EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Objectives
‡ Define and understand communication and the communication process ‡ List and overcome the filters/barriers in a communication process ‡ Practice active listening ‡ Tips to improve verbal and non verbal communication

What is Communication?
COMMUNICATION IS THE ART OF TRANSMITTING INFORMATION, IDEAS AND ATTITUDES FROM ONE PERSON TO ANOTHER.COMMUNICATION IS THE PROCESS OF MEANINGFUL INTERACTION AMONG HUMAN BEINGS.

ITS ESSENCES :
PERSONAL PROCESS OCCURS BETWEEN PEOPLE INVOLVES CHANGE IN BEHAVIOUR MEANS TO INFLUENCE OTHERS EXPRESSION OF THOUGHTS AND EMOTIONS THROUGH WORDS & ACTIONS. TOOLS FOR CONTROLLING AND MOTIVATING PEOPLE. IT IS A SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL PROCESS.

. .is what we do to Give and Get Understanding . . .COMMUNICATION . .

IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION What Communication does for organization is what the bloodstream does for an organism Managerial Efficiency depends on communication .

IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION Quick Decision & Implementation Maximum Productivity Morale Building Harmony Image Building .

OBJECTIVES OF COMMUNICATION To disseminate information To advice To suggest To persuade To educate To motivate To warn To raise morale To achieve Sound IR .

NATURE OF COMMUNICATION Communication is unavoidable is irreversible is a process Communication Communication .

Communication is a process of meaningful interaction among human beings. . Communication is a process by which people attempt to share meaning via the transmission of symbolic message. Communication is defined as the process of transferring information & understanding from one person to another.COMMUNICATION The word communication has been derived from Latin word µCOMMUNIS¶ which means common.

WHAT IS COMMUNICATION Communication is an exchange of information from the sender to the receiver with the message being understood as intended by the sender Encode Speaks Writes Acts Draws Idea Sender Symbols Decode Words Actions Pictures Numbers The receiver Idea Listens Reads Observes .

Supporting words with action 7. WHAT. Two-way communication 4. Good listening 8. WHOM & HOW Intended Message Decoding Encoding Intended Message . Appropriate media/ method 5. In nut shell. Empathy in Communication 3.PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION 1. Clarity in Ideas 2. Appropriate language 6.

What are the most common ways we communicate? Written Word .

The Communication Process Medium Barrier SENDER (encodes) Barrier RECEIVER (decodes) Feedback/Response .

Barriers to Effective Communication .

Types of barriers Semantic Unfamiliarity with words Inconsistent body language psychological Differing perceptions Inner feelings Past experience Value judgment Dissonance Organizational Filtering Dependency Fear Status symbol .BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION Any factor that impedes the exchange of information between a sender & a receiver is a barrier to communication.

Barriers related to receiver 3. Barriers related to situation . Barriers related to sender 2.BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION Another way of classification: 1.

Communication goal 2. Fear 6. Credibility . Communication skills 3. Inconsistent Non-verbal signals 5.SENDER RELATED BARRIERS 1. Lack of interpersonal sensitivity 4.

RECEIVER RELATED BARRIERS 1. Selective listening 2. Evaluating the source 3. Metacommunication . Perceptions 4. Lack of feedback 5.

Distance 6. Noise 7. Mechanical failure . Information overload 3.SITUATION RELATED BARRIERS 1. Jargon 2. Time pressure 4. Climate 5.

LISTENING BARRIERS Self Barriers y y y self focus emotional noise criticism .

LISTENING BARRIERS Information Processing Barriers y y y processing rate information overload receiver apprehension .

LISTENING BARRIERS Context Barriers y y barriers of time and place noise .

Feedback & Art of Listening .

I think the most friendly people live in Alabama. I was in Kansas once and it was very hot.´ A: ³I lived in Colorado for 3 years once and it was a nice place to live. But I like living in Texas really well where people are very friendly.´ Person B: ³Oh. I like cool places like Colorado. But. And I liked it there.Automatic Talking (Not Listening) Exercise Person A: ³I¶m going to Kansas and visit my 97 year old mother next week.´ .´ B: ³I found Texas is a friendly place.

