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WHAT IS HUMAN RELATIONS?
IT IS THE STUDY OF HOW ORGANIZATIONS MANAGE AND INTERACT WITH EMPLOYEES TO IMPROVE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE FIRM AND THE EMPLOYEES.
.School of management theory stressing the importance of understanding human motivation in the workplace. Encouragement and Rewarding of individual contributions. The human relations school believes that employee motivation is a result of Recognition.
It is everyone's desire to win the hearts and minds of other people.Human relations is part and parcel of our daily lives. whether we like it or not. . In fact. we must establish good and sound relationships that transcends to all walks of life.
. the better person you are considered. It is likewise mandatory for an individual to be a role player in his own playing field because his status in society is defined by his actions. The more people you deal with.Human relations itself is a display of the individual's character.
One must be able to identify lapses and must be ready to accept. . consider and learn from it.Good human relation does not consider oneself above others but rather places the interest of the majority at the forefront.
At the outset. human relation it is a selfless action towards other people and to the community. . Human relations mirrors our character and our whole being as a person. It is part of our attitude as an individual no matter who we are and what we have or what we are capable of doing.
You don't have to be somebody else just to establish friendship with others.One way of showing and letting other people feel that they are important and well-respected is through good human relations. you will win the hearts of the people. Act the way you are and follow what righteous people do. . In the end. You just have to be yourself without any pretension.
so to speak. We need their support and cooperation just like they need our protection for their safety against oppressors of the state like threat groups who are desperate to destroy our freedom. . It is a two way process wherein both parties need each other. human relations is a Must because we are dealing with people from all walks of life.As a public servant.
psychological and social satisfaction. The process of fitting together should achieve higher levels of productivity for the organization.Owners and managers of profit and nonprofit organizations define human relations as fitting people into work situations so as to motivate them to work together harmoniously. . while also bringing employees economic.
. It is the study of why our beliefs.Human relations covers all types of interactions among people²their conflicts. cooperative efforts. attitudes and behaviors sometimes cause interpersonal conflict in our personal lives and in workrelated situations. and group relationships.
Technical ability only is usually not enough to achieve career success. For many employers. Studies indicate that many people who have difficulty in obtaining or holding a job possess the needed technical competence but lack interpersonal competence.One of the most significant developments in recent years has been the increased importance of interpersonal skills in almost every type of work setting. . interpersonal skills represent an important category of transferable skills a worker is expected to bring to the job.
The Human Relations Approach .
Where classical management focused on the rationalization of work routines. This human relations approach can be seen as being almost entirely antithetical to the principles of classical management theory. human relations approaches stressed the accommodation of work routines and individual emotional and relational needs as a means of increasing productivity. the human relations approach can be seen as a response to classical management -. To a great extent. .What Conrad & Poole (1998) refer to as a "relational strategy of organizing" is more commonly called the "human relations approach" or "human relations school" of management by organizational theorists.an attempt to move away from the inflexibility of classical management approaches.
the notion of class struggle propounded by Marxist theorists was taken very seriously.The human relations approach can also be seen as a response to a highly charged and polarized social climate in which labor and management were viewed as fundamentally opposed to one another. By focusing on the extent to which workers and managers shared economic interests in the success of the organization. . and communism was seen as a very real and immediate danger to the social order -. the human relations approach can be seen as an attempt to move beyond the class struggle idea. Of course. the human relations approach (which really emerged in the late 1930s) was made possible by the fairly coercive suppression of the most radical organized labor movements.
and so seeks to improve productivity by modifying the work environment to increase morale and develop a more skilled and capable worker. the human relations approach sees the organization as a cooperative enterprise wherein worker morale is a primary contributor to productivity.The sidebar describes one such movement. In essence. . and is provided in order to indicate the social climate extant in the period immediately preceding the emergence of the human relations approach.
The Human Relations Approach: Basic Principles .
e.(1) Decentralization The strict notion of hierarchy employed by classical management theorists is replaced with the idea that individual workers and functional areas (i. This communication occurs via informal communication channels rather than the formal. . hierarchical ones. This requires greater emphasis on lateral communication so that coordination of efforts and resources can occur. departments) should be given greater autonomy and decision-making power..
and the subsequent reduction in "height" and increase in span of control of the organizational structure -. .requires that they have the knowledge and ability to make their own decisions and the communication skill to coordinate their efforts with others without a nearby supervisor.(2) Participatory Decision-Making Decision-making is participatory in the sense that those making decisions on a day-to-day basis include line workers not normally considered to be "management." The greater autonomy afforded individual employees -.
(3) Concern for Developing Self-Motivated Employees The emphasis on a system of decentralized and autonomous decision-making by members of the organization requires that those members be highly "self-motivated" (that is. So one goal of managers in such an organization is to design and implement organizational structures that reward such self-motivation and autonomy. able to set their own task-related goals and monitor their own performance in achieving them). Another is to negotiate working relationships with subordinates that foster effective communication in both directions. .
the human relations approach suggests changes in the structure of the organization itself.just like any other theory of organizations. and communication -. in the nature of work.Thus. Each of these changes relies upon assumptions about the individual. the organization. and in the relationship between supervisor and subordinate. .
Instead. Likert's (1961) "System Four" model of functional groups connected by "linking pins" with dual membership is an example of such a strategy. which attempts to "build in" informal communication.Organizational Structure Human relations approaches assume that hierarchy is not the most efficient or effective way to structure an organization. a relational strategy emphasizes the necessity of informal communication to make sure that the interdependent functions of an organization are successfully coordinated. .
