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Structural Damage Tolerance

— Part 1 —
Concepts and Overview
Matthew Miller
Structural Damage Technology
(425) 266-5091

Course Number: 6CV40051

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Concepts and Overview Outline

Introduction
Key elements of damage tolerance
Key elements of residual strength
Key elements of crack growth
Key elements of damage detection and maintenance planning
Documentation

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Crack in Pressure Bulkhead

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Introduction
Responsibilities of Structures Engineers

Static strength
Verify that the static strength of undamaged structure meets load
requirements
Durability (fatigue)
Verify that structural detail fatigue quality matches the required
quality to meet the Design Service Objective
Damage tolerance
Verify that an economically feasible inspection program can be
implemented to detect fatigue, corrosion, or accidental damage
before the residual strength of the structure falls below the required
fail-safe load level

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Introduction
Definitions of Damage Tolerance

Structure is damage tolerant if damage can be detected and


repaired before residual strength falls below the regulatory load
level
Damage tolerance means that the structure has been evaluated to
ensure that should serious fatigue, corrosion or accidental damage
occur within the operating life of the airplane, the remaining
structure can withstand reasonable loads without the failure of
excessive structural deformation until the damage is detected
Damage tolerance is the attribute of the structure than permits it to
retain its required residual strength for a period of use after the
structure has sustained specific levels of fatigue, corrosion,
accidental or discrete source damage

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Introduction
Basic Concepts

Safety
Economics
Damage tolerance
Durability • Residual strength
• Fatigue
• Crack growth
• Corrosion prevention
• Damage detection
• Maintenance

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Introduction
Durability and Damage Tolerance Analysis Philosophy
Residual
N = Inspection Frequency strength
Crack growth analysis
analysis X
Damage Critical Crack
Detection Length
Crack Length, L

Period (Allowable
Damage)
Detectable N N N N N
Crack Inspection
Length program

Crack Propagation Flights, N


Damage Tolerance
Crack Initiation
Durability
MDSO X FRF
(includes fatigue, corrosion and manufacturing quality)
< 5% of Fleet

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Introduction
Damage Tolerance Technology Standards

D6-24958 “Damage Tolerance Methods and Allowables”


(Books 3 & 3A)
Commercial Airplanes standards are based
on 30 years of transport airplane
development and service experience
Comprehensive methods and allowables are
based on traditional aerospace industry
fracture mechanics techniques
Audited and approved by the FAA as
acceptable means to comply with FAR
25.571 requirements

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Introduction
Damage Tolerance Methods and Allowables (Book 3)
Purpose
 Aid in the development of a maintenance program to inspect for potential fatigue
damage in a fleet of airplanes
Approach options
 Too simple
 Loss of credibility
 Loss of accuracy
 Too complex
 Excess resources and flow time required
 Excess probability of human error
 Loss of visibility and control by management
 Just right
 Sufficiently accurate
 Easy to use

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Introduction
Airplane Safety

Design,
analysis and
manufacturing

• FAA Maintenance
Regulatory
• JAA agencies
and
inspection
• CAA
• CAAC Airlines
• AR
Safety requires diligent performance by all participants

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Structural Loads

Limit load
Highest load encountered by a fleet during its operational life
Ultimate loads
Limit load exceeded by a factor of safety, usually 50%
Operating loads
Loads normally encountered in day to day operations
Regulatory fail-safe loads
Usually limit load or equivalent
Detailed in FAR 25.571 and JAR 25.571

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Key Elements of Damage Tolerance
Damage Tolerance Definition
Structure is damage tolerant if damage can be detected and repaired before
residual strength falls below the regulatory load level
Normal deterioration due to Ultimate load
undetected damage capability required
Structural strength

after damage
Damage detection detection and repair
and restoration

Regulatory load requirement


per FAR 25.571

Normal operating loads

Visual detection period Period of service


NDI
detection
period Maximum allowable
Damage size

undetected damage

Detectable by NDI Visually detectable

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Key Elements of Damage Tolerance
Damage Tolerance Parameters

•Cyclic stress spectrum


•Material
Crack growth •Geometry
resistance •Multiple Site Damage
•Environment
•Load distribution

Allowable
damage
• Access / visibility
•Material • Inspection intervals
•Geometry • Inspection methods
•Fracture toughness • Damage detection period
•Multiple Site Damage • Multiple cracking in the
•Load distribution Inspection
fleet
program
• Damage detection
requirement

