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10g PL/SQL

• SQL Enhancements

• SQLPLUS Enhancements
• External Tables
• Timestamp Datatypes
• PL/SQL enhancements

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Final Schedule For Oracle10g Workshop

DATE DAY Topics Covered Conducted By

20-Sep-06 1 10g SQL & PL/SQL – Hands on Harsh & Vibhuti

20-Sep-06 1 AS Forms 10g – Hands on (Part 1) Pranali

21-Sep-06 2 AS Forms 10g – Hands on (Part 2) Pranali

10g Architecture, Grid & RAC


21-Sep-06 2 Vibhuti
10g Backup, Recovery & Network

22-Sep-06 3 10g Performance Tuning Pranali

22-Sep-06 3 Final Test, Quiz and Games Vibhuti, Harsh, Pranali

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SQL Enhancements

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• Multi-Table Insert
• MERGE Statement
• GROUPBY Clause Enhancements
• CASE enhancements
• JOINS – new syntax
• Introduction To Analytical Functions
• MODEL Clause
• Regular Expression

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Multi-Table Insert
• Using this feature the INSERT … SELECT
statement can be used to insert rows into multiple
tables as part of a singe DML statement
Types:
• Unconditional Insert
• Conditional Insert
• Conditional First Insert
• Pivoting Insert

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Example:

INSERT ALL Multi table Insert


WHEN SAL > 10000 THEN
INTO sal_hist VALUES ( EMPID , HIREDATE,SAL)
WHEN MGR > 200 THEN
INTO mgr_hist VALUES (EMPID , MGR ,SAL )
SELECT empno EMPID , hire_date HIREDATE ,
Sal SAL , mgr MGR
FROM emp_old
WHERE empno > 20 ;

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Current Scenario :

INSERT INTO revenue (person,month,revenue)


SELECT person, 'Jan', rev_jan FROM revert UNION ALL
SELECT person, 'Feb', rev_feb FROM revert UNION ALL
SELECT person, ‘Apr‘ ,rev_mar FROM revert ;

In 9i/10g :
Insert ALL
into revenue values (person ,'JAN', rev_jan)
into revenue values (person, 'FEB', rev_feb)
into revenue values (person,‘ MAR', rev_mar)
select person, rev_jan, rev_feb, rev_mar, rev_apr, rev_may,
rev_jun
from revert;

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Example 1:Unconditional INSERT

INSERT ALL
INTO hbg2 VALUES (emp_no,name )
INTO hbg1 VALUES (emp_no,name)
SELECT emp_no, name
FROM hbg
WHERE emp_no > 2;

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Example 2: Conditional INSERT ALL

INSERT ALL
WHEN emp_no > 4 THEN
INTO hbg2 VALUES (emp_no,name )
WHEN emp_no <= 4 THEN
INTO hbg1 VALUES (emp_no,name)
SELECT emp_no,name
FROM hbg
WHERE emp_no > 2;

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Example 3: Conditional INSERT FIRST
INSERT FIRST
WHEN name ='Harsh' THEN
INTO hbg1 VALUES (emp_no,name)
WHEN emp_no = 2 THEN
INTO hbg2 VALUES (emp_no,name)
WHEN emp_no >2 and emp_no < 4 THEN
INTO hbg3 VALUES (emp_no,name)
ELSE
INTO hbg4 VALUES (emp_no,name)
SELECT emp_no, name FROM hbg;

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Example 4: Conditional INSERT ALL
INSERT ALL
WHEN name ='Harsh' THEN
INTO hbg1 VALUES (emp_no,name)
WHEN emp_no = 2 THEN
INTO hbg2 VALUES (emp_no,name)
WHEN emp_no >0 and emp_no < 4 THEN
INTO hbg3 VALUES (emp_no,name)
ELSE
INTO hbg4 VALUES (emp_no,name)
SELECT emp_no, name FROM hbg;

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Example 5: Pivoting INSERT

INSERT ALL
INTO sales VALUES (emp_id,name,region1)
INTO sales VALUES (emp_id,name,region2)
INTO sales VALUES (emp_id,name,region3)
SELECT emp_id, name, region1,region2, region3
FROM sales_main;

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• Specifying FIRST tells oracle to skip subsequent
WHEN clauses after it finds one true for the row
to be evaluated.

