Classification of living organisms

Main characteristics used in classification
‡ Gross structure ± external appearance ‡ Cellular organization ± prokaryotic or eukaryotic ‡ Chemical constituents ‡ Type of nutrition ± ingestion, absorptive, photosynthetic ‡ Arrangements of cells, unicellular/ multicellular and differentiation into true tissues

Whittaker (1969)± based on two main criteria
‡ The level of organization
± Prokaryotes ± Unicellular eukaryotes ± Multicellular eukaryotes

‡ Their modes of nutrition
± Photosynthetic ± Heterotrophic ± ingestion or absorption

Six kingdoms
‡ Archaebacteria ± prokaryotes, unicellular ‡ Eubacteria ± true bacteria ‡ Protoctista (Protista)± unicellular/ multicellular with a variety of modes of nutrition ‡ Fungi- multicellular and heterotrophic, with absorption ‡ Plantae - multicellular, photosynthetic ‡ Animalia ± multicellular and heterotrophic, with ingestion SPS 4



body fluids of other organisms ‡ Contribute global N2 cycle ‡ Diverse in their metabolism ± Autotrophs ± Absorptive heterotrophs ‡ Sexual and asexual reproduction SPS 6 . fresh water.Kingdom Protista ‡ Most protists are aquatic. marine.

multicellular Has organized nucleus Cell wall made up of cellulose Flagella or cilia have characteristic 9+2 arrangement of eukaryotes SPS 7 .‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Very diverse group Unicellular.

Kingdom Protista ‡ Protozoa Protists with absorptive nutrition ‡ Photosynthetic Protists .Algae SPS 8 .

Kingdom Protista Photosynthetic organisms -Algae .

5 billion years ago First appearance of prokaryotes ‡ 1.8 billion years ago ± appearance of eukaryotes ‡ Unicellular member ± acritarchs extinct group of eukaryotes SPS 10 .Protists ‡ 70% of earth surface covered by water ‡ Earth is known as Water Planet ‡ Life began at least 3.

Acritarchs (fossil record in China) SPS 11 .

on trees. rocks ‡ Lichens ± symbiotic association with fungi SPS 12 . walls.Protists ‡ Predominantly aquatic.wet soil. free floating or attached to the substrate in shallow water (benthom) ‡ Some are terrestrial. found in fresh water and marine (sea weeds) ‡ Free swimming.

fungi and animals are derived from ancient protists (evolutional importance) ‡ Some cause diseases ‡ Some with great ecological significance SPS 13 .Protists ‡ Most biologists believe that plants.

vegetative and reproductive ‡ Some produce special reproductive organs SPS 14 . multicellular ‡ Colonies ‡ Filamentous ± multicellular. simple or branched. aggregation of filaments ‡ In multicellular forms cells perform both functions.Organization of thallus ‡ Motile or non-motile unicellular.

although lipids and proteins may be present ‡ Cellulose walls predominate except in Chrysophyceae and Bacillariophyceae where there are silica depositions.Cell wall ‡ Main organic constituent of the cell walls is carbohydrates. SPS 15 .

Photosynthetic pigments Three types of photosynthetic pigments ‡ Chlorophylls ‡ Carotenoids ‡ Biloproteins Chlorophylls are present in all algae Carotenes and xanthophylls are characteristics of some divisions carotenoids are lipid soluble Biloproteins are water soluble proportions of pigments vary and gives characteristic colour SPS 16 .

Most are aquatic. root. ‡ Chlorophyll bearing organisms ± photosynthetic All photosynthetic algae produce chlorophyll a ‡ No differentiation into true tissues Body a thallus ± lack differentiation into stem.Distinctive characteristics of algae ‡ The algae constitute of microscopic one celled organisms to highly organized macroscopic organisms. Lack vascular tissues and epidermis SPS 17 .

‡ Reproductive organs are not protected with sterile cells Do not possess covered structures to produce gametes No embryo formation after gamete union ‡ Both gametophyte (haploid) and sporophyte (diploid) generations are independent SPS 18 .