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Key Elements of Damage Tolerance
Summary
Safety of flight
1. Residual strength 2. Crack growth 3. Inspection
analysis + analysis + program =

Are additional
3 inspections
Lcritical required?
2 1

Compare Damage
Inspectable crack Tolerance Rating
Lcritical length vs. flights to
critical curve TOTAL DTR
Crack length

Skin crack 3 Based on assumed inspection


program

Chord crack 2 REQUIRED DTR


Based on successful service
1 experience
Chord crack

Flights to critical

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Key Elements of Damage Tolerance
Definitions

Primary structure
That structure which carries flight, ground or pressure loads
Secondary structure
That structure which carries only air or inertial loads generated on or
within the secondary structure
Structural Significant Item (SSI)
Any structural detail, element or assembly judged to be significant
because its failure reduces airplane residual strength or results in
the loss of function
Principal Structural Element (PSE)
Structure that contributes significantly to the carrying of flight,
ground and pressurization loads, and whose failure could result in
catastrophic failure of the airplane (Ref. AC 25.571 - 1b)

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Key Elements of Damage Tolerance
Structural Classification

 S t r u c t

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Obvious Damage!

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Ground Accident

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Key Elements of Damage Tolerance
FAR/JAR 25.571

Certification requirements pre & post Amendment 45


Old FAR 25.571 New FAR 25.571
Analysis
(Pre-1978) (Post-1978)
•Single element or •Multiple active cracks
Residual obvious partial failure
strength

Crack growth •No analysis required •Extensive analysis required


•Related to structural damage
characteristics and past
Inspection •Based on service history
service history
program •FAA air carrier approval
•Initial FAA engineering and air
carrier approval

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Key Elements of Damage Tolerance
FAR/JAR 25.571 Certification Requirements

(Pre - 1978) (Post -1978)

FAIL SAFE DAMAGE TOLERANT SAFE LIFE

• Redundant load path. • Capable of withstanding • Allowable crack size is


• Capable of regulatory loads with partial or very small (undetectable)
withstanding failed element with the presence • Adequate inspections are
regulatory loads with of cracks in adjacent and impractical
a single element attaching structure • Parts are removed from
failed • Able to detect and repair damage service when “safe life”
prior to structural strength loss has been reached
below regulatory load capability
(Amendment 45)

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Principal Damage Sources
Principal Structural Elements

1 Fatigue Environmental Accidental and


damage damage discrete damage

Damage Safe Corrosion Discrete Typical


tolerance life inspection source accidental

Types of Corrosion Types of Types of


inspections prevention plan inspections inspections

Damage detection Environmental Accidental damage


evaluations damage evaluations evaluations

Approved inspection and


maintenance program

1 Fatigue cracking is assumed to have occurred in the most difficult inspection/access


location independent of calculated fatigue life or full scale test results

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Key Elements of Damage Tolerance
Inspection and Maintenance Philosophy

Thresholds are based on:


• Fatigue approach for 727,737,747.
Typically 50% to 75% of DSO
• Initial flaw approach for 737NG, 757,
767, 777 and any new program Supplemental fatigue inspections
Fleet damage rate

Corrosion prevention and control program inspections

Scheduled maintenance check intervals

Fleet actions for WFD

Mandatory SB modifications
Environmental deterioration
and accidental damage Detectable size Repair assessments / inspections
fatigue damage
Detectable
DETECTABLE
fatigue
damage

Design Service
Years of service Objective
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Key Elements of Damage Tolerance
Residual Strength

1. Residual 2. Crack
3. Inspection
strength + growth + =
program
analysis analysis
Safety of flight

1
2

Strength? Flights? Inspections?

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Key Elements of Residual Strength
Residual Strength Parameters
Material
Fracture Toughness
Static behavior
KA
KA Transition behavior

Residual Strength
Thickness Regulatory
Requirement

Geometry
LEFM behavior
Geometry Correction
Factor
Y

Y B
Maximum
allowable
damage

L Crack Length

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Key Elements of Residual Strength
Stress Intensity Factor
Stress, σ Stress, σ

3σ kt = ∞
L σ
σ

kt = 3 K = σ πL ⋅ Y ⋅ C
n
Stress concentration factor Stress intensity factor

K is the defining parameter for crack growth and residual


strength predictions
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Key Elements of Residual Strength
Fracture Toughness

80 Fracture toughness is a
70
Plane stress function of:
Thickness
60 Mixed mode
71
(plane stress and plane strain) Orientation
50 50
KA (ksi √in)