• We can also use an ELSE clause to tell oracle


what to do if none of the WHEN clauses
evaluates to true

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• Example 6: Using Table Aliases

INSERT ALL
WHEN ottl < 100000 THEN INTO small_orders
VALUES(oid, ottl, sid, cid)
WHEN ottl > 100000 and ottl < 200000 THEN INTO
medium_orders
VALUES(oid, ottl, sid, cid)
WHEN ottl > 200000 THEN INTO large_orders VALUES(oid,
ottl, sid, cid)
WHEN ottl > 290000 THEN INTO special_orders
SELECT o.order_id oid, o.customer_id cid, o.order_total ottl,
o.sales_rep_id sid, c.credit_limit cl, c.cust_email cem
FROM orders o, customers c
WHERE o.customer_id = c.customer_id;

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Uses
• Multi table inserts are useful in data warehouse scenario.

• Instead of using sqlldr to load data into multiple table ,


multi table inserts coupled with an external table can be
used.

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MERGE Statement
• This specialized statement combines insert and update into a
single operation. It is intended for data warehousing applications
that perform particular patterns of inserts and updates.

• Previous approach for achieving the same was:


- Insert, if failed on primary key then update
- Update, if SQL%NOTFOUND then insert.

• Avoid Multiple update statements.


• Now, a single SQL statement does the job.

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Syntax :
We can conditionally insert rows into table B
from table A with help of single SQL statement.

MERGE INTO high_score_copy B  Target table


USING high_score A - source (can be a table or view or
subquerry)
ON ( A. name=B.name) condition to either update or
insert
WHEN MATCHED THEN
UPDATE SET B.score=A. score
WHEN NOT MATCHED THEN
INSERT VALUES (A.name,A.score);

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Example 1:
Merge into hbg1
using hbg
on (hbg.emp_no = hbg1.emp_no)
when matched
then update
set hbg1.name = hbg.name
when not matched
then insert (hbg1.emp_no, hbg1.name) values
(hbg.emp_no, hbg.name)

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Example 2 :
Merge into hbg1
using hbg
on (hbg.emp_no = hbg1.emp_no)
when matched
then update
set hbg1.name = 'hbg'
when not matched
then insert (hbg1.emp_no, hbg1.name) values
(hbg.emp_no, hbg.name)

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Example 3 :
Merge into hbg1
using hbg
on (hbg.EMP_NO = hbg1.EMP_NO)
when matched
then update
set hbg1.name = hbg.name
when not matched
then insert (emp_no, name) values (hbg.emp_no,
hbg.name)

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Example 4:
Merge into hbg1 h
using hbg g
on (h.EMP_NO = g.EMP_NO)
when matched
then update
set h.name = g.name
when not matched
then insert (emp_no, name) values (g.emp_no, g.name)

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Enhancements in 10g :
• We can now specify BOTH in one SQL instead of update
or (and) insert separate SQL statements

• Can also delete rows from the target table during update
operation instead of writing a separate SQL statements

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Advantages:

• Simpler to use than procedural code


• Considerably faster than using procedural code
• Can be used in data warehousing applications

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GROUP BY Clause Enhancements

• ROLLUP
Used to calculate sub-totals
• CUBE
Used to get cross-tabulation results

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ROLLUP
• Used to calculate sub-totals.
Example :
SELECT EMP_ID, NAME, SUM(REGION)
FROM sales
GROUP BY ROLLUP(emp_id,name);
This will display for group by from right to left.
So the grouping will be done first of name and
then of empid

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• Grouping Sets : Simple extension to
GROUP BY to facilitate multiple groupings

Example :
select DEPTNO,JOB,MGR,avg(sal)
from emp_old
group by grouping sets
((deptno,job,mgr), (deptno,mgr), (job,mgr));

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GROUPING SETS
• The example in the slide displays the
following:
• Total salary for every department (labeled 1)
• Total salary for every department, job ID, and
manager (labeled 2)
• Grand total (labeled 3)

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Advantages

• All the group by enhancements make only one


pass over the base table
• Code readability is improved

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CASE Statement
Following are new CASE expression types

