concepts Reflection strength As the acoustic impedance contrast increases more prominent is the reflection on seismic section. Reflection strength is defined by reflection coefficient (RC) RC=V2D2-V1D1/V2D2+V1D1 V2 = Velocity of layer 2 V1 =Velocity of layer 1 D1&D2 =density of layer 1 &2 Frequency of wave Number of time wave is repeated per second is called frequency .

.3 (Gadallah & Fisher) A P-wave that is propagating in a medium having velocity 2000 m/s is incident on a medium having velocity of 2500 m/s at an angle of 15 degrees from normal to interface. EX 3. Determine the angles at which all resulting waves propogate.7 a Problems in Exploration Seismology and their solutions EX 3 ChapterNo.

At greater depth we are left with only larger wavelength waves. Because seismic signal losses strength with depth  Higher frequencies are observed at greater rate as compared to lower frequencies. Therefore it is sometimes difficult to resolve geological information at greater depth. Hence this makes poorer resolution with depth .  Weaker seismic signal with depth.Basic concepts The effect of depth  Acoustic impedance of different rocks increases with depth. The direct result of this phenomena is less acoustic impedance contrast between different lithologies.

. If the wavelength is less than ¼ of the unit we cannot resolve the unit. This is called limit of separability.Basic concepts Vertical Resolution This determines how thick geological unit can be resolved on seismic section.

This zone is called Fresenel zone. The radius of Feresenal zone is expressed as Radius of zone= Average Velocity/2*(SQRT (Two Way travel Time/dominant frequency) . Before applying migration reflection signals are from a zone rather than single point.Basic concepts Horizontal Resolution In reality for seismic study we are dealing with seismic waves not seismic rays.

.Basic Concepts Phase & Polarity There are number of type of seismic pulses. Minimum phase and zero phase. Minimum phase signal has energy concentrated at its front. for simplification and for interpretation purposes we can divide in two groups. while in zero phase energy is distributed symmetrically.

One of the important steps in interpretation seismic data is to establish relationship between seismic reflectors and stratigraphy. In this process we have to analyze the well data.Well to Seismic Tie Tying well and seismic data is very important step to begin the seismic interpretation. The relationship can be established by using Synthetic Seismogram. The process of generation of Synthetic Seismogram is called forward modeling .

2. and a vertical seismic ray reflected from them. The next step is to convert the acoustic impedance log (which is in depth domain) in Two way travel time using sonic. We multiply the sonic & density logs(well data) to get acoustic impedance log. 3. which is inverse of velocity. .Well to Seismic Tie Forward modeling Forward modeling is the operation that takes a geological model and constructs the seismic response. This velocity can be utilized to convert well data to time domain. The first step in this synthesis is based on the synthetic seismogram We consider a stack of horizontal geological layers. 1.

. we have to use some direct measurements of Time & Depth to calibrate the Time-Depth relationship obtained from sonic log. . which tend to accumulate over entire log In order to overcome these two problems related with sonic log.Well to Seismic Tie Forward modeling (continued. ii) Miscalibration of sonic tool. usually sonic is run in deeper reservoir part.) There are two issues with sonic log i) absence of sonic log in shallower part.

Well to Seismic Tie Forward Modeling Diagram showing steps of Synthetic generation .

There are many possible approaches for the selection of the wavelet.The choice of the wavelet can make considerable difference to appearance of synthetic traces. .Well to Seismic Tie Forward Modeling A reflectivity curve is calculated using the following formula RC=V2D2-V1D1/V2D2+V1D1 Velocity and densities can be obtained from log curves density & sonic Then wavelet is convolved with Reflectivity series.

The goodness of fit can be matched by cross correlation.Well to Seismic Tie The most important two ways of selecting the wavelets are  To make synthetics using theoretical wavelet of zero or minimum phase  To extract the most optimum wavelet from the seismic data. .

 we think of the synthetic as being 1-D.Well to Seismic Tie Forward modeling This synthetic is one dimensional and it is good approximation with the acquired seismic data. but there must be a major mismatch of amplitude introduced by geometrical divergence. we know that reflections actually occur over a reflection zone whose size increases with depth. However we need to remember some points in this regard.  we are working at normal incidence. . representing the reflections occurring at points along a vertical raypath.

Interpretation of seismic section After establishing the relationship of seismic reflections and well data. In the following section some examples are discussed to understand the interpretation of geological information using seismic section. it is required to mark the extents of different geological formations on available seismic data. . The purpose of interpretation is to reveal the geological information.

indicating the positions of seismic shots.Interpretation of seismic section Normal seismic section has time as vertical axis and horizontal axis is labeled with shot points. Figure: Example of seismic section .

Geological Message in both of these section is same i. .Interpretation of seismic section Sedimentary Layers Seismic section indicates the continuity or discontinuity of the subsurface deposited sediments. stability of geological layers and depositional surface was horizontal and not disturbed by post depositional tectonics.e.

