Up-flow Sludge Blanket FlocculatorŒ

Jim Wan Flocculating since 2005®

Coagulation & Flocculation  

Coagulation- Charge neutralization and ³sweep floc´ Flocculation- Hydraulic shear forces lead to collisions between unstable particles

Sludge Blanket    Acts as a filter to remove turbidity from the influent Proportional to the hydraulic residence time of the influent An increased height of the sludge blanket will increase hydraulic time thus allow more floc to get trapped in bigger floc .

Why?    Cheap Remove high levels of turbidity Construction materials readily available .

Main Goal  Developing alternative treatment technologies for high turbidity drinking water in regions of the world where conventional flocculation. filtration processes are not yet sustainable . sedimentation.

Research Objectives   Test the ability for a self-forming conical system to produce flocculent at a varying up-flow velocity Find the optimum height of sludge blanket .

Methods    Varying Flow Rates Varying Sludge Blanket Height See Diagram Tap Water Qtap Clay Qc T P Alum Qa P P Sludge Blanket .

Calculations Qoutput Coutput ! § Qinput Cinput output ! total ! tap  clay  Coutput ! Ct arg et Alum Calculation alum . tap ml ! 200 min Clay Calculation QtapCt arg et ! Qalu Calu Qtap Ct arg et ! Qclay Cclay alu g L .

250 .

40 ! Q .

20 ml min mg L .

ml 250 min .

75 min Cclay L . ml 200 mg ! 1.

5 .5 ml min where Qclay Qalu ! 3. g Cclay ! 28.57 L   Qalu ! 0.

Experimental Setup .

5 0.75 1.2 0.05 Alum 0.1 2.75 1.2 0.4 0.4 1.75 1.8 3.75 1.7 1.5 0.5 4.3 Sludge Blanket Height (cm) 34 40 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 25 45 45 .45 2.7 0.Summary of Experiment Date Flow Rate (ml/min) Tap Water 14-Nov 16-Nov 18-Nov 20-Nov 22-Nov 23-Nov 24-Nov 28-Nov 29-Nov 30-Nov 30-Nov 1-Dec 2-Dec 3-Dec 250 250 250 250 250 300 350 400 500 600 100 250 200 150 Clay 1.5 0.8 1 1.75 2.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.75 1.2 0.

Results Effects of Sludge Blanket Height on Final Turbidity 40 35 Turbidity (NTU) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 Time (s) 25 cm 34 cm 40 cm 45 cm .

Results Effects of Sludge Blanket Height on Final Turbidity 35 30 Final Turbidity (NTU) 25 20 15 10 5 0 20 30 40 50 Height of sludge blanket (cm) .

27 28.80 67.07 96.90 38.Results 30 Effects of Up-flow Velocity on Final Turbidity Flow Rate 150 200 250 300 350 400 500 600 l/ l/ l/ l/ l/ l/ l/ l/ in in in in in in in in Up-flow Velocity m/d 19.60 ml/min 100 150 200 250 300 Turbidity ( TU) 20 10 0 10000 20000 Time (s) 30000 350 400 500 600 .53 48.17 57.34 115.44 77.

Results 30 i al ur idity N U) 25 20 15 10 5 0 Effects of Up-flow Velocity on Final Turbidity 0 20 40 Up-fl 60 el city 80 / ) 100 120 .

45 .26 28.16 11.90 38.63 22.43 77.33 115.42 16.06 96.45 11.73 5.53 48.80 67.Hydraulic Residence Time Flow rate ml/min 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 500 600 Up-flow Velocity m/d 19.41 6.61 Sludge height cm 25 34 40 45 HRT min 7.16 57.47 10.21 9.96 13.61 8.82 13.6 HRT min 33.

Results 35 i al tur idity N U) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 4 9 14 19 i ) 24 Hydraulic reside ce ti e sludge lanket exp flow ate exp .

Conclusion     Sludge blanket acts as unstable filter Flow rates 300-400 ml/min (Up-flow velocity of 57-77 m/d) are optimum Sludge blanket height is important Creating flocs without mechanical/hydraulic mixing .

Alkalinity (coagulant chemistry) Phosphorus + alum 3 Al 3  H n PO4  n AlPO4 . different characteristics ‡  pH.Future work  Different location.

s  nH  Density formation of flocs  ‡  Solid retention time Different influent turbidity .

New York. Study of Coagulation and Settling Processes for Implementation in Nepal. Gregory. 19 (4).zeta-meter. 229. and H. http://www..). Virginia.C. New York. (2005). (2002). and M. C. Inc. McGraw Hill. (2003).. Everything You Need to Know About Coagulation and Flocculation. Kim. Wastewater Engineering: Treatment and Reuse. Breakage and Re-formation of alum flocs. Jar Test for Laboratory Research in Environmental Engineering. 4th ed. F. (2000). Stensel. Zeta-Meter.A. and S. Burton. [6] Lee. Environmental Engineering Science. and J. (2000). Wilson. . In press. http://web.pd f [4] Rog K. Dar Lin (eds. McGraw Hill. [2] Zeta-Meter. Handbook of Environmental Engineering Calculations.References       [1] Tchobanoglous.. (1993)..pdf [3] Luu. G. [5] Yukselen. 4th ed. M. Inc.mit. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.com/coag.edu/watsan/Docs/Student%20Theses/Nepal/Luu2000.

Acknowledgement   Monroe Weber-Shirk Everyone .