L- Ext -T77 Alloy, temper & form


T
40 or rusi 511
i en o n Temperature
ta
tio
30 n
KIC
20 Plane strain

10

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Thickness (in)

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Key Elements of Residual Strength
Failure Criterion - Plane Stress Fracture
Engineering approach to fracture assumes failure occurs when K = KA

 KA is the apparent fracture toughness


associated with initial crack length at
L maximum load
 KC is the fracture toughness associated with
σ
actual crack length at maximum load
 Konset , KC and KA are not constants like KIC
 Most practical is KA - constant to first
approximation for given t
σ C B
c
πL o
σ i
C B A : K onset = σi 2
⋅α
A KC
KA
A πL c
Konset B : K C = σc 2
⋅α

πL o
Lo Lc C : K A = σc 2
⋅α
Crack Length, L

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Key Elements of Residual Strength
Failure Criterion - Plane Strain Fracture
Failure occurs when K = KIC
 Little or no plasticity involved when brittle failure occurs
 Flat fracture surface

πL c
KIC = σc 2
⋅α
L
σ c

σ c

KIC

Lo Lc
Crack Length, L

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Key Elements of Residual Strength
Failure Criterion
1  Applies to all cracks in Titanium and all through
thickness cracks in Aluminum and Steel
 For a single corner crack (e.g., a lug) 0.05 inches or
less, or two corner cracks (e.g., a fastener hole)
0.035 inches or less in Steel (< 240 ksi), use static
strength analysis. For corner cracks of 0.01 Inches
or less in Steel (> 240 ksi), use static strength
analysis
 For corner cracks in Aluminum 0.02 in. < L <
thickness, use a straight line fit between the static
strength at L= 0.02 inches and residual strength for
L=thickness
2 Use typical yield stress; when data is not available use
2.228*”B basis” - 1.228*”A basis” or 1.10*”B basis”
yield stress
3  AN/AG is the Net Area / Gross Area ratio for the
damaged structure
 (I/c)N / (I/c)G is the Net / Gross section modulus ratio
for the damaged structure
 In both the above cases, the Net properties = Gross -
(holes & cracked out) properties
4 The “µ ” is a shape factor for transition failures, µ =
0.63 for all materials

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Key Elements of Residual Strength
Failure Criterion - Transition Mode
Edge Cracked Panel Example
Net section yield Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics
AN W −L KA L
FRS = FTY = FTY FRS = , Y = 1.99 − 0.41  +...
AG W π ⋅L ⋅ Y ⋅1  W

80
Full static
strength σ
70
Residual strength (ksi)

L=t B
60
LEFM
50 Net section yield
B =0.5 in
40 Crack
W =10 in
Transition L
30 Mat’l 2024-T351 (L-T)
equation
KA = 125 ksi in
20 W FTY = 55 ksi

10

0
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0 2 4 6 8 10
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Cracking Patterns
 Recommended crack configurations
 Based on experience and engineering judgement

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Y Factor
 Geometry correction factor in the stress intensity factor calculation
 Uses the superposition principle to include one or more geometry effects (J factors)

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J and C Factors
J factors account for differences between C factors account for increase in load
structure being analyzed and infinite plate due to cracking of attached structure

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Y and C Factors
∆σ
σ σ σ +∆ σ

L L L

Y = 1.0 Y = Jwidtheffect ≠ 1.0 Y ≠ 1.0


C = 1.0 C = 1.0 C ≠ 1.0
K=σ πL K=σ πL ⋅Y K=σ πL ⋅ Y ⋅C
2 2 2

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Introduction
Key Elements of Damage Tolerance

1. Residual 2. Crack
3. Inspection
strength + growth + program
=
analysis analysis
Safety of flight

1
2

Strength? Flights? Inspections?

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Crack Growth Concepts
Crack Growth Parameters

MATERIAL

Crack length
Lf (critical)
X
M

Li
(detectable)
Flights

Y S
GEOMETRY
FLIGHT STRESS PROFILE

Stress

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Crack Growth Fundamentals
Crack Growth Equation

Boeing Crack Growth M & p = Material crack growth rate


Rate Equation (1979) parameters
Based on P. C. Paris, 1961, Measures relative material resistance
and K. Walker, 1970, equations
to crack growth
p Reflects effect of environment
1 dL  Z ⋅ Kmax 
= 10− 4  
n dN  M 
1.E-03