This situation shows a different type of sediment deposition at the top.Interpretation of seismic section Sedimentary Layers In this (Fig.) we have a good continuity at the top and at the bottom But in the middle we see a poor zone of continuity. bottom and then at the middle. .

Interpretation of seismic section Sedimentary Layers The Fig shows that there is a slight deformation forming anticline .

Interpretation of seismic section Sedimentary Layers In this example figure ( ) shows that the sediments between the two strongly picked reflections were being deposited during the uplift by the tectonic forces. .

for example. in this figure the thinning is associated with the limited supply of sediments.Interpretation of seismic section Sedimentary Layers There can be other reasons for the thinning of the reflection intervals. The sediments source is clearly to the right. .

. As the erosion starts at the top left corner of the section. There was an ancient rock mass. sediments were transported to the downdip direction until they came to rest.Interpretation of seismic section Unconformities This figure is a good example of an unconfirmity.

The age of the faulting may be specified in terms of the age of upper layers. by noting at what level the fault is no longer apparent. These can be identify on seismic sections.Interpretation of seismic section Faults Faults are discontinuity in geological features. .

. The two faults appears to be of the same age.Interpretation of seismic section Faults The two faults in the figure has in fact developed a graben structure.

Where as a material is said to be plastic if it remains deformed under the stresses only. .Interpretation of seismic section Faults Sometimes the faults tells us about the brittleness of the rock. A material is said to brittle if it is subjected to fracture when put under the Stress. and return to original state once the stresses are removed.

. while reverse faults are due to compression.Interpretation of seismic section Faults Fault type identification on seismic section reveals the tectonic history of the area. Normal faults are because of extension tectonics.

Seismic contouring Contour maps are representation of threedimensional surface in two dimension. .

we correct the misties as far as we are able.  Digitizing and posting of the values on location map  Before posting the picked values.Seismic contouring Procedures of Contouring  Mark the reflectors and faults on seismic section. Now a days there are different computer aided algorithms are available.  After posting the values on the map join equal values. .

Seismic contouring Digitizing and posting This is the process of write the values at selected locations and label these. .

Seismic contouring Contouring by computer There are possible two methods for computer contouring  Gridding  Triangulation .

.Seismic contouring Gridding The Contouring program that uses gridding approach. performs the operation to replace line data into regular spaced grid data before contouring.

the grid interval should be small .  This should be appropriate to the available data and geological structure  Grid interval should be at-least half of the size of the structure to be contoured  If the data is too sparse.Seismic contouring Gridding One of the important parameters of gridding is grid interval The distance between two grid points is called grid interval. The following points should be kept in mind.  If the data is dense. This can be different in X and Y direction. Grid interval should be of greater size.

Coarser Grid interval Fine Grid interval . Contours are smooth in case of larger grid interval as compared to small grid interval.Seismic contouring Gridding There is significant effect of grid interval on contouring of the data.

Seismic contouring Triangulation This method is similar to the manual contouring. . This involves just joining of equal values.

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Misties Mismatch of seismic data at one tie point is called mistie .

Location Map Line-A Line-A Mistie Line-B Line-B Tie-Point Showing the Mistie .

Types of Mistie  Unsystematic: Causes of Unsystematic misties Static Correction error. noise. processing sequence difference from line to line within one survey (e.g stacking velocity difference )  Systematic: Datum correction difference on different surveys. Display polarity difference on different lines .

Solution of Mistie The first approach merely accepts the sections as they are. and attempts to find a simple time correction for each vintage/Survey The second approach involves reprocessing the older data according to the new survey¶s parameters .

This time structure map is required to be converted in depth domain before suggesting the well position. .Time to depth conversion We interpret on time sections and it is followed by preparation of time structure map. This time domain information can be converted into depth domain by using velocity information.

t= one-way traveltime. and T = twoway traveltime .Time to depth conversion Average Velocity The average seismic velocity is the distance traveled by a seismic wave from the source location to some point on or within the earth divided by the recorded travel time.

is defined as the thickness of a particular layer divided by the time it takes to travel from the top of the layer to its base.Time to depth conversion Interval Velocity Interval velocity. divided by the time it takes to travel from the top of the layer to its base. Vi. The interval velocity is the thickness of a stratigraphic layer. The equation for interval velocity is: .

while average velocity is continuous function.Time to depth conversion As indicated by the name of interval velocity of different layers is discrete function. The graphical display of the two types of velocities is shown in Figure .

Time to depth conversion Root Mean Square Velocity (RMS) The root-mean-square (RMS) velocity is a weighted average. The weighting is accomplished by squaring the interval velocity values. . We use a weighting process where the amount of weighting is determined by the value of the interval velocities.