It is really different.´ B: ³Alaska is a place I¶ve always wanted to go. . The place I would like to go back to is Australia. I have been in Switzerland and thought it's similar to Alaska.´ A: ³Europe is a great place to visit. I tried to get stationed in Alaska after flight school. but ended up in Colorado.´ B: ³I liked Paris the best and would like to go back there. but haven¶t made it there yet.´ A: I found Paris expensive.AUTOMATIC TALKING (NOT LISTENING) EXERCISE A: ³Alabama is where I went to flight school. I liked Germany the best.

I have some things I want to talk to her about before this happens´ B: ³This sounds important to you. She is really old and has many things wrong with her and she could die anytime.AUTOMATIC TALKING ( LISTENING) EXAMPLE Person A: ³I¶m going to Kansas and visit my 97 year old mother next week.´ Person B: ³It sounds like you may have some concerns about your mother?´ A: ³Yes I do.´ .

´ .AUTOMATIC TALKING ( LISTENING) EXAMPLE A: ³Yes it is for a number of reasons. I don¶t go see her often because its an 8 hour drive.´ A: ³ I will really miss her after she is gone. I think her early life when I was born was really hard because it was right after the great depression and they had little money. That makes me sad. I really feel sorry for her living in the assisted living home. We really need to talk with one another and I need to help her as much as I can. She has lived a long and fruitful live. I know she is very lonely because my dad died 14 years ago. She has told me many stories about how they often had less than 5 cent to spend.

WHAT YOU DO WITH YOUR COMMUNICATION TIME Write 9% Listen 45% Read 16% Write Read Speak Listen Speak 30% .

.

LISTENING : A LOST ART Why do we not listen? actions speak louder than words Seeing is easier than listening Visual medium is powerful We hear but don·t listen look but don·t see .

the more you have to listen it is a rare skill .THE ART OF LISTENING Listening : an important human skill indispensable for superiors gets you respect. love and fame shows that you care for and respect others not listening could be psychologically upsetting for the other person you can·t fake listening the higher you go.

THE ART OF LISTENING Listening needs an ability to concentrate a genuine desire to understand the other persons point of view sensitivity to needs. you might have a point and I respect youµ a belief that other people are important and worth listening to .´I am not right alone. emotions and body language humility .

LISTENING AND RESPONDING The Principle of Listening and Responding How We Listen Listening Goals Listening Barriers Listening Skills Responding Skills Responding with Empathy .

HOW WE LISTEN Listening vs. Hearing Selecting Attending Understanding Remembering Responding .

LISTENING GOALS Enjoy Learn Empathize .

LISTENING BARRIERS Self Barriers y y y self focus emotional noise criticism .

LISTENING BARRIERS Information Processing Barriers y y y processing rate information overload receiver apprehension .

LISTENING BARRIERS Context Barriers y y barriers of time and place noise .

BARRIERS IN LISTENING
Emotional Disturbance Abstracting Dislike of the speaker Marginal listening Preconceived notions Halo effect Allness & the closed mind Different perception Snap reactions Physical Barriers

THE ART OF LISTENING
Poor Listeners The fidget : ´Why are you telling me ?µ The aggressive listener : tries too hard and as a result scares people. The pseudo - intellectual : hears only ideas and not the emotions behind them The passive listener : :I agree with whatever you sayµ The inaccurate listener :µI can·t concentrateµ

LISTENING SKILLS
Stop: Turn Off Competing Messages Look: Observe Nonverbal Cues Listen: Understand Details and Ideas y identify your listening goal y mentally summarize the details y link message details with major idea y practice y transform barriers into goals

HOW TO BE A GOOD LISTENER Know your power as a listener Ask questions Reflect feelings Let your body give reassuring messages Know your prejudices Avoid making snap judgements Avoid anger .

WHAT IT TAKES TO BE A GOOD LISTENER Ability to concentrate genuine desire to understand the other persons point of view Sensitivity to needs. . emotions and body language Humility: ´You might have a point of view and I respect youµ A belief that other people are important and worth listening to.