 (1 − R ) q 0.0 < R < 1.0

da/dN (in/cycle)
1.E-04

1 − 0.1⋅ R − 1.0 < R ≤ 0.0
Z= 1.E-05
 1.1 R ≤ −1.0 p
 0 R ≥ 1.0 1.E-06 1
TEST
COUPON 1.E-07
1 10 M 100
Ζ Kmax (ksi √in)

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Allowable M
Section 5, Book 3
Allowable
M
Finished
Grain
Alloy Temper Form Gage Airplane Environment
Orientation
(inches) W C B F
(wet) (cold) (bilge) (fuel)

2014 T652 Hand Forging T-S .75 21.7 24.9 20.6 22.2
T652 Die Forging T-L .75 21.7 24.9 20.6 22.2

2024 T3 Bare Sheet L-T, T-L .04 - .25 24.8 27.9 23.7 25.1
T4 Bare Sheet L-T, T-L .04 - .06 25.6 28.8 24.5 25.9
T3 Clad Sheet L-T, T-L .04 - .13 26.0 29.2 24.8 26.3
T351 Plate L-T, T-L .10 - .15 26.9 30.2 25.6 27.3
.15 - .35 24.5 27.6 23.3 24.8
.35 - .50 22.6 25.4 21.5 22.9
T3511 Extrusion L-T, T-L .10 - .35 26.3 29.6 25.0 26.7
T851 Plate L-T .37 - 1.0 24.3 27.7 23.4 21.4
T851 Plate T-L .37 - 1.0 20.2 23.1 19.4 17.9

2219 T6 Die Forging L-T - 18.3 20.6 17.4 18.6

2224 T3511 Extrusion L-T, T-L .16 - .31 26.8 30.1 25.5 27.2

2324 T39 Plate L-T .10 - .15 26.9 30.3 25.6 27.3
.15 - .35 25.9 29.2 24.7 26.3
.35 - .50 25.0 28.1 23.8 25.3
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
.
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Integration of Crack Growth Rate Equation

Crack length
Lf (critical)
p
1 dL  Z ⋅ Kmax  X
= 10− 4  
n dN  M 

Kmax = fmax πL ⋅ Y ⋅C
n Lo

∫( )
N, number of cycles
1 −p  Z ⋅ fmax 

πL −4
n ⋅ Y ⋅C dL = 10   dN + C
n  M 

If loading is constant amplitude, the rate equation can be integrated


and solved as follows for the number of cycles:
p Lf −p
 M  1  πL  fmax
N = 104   

⋅ Y ⋅ C  dL
Stress

 Z ⋅ fmax  n L  n  fmin
o

Note: Constant Z and fmax

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Integration of Crack Growth Rate Equation

If loading is variable amplitude, and the crack growth rate does not depend on
the sequence of varying load cycles, then the life integral can be discretized
as shown:
L NC
10− 4
∫( ) ∑(( Z ⋅ f
1 −p
πL
n ⋅ Y ⋅C dL = NF max i ) )p
n Mp
i =0
Lo
NC = Number of cycles in a flight
NF = Number of flights

Stress
flight Define stress rating, S, as:
(ksi)
1/ p
 NC 
S= 
 ∑
( ( Z ⋅ fmax ) i ) 
p

ground
Time  i =0 
L

∫( )−pdL
10 4 ⋅ Mp 1 πL
NF = n ⋅ Y ⋅C
Lower wing skin stress history for a “typical” flight Sp n
Lo

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Load Sequence Effects on Crack Growth

Overloads produce crack growth retardation, which is caused by


the presence of residual compressive stresses in the yielded
zone ahead of the crack tip
Crack length

N, number of cycles

Source: Broek, D. , Elementary Engineering Fracture Mechanics,


4th ed., Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1986

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Integration of Crack Growth Rate Equation

To account for the effects of overload and underload, every stress cycle is
adjusted, similar to the Willenborg model

Define spectrum stress rating, Sspectrum , as:


1/ p
 Ns 
Sspectrum = 
 ∑ ( ( Zeff ⋅ fmax eff ) i ) 
p

 i=0 
Stress
(ksi)
flight NC = Number of cycles in a flight
NF = Number of flights
fmax eff = Effective fmax for cycle i
Time Zeff = Uses effective fmax and fmin for cycle i
ground
L

∫( )−pdL
10 4 ⋅ Mp 1 πL
NF = p n ⋅ Y ⋅g⋅C
Lower wing skin stress history for a “typical” flight
Sspectrum n
Lo