That is. grow. as in scientific management. Workers are expected. in other words. .The Nature of Work The emphasis on individual autonomy and participatory decision-making ("PDM") is accompanied in human relations approaches by efforts to enlarge and enrich the jobs that are performed by workers. human relations approaches argue that individuals require jobs that are sufficiently challenging and complex so as to engage the worker. to take on more responsibilities and to be able to handle ambiguously defined or complex tasks. instead of simplifying and systematizing work routines. provide novelty and opportunities to succeed. and learn.
transactional leadership involves the negotiation of communication and work routines on a case-by-case basis between a leader and each of his or her subordinates. Specifically. If the subordinate needs guidance or training.Supervisor-Subordinate Relations Transactional Leadership. If he or she needs a sounding board or someone to vent to. the leader provides it. the leader serves that purpose. . involving some type of negotiation or exchange between the leader and the follower. Calling leadership a "transactional" process implies that it is a two-way street.
Contingency theories of leadership investigate the factors that affect how successful a particular leadership style is. A "contingency theory" is one that suggests that a particular outcome is the product of the interaction of multiple factors.Contingency Theories of Leadership. .
. leadership outcomes depend upon: (1) quality of the relationship between the leader and his or her subordinates (2) how structured the task the leader's group has to perform is (3) the formal power or authority invested in or delegated to the leader.According to one leadership theory. The combination of different values for these factors influences what "leadership orientation" will be most effective in achieving the group's task goals.
Fiedler's (1967) Contingency Theory of Leadership Effectiveness LeaderMember Relation Quality Task Structure Leader Power Effective Leader Orientation Structured Good Unstructured Strong Weak Strong Weak Task-Oriented Task-Oriented Task-Oriented RelationshipOriented RelationshipOriented RelationshipOriented RelationshipOriented Task-Oriented Structured Strong Weak Poor Unstructured Strong Weak .
Tasks are structured when goals are clear. (b) how many different courses of action can result in task completion (path-multiplicity). This depends upon a number of contributing factors. Leader-member relation quality is either "good" or "poor." "Task Structure" refers to how well-defined the task facing the leader and his or her subordinates is. respect. and specific decisions are required. "Leader-Member Relation Quality" refers to the amount of mutual trust. . Tasks are unstructured when such is not the case. and so forth that exists between the leader and his or her subordinates. (c) to what extent the outcome of a particular course of action can be determined (effect verifiability). few alternative courses of action exist. and (d) how specific a decision as to a course of action the group must make (specificity). including (a) the clarity of its goals. effects of choices are easily verified.
and coordinating. task orientation is called for. a relational orientation is required. . "Leader Power" refers to amount of authority invested in the leader's position. where the leader focuses on providing subordinates with the autonomy to make their own decisions and encourages informal communication geared toward both building group cohesiveness and coordinating their activities. controlling. In some situations. In other situations. commanding. different "leadership orientations" are more effective. Under different sets of conditions. where the leader emphasizes "traditional" leadership functions of organizing. Fiedler argues.
It would be rude not to call people by name. 5. Be Friendly and Helpful. Call People by Name. This can be very self-explanatory but oftentimes simple gestures of kindness. 4. Science as documented that you use 72 facial muscles when you frown but only 14 whenever you smile so don¶t strain your facial muscles on unhealthy activities instead smile while your writing a post and do it consistently. 2. . Speak to People. Be Cordial. 3.Ten Commandments of Human Relations 1. Smile at People. SPEAK UP. It simply means to be polite and sincere while being yourself.
Be mindful of what you¶ll say and consider the feelings of others. Appreciate someone¶s writing. 9. Remember your comments are public. 7. Be genuinely interested in People. . You can¶t please everyone but at least you¶ve tried. Be Thoughtful of the Opinions of Others. 10. Be always ready to help.6. Be Alert to Give Service. 8. Be generous with Praise. Cautious with Criticism. Be Considerate of the Feelings of Others. Be tactful.
Principles of Human Relations Theory THE HAWTHORNE STUDY Human relations theory is characterized by a shift in emphasis from TASK to WORKER Go beyond physical contributions to include creative. and emotional aspects of workers Based on a more dyadic (two-way) conceptualization of (twocommunication. SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS are at the heart of organizational behavior--effectiveness is contingent on the behavior--effectiveness social well-being of workers wellWorkers communicate opinions. and feelings to increase satisfaction and production Origins (Hawthorne Studies & work of Chester Barnard) Human Relations School of Management .Elton Mayo (Harvard) . suggestions. cognitive. complaints.
most people must be controlled and threatened before they will work hard enough. is unambiguous. and desires security above everything. Because of their dislike for work. dislikes responsibility. The average human prefers to be directed.Douglas McGregor Theory X and Theory Y Theory X Assumptions The average human being has an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if he can. .
the intellectual potentialities of the average man are only partially utilized. Imagination. . creativity. If a job is satisfying. and ingenuity can be used to solve work problems by a large number of employees. under proper conditions. not only to accept but to seek responsibility. Control and punishment are not the only ways to make people work. The average man learns. Under the conditions of modern industrial life. man will direct himself if he is committed to the aims of the organization. then the result will be commitment to the organization.Theory Y Assumptions The expenditure of physical and mental effort in work is as natural as play or rest.
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CAMBA. APPLE M.PREPARED BY: GROUP 3 ANORA. CRESHEIL BUELO. JONATHAN PARAJES. JOHANNA . ENCINAS. JONNA MAYORES. APRIL IVY A.