• Searched CASE expression


• NULLIF
• COALESCE

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CASE
• In a simple CASE expression, Oracle searches
for the first WHEN ... THEN pair for which
expr is equal to comparison_expr and returns
return_expr. If none of the WHEN ... THEN
pairs meet this condition, and an ELSE clause
exists, then Oracle returns else_expr.
Otherwise, Oraclereturns null.
• You cannot specify the literal NULL for all the
return_exprs and the else_expr

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NULLIF
• Syntax
• NULLIF (expr1, expr2)
• In the syntax:
• expr1 is the source value compared to expr2
• expr2 is the source value compared with
expr1. (If it is not equal to expr1, expr1
• is returned.)

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COALESCE
• Syntax
• COALESCE (expr1, expr2, ... exprn)
• In the syntax:
• expr1 returns this expression if it is not null
• expr2 returns this expression if the first expression is
null and this expression is not
• null
• exprn returns this expression if the preceding
expressions are null

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Joins

• Oracle 9i provides support for SQL:1999 syntax


New keywords like :

– CROSS JOIN
– NATURAL JOIN
– USING CLAUSE
– ON CLAUSE

• Full outer join is possible from 9i

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• LEFT JOIN
SQL> SELECT e.ename,e.deptno,d.dname
FROM emp_old e LEFT JOIN dept d
ON ( e.deptno=d.deptno );

• RIGHT JOIN
SQL> SELECT e.ename,e.deptno,d.dname
FROM emp_old e RIGHT JOIN dept d
ON ( e.deptno=d.deptno );

• FULL JOIN
SQL> SELECT e.ename,e.deptno,d.dname
FROM emp_old e FULL JOIN dept d
ON ( e.deptno=d.deptno );
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Introduction To Analytical Functions
• Analytic functions compute an aggregate value based on
a group of rows.

• They differ from aggregate functions in that they return


multiple rows for each group.

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Common Analytic Functions

• RANK
• DENSE_RANK
• ROW_NUMBER
• FIRST_VALUE / LAST_VALUE
• LEAD
• LAG

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RANK
• RANK calculates the rank of a value in a group of values.
• Rows with equal values for the ranking criteria receive
the same rank.
• The PARTITION keyword is used to define where the
rank resets. The specific column that is ranked is
determined by the ORDER BY clause. If no partition is
specified, ranking is performed over the entire result set.
RANK assigns a rank of 1 to the smallest value unless
descending order is used .

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Example 1:
Partition is optional and Order By is compulsory
SELECT emp_no, name salary,
RANK() OVER
( ORDER BY salary DESC)
AS r1
FROM test1 ;

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Example 2:
SELECT emp_no, name, salary,
RANK() OVER
(PARTITION BY emp_no
ORDER BY salary DESC)
AS r1
FROM test1

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Dense Rank
• The difference between RANK and DENSE_RANK is
that DENSE_RANK leaves no gaps in ranking sequence
when there are ties.

• That is, if you were ranking a competition using


DENSE_RANK and had three people tie for second
place, you would say that all three were in second place
and that the next person came in third. The RANK
function would also give three people in second place,
but the next person would be in fifth place.

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Advantage

• Can be used to obtain top N or bottom N ranking

(1) SELECT EMP_NO, NAME, salary,


RANK() OVER( ORDER BY emp_no) AS r2
FROM test1
(2) SELECT EMP_NO, NAME, salary,
DENSE_RANK() OVER( ORDER BY emp_no) AS r2
FROM test1

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LEAD/LAG
• LAG (value_expression [,offset] [,default]) OVER
([query_partition_clase] order_by_clause)
• LEAD (value_expression [,offset] [,default]) OVER
([query_partition_clase] order_by_clause)
• value_expression - Can be a column or a built-in function,
except for other analytic functions.
• offset - The number of rows preceding/following the current
row, from which the data is to be retrieved. The default value
is 1.
• default - The value returned if the offset is outside the scope of
the window. The default value is NULL.