Time to depth conversion Well velocities There are different types of velocity surveys conducted in wells.  Sonic log  Check shot survey  VSP survey . We can get velocity information by using.

a geophone or geophone array is lowered into the borehole source is located at the top at some offset of the well. Checkshot Survey In this method. it is reciprocal of velocity. .Time to depth conversion Sonic log Sonic log is delay time.

but the reflected events as well. is checkshot survey that not only records the first break.Time to depth conversion Vertical seismic profile VSP. A VSP survey produces a narrow seismic section that is indicative of the subsurface in the vicinity of the borehole .

Time to depth conversion Difference between VSP and checkshot survey  VSPs have the ability to "look" beyond the total depth of the well. . VSP survey records reflections from interfaces below the borehole. while in VSP we record full signal. we record data at smaller intervals than we do in a checkshot survey.  Checkshot records are short in duration while VSP records are longer and record a full waveform.  In a VSP survey.  Checkshot only records first break.

Time depth conversion Methods
Constant Function Method The constant function or constant velocity function method is a simple, two-dimensional time-depth relationship. This relationship may be based on data from any one or more of the following: an integrated sonic log, a checkshot survey, a VSP, and seismic processing velocities, This uses one single function for the conversion. This method is only used in simple geological condition having less variation in geology, we cannot apply this technique in complicated geology having more tectonic disturbances and fault movement.

Time depth conversion methods
 Average or interval Velocity Method The average or interval velocity method uses more than one function to convert time to depth. In this method, we generate maps in order to define the average/interval velocity distribution for selected horizons. We then use these average/interval velocity maps to convert seismic times to depth at any chosen location. We can use three different types velocities for this purpose  Well velocity  Apparent velocity  Seismic velocity

Time to depth conversion
Selection of Average or interval velocities Selection of average or interval velocity depends upon the nature of the earth model under consideration. We should consider that either the velocity increases steadily with increase of depth or it has discrete velocities verses depth. Sonic log available from an area can describe about the nature of the subsurface velocity. If the pattern of the sonic log is discrete then it is recommended to use interval velocity for time depth conversion

.Quantitative analysis of Seismic data Till now we have seen the application of seismic exploration technique for detection of the traps either structure or stratigraphic. There are some new approaches to quantify the hydrocarbons and some geological information such as porosity and water saturation from seismic data.

oil and water sometimes has significant effect on the seismic amplitude.Quantitative analysis of Seismic data In seismic section there is some reflections which are directly linked with presence of hydrocarbons. The amplitude anomalies on seismic section can be categorized in three types  Bright spots  Dim spots  Flat spot . However these should be interpreted with care. The fluid properties of gas.

. As the acoustic impedance of gas is less than the oil and gas. we have chance to get high negative amplitudes in gas filled sands. The presence of gas in sand reservoir often produces detectable changes on seismic section.Quantitative analysis of Seismic data Bright spots The amplitude of the seismic trace is different for different fluids. Bright spots always has negative reflection coefficient.

Following figure clearly explains the bright and flat spot on seismic section . gas/water or oil/water. As name indicates it appears flat on seismic section.Quantitative analysis of Seismic data Flat spot Flat spot represent the contact of two fluids. which may be gas/oil.

Quantitative analysis of Seismic data Dim spots Sometime amplitudes are reduced and approaches to zero because of presence of hydrocarbons. Dim spots appear seismic trace without or low amplitude deflections .

Seismic inversion is simply defined as the transformation of seismic data into pseudoacoustic impedance logs at every trace.Quantitative analysis of Seismic data Seismic acoustic impedance Inversion There are different new techniques which help us to quantify the useful information of seismic trace. . One of the most common used technique is seismic inversion.

 As layer property. well log. lithology. pore fluids. It contains all the information in seismic data without the complication factors caused by wavelets and adds essential information from logs.  AI is closely related to porosity.Quantitative analysis of Seismic data Why Seismic Inversion Following are main advantages of seismic inversion  A good quality impedance model contains more information than seismic data. both of which can be directly measured by well logging.  AI is rock property. and velocity. AI volume is result of the integration of data from seismic. it is product of density and velocity. AI can make sequence stratigraphic analysis easy. It is common to establish empirical relationships between AI and these rock properties. .

 Why high frequencies are important: for high resolution.  Low frequencies are also important if quantitative interpretation is required. .Quantitative analysis of Seismic data Frequencies and interpretation  Seismic data is band limited having only a range of frequencies. high frequencies and low frequencies are missing.

Quantitative analysis of Seismic data Figure Frequency spectrum .

Many of these are very low frequency (0~2 Hz).Quantitative analysis of Seismic data Inversion methods incorporate external information to reconstruct the missing information outside the seismic bandwidth Low frequency information can be derived from log data. processing that preserves low frequency is advantageous. High-frequency information can be derived from well control or geostatistical analysis. . or time migration velocities. prestack depth.

Quantitative analysis of Seismic data Seismic Section Acoustic impedance Section .

Figure shows relationship between gamma ray log and acoustic impedance . relationship can be established between AI and known rock properties.Quantitative analysis of Seismic data Using log data.