THE TEN COMMANDMENTS OF LISTENING Stop talking Put the talker at ease Show that you are interested Remove distractions Empathize with the talker Be patient Hold your temper Go easy on arguments & comments Ask questions Sop talking! .

in terms of communication : changing message . transmitted and understood. Feedback helps make mid-course correction if found required.IMPORTANCE OF FEEDBACK Feedback is necessary to check the effectiveness of the communication.in terms of action : changing strategy . . Feedback helps reflect upon how well the message has been encoded.

How to take Feedback Ask for it you are the sender or offer it if you are the receiver Observe Evaluate the results achieved as against the objectives Be objective while giving or receiving it set - Focus on the task and performance aspects not the individual¶s personality .

RESPONDING SKILLS Be Descriptive Be Timely Be Useful .

RESPONDING WITH EMPATHY Passive vs. Active Listeners Understand Your Partner·s Feelings Ask Appropriate Questions Paraphrase the Content Paraphrase Emotions .

THE OVERALL PROCESS Technique Clarifying Restating/ paraphrasing Responding Neutrally Purpose Get additional facts ³I am listening´. Check your interpretation Encourages the sender to continue talking Example ³Do you mean this«´ ³As I understand it. our plan is«´ ³I see´ ³That¶s very interesting´ .

Example ³You feel that«´ ³I believe these are the key issues you have expressed«´ . Springboard for further discussion.THE OVERALL PROCESS (CONT·D) Technique Offering reflective comments Summarization Purpose Help the sender evaluate his or her ideas Focus on main points.

Be specific -. Focus on behavior rather than the person. 4.´ etc. 2.This isn¶t being collusive in the person's dilemma.´ ³that.Be clear about what you want to say. 5. .Effective feedback: McGill and Beatty provide useful suggestions about giving 1. 3. Refer to behavior that can be changed. Emphasize the positive -.Avoid general comments and clarify pronouns such as ³it. Clarity -.

Use µI¶ statements.´ ³never.. often.often these words are arbitrary limits on behavior.Notice ³all. 7.People rarely struggle with an issue because of the lack of some specific piece of information. .´ ³always. the best help is helping the person to come to a better understanding of their issue. 8. Be descriptive rather than evaluative.Effective feedback: 6. Generalizations -. and ask to get more specificity -. Be very careful with advice -. Own the feedback -. 9.´ etc.

GIVING CONSTRUCTIVE FEEDBACK Constructive is the key word! y y y Acknowledge need for feedback Give positive & negative information Learn how to give feedback Be descriptive Avoid using labels Don·t exaggerate Speak for yourself Use ´Iµ statements .

Feedback Delayed Is Feedback Denied .

Creating within one self the need and willingness to understand 2. We need to eradicate the neps from the fabric of our communication by practicing certain things. Making the message appropriate to the receivers frame of reference ( speak the language of the listener) . 1.GATEWAYS A TO COMMUNICATION barrier removed is a gateway created.

.«. Ability to describe others behavior without evaluating or interpreting. Ask for feedback from the receiver 5. GATEWAYS TO COMMUNICATION 3. 4. Reinforce communication by using more than one channel to convey the message (Verbal. written. nonverbal) .

How to overcome the barriers For the sender Be clear about the message to be sent Be precise and to the point Do not be verbose Use a language understandable to the receiver Write the message if required Request a feedback to ensure receipt of message For the receiver Be attentive Concentrate on the message Ask for clarifications wherever required Listen objectively Listen for body language Make notes if required .

Barriers to communication ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Noise Inappropriate medium Assumptions/Misconceptions Emotions Language differences Poor listening skills Distractions .

You must choose to participate in the process of listening. active. a skill Listening is hard. learned process. .Hearing Vs Listening Hearing ± Physical process. passive Listening ± Physical as well as mental process. natural.

The result of poor listening skill could be disastrous in business. Good listening skill can improve social relations and conversation. Good listening reflects courtesy and good manners. employment and social relations. . Listening carefully to the instructions of superiors improve competence and performance.VALUE OF LISTENING Listening to others is an elegant art. Listening is a positive activity rather than a passive or negative activity. Good listening can eliminate a number of imaginary grievances of employees.

What are the most common ways we communicate? Written Word .

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