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Examples
(1) SELECT empno, ename, sal,
LAG(sal, 1, 0) OVER (ORDER BY sal) AS sal_prev,
sal - LAG(sal, 1, 0 ) OVER (ORDER BY sal) AS
sal_diff
FROM emp;
(2) SELECT empno, ename, sal,
LEAD(sal, 1, 0) OVER (ORDER BY sal) AS
sal_next,
LEAD(sal, 1, 0) OVER (ORDER BY sal) - sal AS
sal_diff
FROM emp;

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FIRST_VALUE /LAST_VALUE
FIRST_VALUE / LAST_VALUE is an analytic function. It
returns the first / last value in an ordered set of values.
If the first / last value in the set is null, then the function
returns NULL unless you specify IGNORE NULLS.

If you specify IGNORE NULLS, then FIRST_VALUE /


LAST_VALUE returns the first non-null value in the set, or
NULL if all values are null.

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Examples
Lowest value

(1) SELECT empno, ename ,sal, LAST_VALUE (ename) OVER


(ORDER BY sal desc ROWS BETWEEN UNBOUNDED
PRECEDING AND UNBOUNDED FOLLOWING ) AS lv
FROM (SELECT * FROM emp WHERE empno <6 );

(2) SELECT empno, ename ,sal, FIRST_VALUE (ename) OVER

(ORDER BY sal asc ROWS BETWEEN UNBOUNDED


PRECEDING AND UNBOUNDED FOLLOWING ) AS lv
FROM (SELECT * FROM emp WHERE empno <6 );
Partition by can be used

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Examples
Highest value

(1) SELECT empno, ename ,sal, FIRST_VALUE(ename) OVER


(ORDER BY sal desc ROWS BETWEEN UNBOUNDED
PRECEDING AND UNBOUNDED FOLLOWING ) AS hv
FROM (SELECT * FROM emp WHERE empno <6 );

(2) SELECT empno, ename ,sal, LAST_VALUE(ename) OVER


(ORDER BY sal asc ROWS BETWEEN UNBOUNDED
PRECEDING AND UNBOUNDED FOLLOWING ) AS hv
FROM (SELECT * FROM emp order by sal desc);

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ROWNUMBER
• ROW_NUMBER is an analytic function. It assigns a
unique number to each row to which it is applied
(either each row in the partition or each row returned
by the query), in the ordered sequence of rows
specified in the order_by_clause, beginning with 1.
• Use of the function lets you implement top-N,
bottom-N query.

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Examples

SELECT department_id, last_name, employee_id,


ROW_NUMBER() OVER (PARTITION BY
department_id ORDER BY employee_id) AS emp_id
FROM employees;

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MODEL Clause
• SQL Model clause, a powerful new extension to the SQL
SELECT statement

• MODEL clause, is a scalable and manageable way of


computing business models in the database

• With the SQL Model clause, we can view query results in


the form of multidimensional arrays & then apply
formulas to calculate new array values.

• The formulas can be sophisticated interdependent


calculations with inter-row and inter-array references.

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• SYNTAX
<prior clauses of SELECT statement>
MODEL [main]
[reference models]
[PARTITION BY (<cols>)]
DIMENSION BY (<cols>)
MEASURES (<cols>)
[IGNORE NAV] | [KEEP NAV]
[RULES
[UPSERT | UPDATE]
[AUTOMATIC ORDER | SEQUENTIAL ORDER]
[ITERATE (n) [UNTIL <condition>] ]
( <cell_assignment> = <expression> ... )

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EXAMPLE 1
SELECT SUBSTR(country,1,20) country, SUBSTR(prod,1,15) prod,
year, sales
FROM sales_view
WHERE country IN ('Italy','Japan')
MODEL RETURN UPDATED ROWS
PARTITION BY (country)
DIMENSION BY (prod, year)
MEASURES (sale sales)
RULES ( sales['Bounce', 2002] = sales['Bounce', 2001] +
sales['Bounce', 2000],
sales['Y Box', 2002] = sales['Y Box', 2001],
sales['2_Products', 2002] = sales['Bounce', 2002] + sales['Y Box', 2002])
ORDER BY country, prod, year;

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EXAMPLE 2 : FOR LOOP
SELECT SUBSTR(country,1,20) country, SUBSTR(prod,1,15)
prod, year, sales
FROM sales_view
WHERE country='Italy'
MODEL RETURN UPDATED ROWS
PARTITION BY (country)
DIMENSION BY (prod, year)
MEASURES (sale sales)
RULES (
sales[FOR prod IN (Prod1', ‘Prod2'),
2005] = 1.3 * sales[CV(prod), 2001] )
ORDER BY country, prod, year;

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• Partition columns define the logical blocks of the result
set in a way similar to the partitions of the analytical
functions

• Dimension columns define the multi-dimensional array


and are used to identify cells within a partition

• Rules in the MODEL clause are applied to each partition


independent of other partitions.