Algae ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Division ± Bacillariophyta Division ± Phyrrophyta Division ± Chrysophyta Division .Photosynthetic Protists .Phaeophyta Division ± Rhodophyta Division .Chlorophyta SPS 19 .

carotenoids and xanthophylls ‡ Have unique glass like walls consisting hydrated silica ‡ Diatoms reproduce asexually by mitotic cell divisions ‡ Cysts are formed as resistant stages ‡ Freshwater and marine SPS 20 .Division ± Bacillariophyta ‡ Diatoms. c. yellow or brown in colour ‡ Predominant photosynthetic pigment ± Chlorophyll a.

Division ± Phyrrophyta Dinoflagellates ‡ Unicellular. Gonyaulux. c. brownish red ‡ Predominant photosynthetic pigments are chlorophyll a. carotenoids and xanthophylls ‡ Two flagella ‡ Freshwater and marine ‡ Eg. Ceratium. Noctiluca SPS 21 .

carotenoids and xanthophylls ‡ Freshwater algae ‡ Colonial ‡ Form resistant cysts SPS 22 . c.Division ± Chrysophyta Golden algae ‡ Predominant photosynthetic pigments are chlorophyll a.

Macrocystis. carotenoids and xanthophylls ‡ Eg. common along temperate coasts SPS 23 .Division ± Phaeophyta Brown algae ‡ Multicellular. Fucus ‡ Include largest seaweeds. most are marine ‡ Locomotion ± two flagella on reproductive cells ‡ Predominant photosynthetic pigments are chlorophyll a. c.

gametes rely on water currents to get together ‡ Marine and some are freshwater and soil species ‡ Most abundant in warm coastal areas ‡ Eg.Division ± Rhodophyta Red algae ‡ Multicellular or unicellular ‡ Locomotion ± none. Chondrus (coralline algae) SPS 24 . no flagellated stage in the life cycle.

‡ Photosynthetic pigments are chlorophyll a. ‡ Phycoerythrine which belongs to phycobilins are found only in red algae and cyanobacteria SPS 25 . phycobilins. chlorophyll d in some. carotenoids.

Ulva. Acetabularia ‡ Both sexual and asexual reproductive stages are present SPS 26 . colonial. Chlorella.Most have flagella at some stage ‡ Chloroplasts are much like those of plants in ultrastructure and pigment composition ‡ Eg.Division ± Chlorophyta Green algae ‡ Unicellular. multicellular ‡ Locomotion .

Three evolutionary lines ‡ Formation of colonies of individual cells ‡ Repeated division of nuclei with no cytoplasmic divisions ± multinucleate filaments ‡ Formation of true multicellular forms SPS 27 .

Classification of algae ‡ Based on both morphological and physiological characters ‡ Pigment constitution of the cell ‡ Chemical nature of stored food materials ‡ Type. size and number of flagella ‡ Chemical composition of cell wall ‡ Vegetative structures and reproduction SPS 28 .

Photosynthetic organisms (autotrophs)Algae ‡ Ecologically function like plants ‡ Primary producers using light energy to manufacture their foods ‡ Who study these organisms? Phycologists ‡ Green algae are important as ancestor of plants ‡ Plants are derived from ancestor classified as green alga SPS 29 .

SPS 30 .

Ecology of the Algae ‡ Algae play an ecological role comparable to that of the plants in land habitats ‡ Also dominant in freshwater habitats ± ponds. streams and lakes ‡ Along rocky shores large more complex seaweeds can be found ‡ Most important contributors to the productivity of these ecosystems SPS 31 .

Phytoplankton Autotrophic phytoplanktons ‡ Photosynthetic algae and cyanobacteria ‡ Beginners in the food chains for the heterotrophic organisms in ocean and freshwater SPS 32 .

‡ Account for greatest biomass and species diversity in polar waters SPS 33 .Bacillariophyta ‡ Diatoms are unicellular or colonial organisms ‡ Components of the phytoplankton ‡ Estimated as 25 % of total primary production is by marine planktonic diatoms ‡ Very smalls forms.Division .

‡ 250 genera.000 species ‡ First appearance 250 million years ago ‡ Tremendous numbers of individual diatoms in small areas 30 -50 million individuals in 1 square centimeter SPS 34 . 100.

SPS 35 .

SPS 36 .Coscinodiscus.

They form colonies. long chains. SPS 37 .Many species of diatom stay connected after the cells divide. Sometimes only the tips are connected and they form a zig zag pattern.

unique structure of their two part cell walls .frustules ‡ Lack flagella except on some male gametes ‡ Frustules made of polymerized opaline silica consist of two overlapping halves ‡ Composed of large number of minute intricately shaped depressions. pores or passage ways SPS 38 .Walls of Diatoms ‡ Consist of two halves.