• Partitions serve as a boundary point for parallelizing the


model computation

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Advantages Of MODEL Clause

• Performance:Model clause processing eliminates the


need for many SQL join and union operations

• Scalability:The Model clause leverages Oracle


parallelism, efficiently using all system resources made
available to it.

• Manageability:Computations are centralized close to the


data, so it reduces inconsistency & poor security

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Regular Expressions
• Regular expressions specify patterns to search for in
string data
• A regular expression can specify complex patterns of
character sequences
• Regular expression support in SQL/PLSQL is
implemented with functions like :
– REGEXP_LIKE,
– REGEXP_REPLACE
– REGEXP_INSTR

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Example

SQL> SELECT first_name, last_name FROM employees


WHERE REGEXP_LIKE (first_name,'^Ste(v|ph)en$');

Examine the string, looking for the first


substring bounded by commas
SQL> SELECT REGEXP_SUBSTR('500 Oracle Parkway,
Redwood Shores, CA', ',[^,]+,') "REGEXPR_SUBSTR"
FROM DUAL;

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EXAMPLES
(1) SELECT zip FROM zipcode
WHERE REGEXP_LIKE(zip, '[^[:digit:]]');
Result : ab123
123xy
(2) SELECT REGEXP_INSTR('Joe Smith, 10045 Berry Lane,
San Joseph, CA 91234', '[[:digit:]]{5}$') AS rx_instr FROM
dual;
Result : 45
(3) SELECT REGEXP_SUBSTR('first field, second field ,
third field', ', [^,]*,') FROM dual;
Result : , second field ,

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EXAMPLES
(4) SELECT REPLACE('Joe Smith',' ', ' ') AS replace FROM
dual;
Result : Joe Smith
(5) SELECT REGEXP_REPLACE('Joe Smith', '( ){2,}', ' ') AS
RX_REPLACE FROM dual;
Result : Joe Smith
(6) SELECT REGEXP_REPLACE('Ellen Hildi Smith',
'(.*) (.*) (.*)', '\3, \1 \2');
Result : Smith, Ellen Hildi

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SQL PLUS Enhancement

• We have enabled displaying database name at SQL-


Prompt

• But from SQL prompt, if one connects to different


database, the new database name is not displayed

• This security flaw is addressed in 10g


NCSSLV> conn username/password@HISTLV
Connected.
HISTLV>

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• Spool command is enhanced
– Append or replace possible to existing spool file

• New DEFINE variables


– _DATE default the _DATE variable is dynamic and
shows the current date

– _PRIVILEGE The _PRIVILEGE variable indicates the


privilege level of the current connection

– _USER The _USER variable contains the user name


connected
• set sqlprompt '&_user &_privilege &_date SQLPLUS> '

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External Tables

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What are External Tables?

• These are like regular tables except that:


- They are read-only tables
- DML operations / Index creation not possible
- Data is stored externally in flat-files
• Can be queried like a normal table
• Supports parallelism
• Stores only the mapping info between table
columns and flat-file contents

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• Create the table as
create table emp_load
( EMPNO NUMBER(4) ,DEPTNO NUMBER(2)
)
ORGANIZATION EXTERNAL
( type oracle_loader
default directory data_dir
access parameters
( badfile ‘emp.bad’
logfile ‘emp.log’
fields terminated by ',' )
location ('emp.dat')

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• Prior to Oracle 10g,
external tables were
read-only. However,
in 10g, external tables
can also be written to.

• Loading and
unloading could be
done in parallelism.
(PARALLEL clause)

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Benefits

• Generate flat files on the target


system serially or in parallel

• Helps in cases where External


table driver cannot handle
complex ETL( extraction
transformation loading)

• In this data is internally


converted from oracle internal
representation to native
external representation.