SPS 39 .

SPS 40 .

Two major types. ‡ more abundant than pennate in large lakes and marine habitats SPS 41 .Basis of symmetry Pennate diatoms (pen-shaped) Bilateral symmetrical Centric diatoms (cylindrical) Radially symmetrical ‡ Centric diatoms have a large surface to volume ratio than pennate ones and consequently float more easily.

‡ Clearly visible is the fine net-like structure of the siliceous cell wall. SPS 42 . ‡ In marine waters the variety of body shapes is much greater. the photosynthetic organisms that float with the current.‡ In fresh water most diatoms are pennate type. ‡ The yellow-brown chloroplasts used for photosynthesis are also easy to see. In the ocean they form the main part of phytoplankton.

Reproduction ‡ Mainly asexual. Occurring by cell division ‡ When cell divides each daughter cell receives one half of the frustule of its parental cell and constructs a new half ‡ After a long series of cell divisions the size of the diatoms in the resulting populations often declined ‡ When size decreases to a critical level sexual reproduction occurs ‡ Changes in the physical environment can also trigger sexual reproduction SPS 43 .

‡ In some species frustules are expandable and are enlarged by the growing protoplasm ‡ In some frustules are rigid ‡ When the individuals of species have decreased in size to about 30% of the diameter sexual reproduction may occur SPS 44 .

‡ Certain cells function as male gametangia and produce sperms ‡ Other cells function as female gametangia ‡ One or two eggs are functioning as others are non functional ‡ After fertilization resulting auxospore or zygote expands to the full size of characteristic of the species SPS 45 .

‡ Walls formed by auxospore are often different from those of asexually reproducing cells of the same species ‡ Once the auxospore is mature it divides and produces new frustule halves with intricate markings of typical asexually reproducing cells. SPS 46 .

Life cycle SPS 47 .

SPS 48 .

SPS 49 .

SPS 50 .

SPS 51 .

SPS 52 .

SPS 53 .

Sexual reproduction ‡ Gametic like that of animals and certain brown and green seaweeds ‡ In centric diatoms ± oogamous male gametes have single flagellum (only flagellated cell found in diatoms) ‡ In pennate diatoms.isogamous (both male and female gametes are nonflagellate SPS 54 .

SPS 55 . all cells can become gametes while in the more specialized only some can.motile gametes almost equal-sized oogamy .small motile male gamete and large nonmotile female gamete In the simplest algae.Types of sexual reproduction based on gamete form Isogamy .equal-sized motile gametes anisogamy .

germinate when nutrient conditions improve SPS 56 . low levels of mineral nutrients can cause marine coastal or benthic diatoms to form resting stages ‡ Resting cells have heavy frustules and sink readily to the bottom.Sexual reproduction ‡ Resulting empty frustules sediment and marine diatoms can result in the formation of layers of silica ocean sediments ‡ Unfavourable conditions.

Brownish plastids ‡ Chlorophyll a and c . Stored in vacuoles SPS 57 . fucoxanthin (golden brown carotenoid ‡ In pennate diatoms two large plastids ‡ In centric diatoms numerous discoid plastids ‡ Storage materials include lipids and water soluble polysaccharides chrysolaminarin (similar to the laminarin found in brown algae).

absorbing dissolved organic carbon ‡ These heterotrophic species are primarily pennate diatoms that live on the bottom of the sea in shallow habitats ‡ Some (who lack frustules) live symbiotically in large marine protozoa ‡ Certain diatoms are associated with production of neurotoxin domoic acid ± poisoning condition in human SPS 58 .‡ Most are autotrophic and some are heterotrophic.

S F (2005). Biology of Plants. J B (2005). Purves. Eichhorn. Sadava. Ray F.Principal sources for this course 1. Orians. Evert. H C. Peter H. 3. 4. Morphology and Evolution of Vascular Plants. Campbell. S Foster (1989). . D (1998) Life: The Science of Biology. Biology. G H. M G. N A. SPS 59 2. Worth Publishers. Adriance. Ernest. W K. Heller. Reece. W H Freeman. Raven. Benjamin Cummings. W H Freeman.

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