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Usage

• Used in TSAT to generate graphs based on trading-


system data

• Can be used in DataWareHousing


E(xtraction)T(ransformation)L(oading) process

• Can do away with TRADES Capture process in OPMS


and INDEX

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Date-Time support

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Introduction
Date-time data types
– TIMESTAMP
– TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE
– TIMESTAMP WITH LOCAL TIME ZONE

Interval data types


– INTERVAL DAY TO SECOND
– INTERVAL YEAR TO MONTH

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TIMESTAMP Data Types
• The TIMESTAMP datatype is an extension of
the DATE datatype.
• It also stores fractional part of seconds.
• Specify the TIMESTAMP datatype as follows:
TIMESTAMP
[(fractional_seconds_precision)]
where fractional_seconds_precision is
number of digits in fractional part of
SECOND field.

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Interval Data Types
• Used to store the difference between datetime
values.

• There are two classes of intervals :


– Year-month intervals
– Day-time intervals

• Interval date types are useful for flexible


arithmetic operations .

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We can add various date data types to each other

Example: Interval day-to-second data type

SQL> select interval '120' day(3) + interval


'5:10' hour to minute + interval '40'
second
2 from dual;
INTERVAL'120'DAY(3)+INTERVAL'5:10'HOURTOMINU
TE+INTERVAL'40'SECOND
--------------------------------------------
--------
+000000120 05:10:40.000000000

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Usage

• Used in INDEX to find trade time lag between stratus


and OLTP databases

• Possible usage in OPMS , INDEX and other OLTP


applications, if sub-second data is required

• Usage also in ORDERS application

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PL / SQL
Enhancements

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ASSOCIATIVE ARRAYS
• Associative arrays are sets of key-value pairs, where
each key is unique and is used to locate a
corresponding value in the array.

• Starting with Oracle 9i , the key can be a string data


type.

• Eg:
• type population_type is TABLE of NUMBER
INDEX BY VARCHAR2(20);
• state_population population_type;
• state_population('TAMILNADU'):=20000;

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DECLARE TYPE country_tab IS TABLE OF
VARCHAR2(50) INDEX BY VARCHAR2(5);
t_country country_tab;
BEGIN -- Populate lookup
t_country ('UK') := 'United Kingdom';
t_country ('US') := 'United States of America';
t_country ('FR') := 'France';
t_country ('DE') := 'Germany';
-- Find country name for ISO code "DE"
DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('ISO code "DE" = ' ||
t_country ('DE'));
END;

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• Uses And Advantages

• Like SQL table : retrieve values based on primary key


– Appropriate for small lookup tables
– It helps in fast lookup for an individual element
without knowing its position within the array and
without having to loop through all the array elements
– Subscripts can be negative and non-sequential
– PL/SQL automatically converts between host arrays
and associative arrays
– Bulk-binding of host arrays i/o to associative arrays
using PL/SQL blocks

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PL/SQL Native Compilation
• Speeds up PL/SQL procedures by compiling them
into native code residing in shared libraries.

• Procedures are translated into C code, compiled and


linked into the oracle process

• Bypasses the runtime interpretation giving faster


runtime performance

• Debugging tools for PL/SQL do not handle


procedures compiled for native execution.

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Setup And Implementation
• Create a directory for storing the shared library and
set this path as PLSQL_NATIVE_LIBRARY_PATH
• Alter Session set plsql_code_type=‘NATIVE ‘
• Alter Session set plsql_compiler_flags = 'NATIVE';
• Create or Replace or alter the Subprograms
• Run any script which creates a set of Oracle Supplied
packages.
• Create a DB using a preconfigured init file with
plsql_code_type = NATIVE.
• SELECT object_name, param_name, param_value
FROM user_stored_settings WHERE param_name LIKE
'plsql%‘And object_name IN ('LOADER', 'DBRX_UTIL');
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Table Functions
• Used to produce a collection of rows that can be
queried like a database table or assigned to a PL/SQL
collection variable.
• Input is a collection of rows in form of VARRAY,
PL/SQL table or REF CURSOR.
• Are invoked from SELECT statement’s FROM clause.

• The collection of rows returned can be pipelined.

• The execution of a table function can be parallelized.

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