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Interfaced Durability and Damage Tolerance
Analysis Software (IDTAS)
Complex flight operating
stress profiles are
analyzed using IDTAS
Loads and flight segment
spectra are input, and
relative fatigue damage
and crack growth are
calculated

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IDTAS Damage Tolerance Output
IDTAS is the source of the
stress rating, S, for use in
the crack growth equation

Sspectrum /Slinear
Sspectrum

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Damage Detection and
Structural Maintenance Planning
Objective
Maintain acceptable level of structural airworthiness throughout
the operational life of the airplane

Guideline
Airline / manufacturer maintenance program planning document,
MSG-3 (Maintenance Steering Group)
Air Transport Association of America, Oct. 1980 (Rev. 2005.1)
FAA approved as a means of complying with FAR 25.571

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Damage Detection and
Structural Maintenance Planning
MSG-3 Rating Systems
Rating system provides quantitative means of determining
inspection requirements
Development of rating system is responsibility of manufacturer
Rating systems are based on past practice and manufacturer /
operator experience with similar structure
Ratings address three principal sources of damage
Fatigue
Corrosion
Accidental damage

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Damage Detection and
Structural Maintenance Planning
Structural Maintenance Planning
Initial inspection program development and documentation
The initial structural maintenance plan for a new model is directed
toward detecting corrosion, stress corrosion and accidental
damage
A feasibility study for fatigue damage detection is made to
determine if a practical program can be constructed
Supplemental inspection program
As the fleet matures, the risk of fatigue cracking increases and the
inspection program is reassessed at 10 to 15 years
If the initial inspection program is inadequate for finding fatigue
cracks in significant structure, additional or supplemental
inspections will be required

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Damage Detection and
Structural Maintenance Planning
Environmental Deterioration Rating (EDR) System
EDR = Susceptibility Index + Timely Detection Index
Exposure to Adverse Environments
Susceptibility Index
Probable Possible Unlikely
Standard 0 1 2
Environmental Proven /
1 2 3
Protection improved
Special
2 3 4
attention

Sensitivity to Damage Size


Timely Detection Index
High Medium Low

Visibility of the Poor 0 1 2


SSI for inspection
during scheduled Adequate 1 2 3
maintenance
checks Good 2 3 4

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Damage Detection and
Structural Maintenance Planning
Accidental Damage Rating (ADR) System
ADR = Susceptibility Index + Timely Detection Index
Likelihood of Accidental Damage
Susceptibility Index
Probable Possible Unlikely
Estimated Low 0 1 2
residual
strength after Medium 1 2 3
accidental
damage High 2 3 4

Sensitivity to Damage Growth


Timely Detection Index
High Medium Low

Visibility of the Poor 0 1 2


SSI for inspection
during scheduled Adequate 1 2 3
maintenance
checks Good 2 3 4

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Structural Maintenance Planning
Key Considerations and Responsibilities
for EDR and ADR Evaluations
Rating Application Primary Responsibility
Key Considerations
Category EDR ADR Operator Boeing

Visibility    Visibility for inspection after access

•Relative sensitivity within zone


Sensitivity to
   considered
damage size
•External: multiple element damage
or growth
•Internal: single element damage
Environmental    Comparison with previous protection
protection systems and recent service history

Exposure to  Corrosion experience in same zone


adverse 
environment  Material susceptibility to stress corrosion
and potential for preload
Likelihood of
accidental   Operator experience in the same zone
damage
Strength after
  Likely size of damage relative to critical
accidental
damage size
damage

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Structural Maintenance Planning
Example of EDR/ADR Application
Frequency of Structural Inspections
ATA: Major Zone 300 (Section 48 & Empennage)
Environmental deterioration
rating (EDR) or Accidental External Internal
Damage Rating (ADR)
1
2
P L E 2A
5A
2A
5A

AM
3 3C C
4
5 EX 2C
2C
4C
AGE exploration: 4C interval
6 or greater
with 1/5 or 1/10 of fleet
A-check frequency: 300 flight cycles
C-check frequency: 15 months or 3000 flight cycles, whichever comes first

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Structural Maintenance Planning
Damage Detection Parameters

Probability of
inspecting an Probability of
inspecting detail Probability of
aircraft with crack detection
damage considered

P1 P2 P3

PD
Probability of
detecting damage

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Structural Maintenance Planning
Definition of Inspection methods

Inspection Description for Boeing DTR System Typical


Method (See MSG-3) Applications
Observations from the ground to detect obvious
Walkaround Pre-flight
discrepancies such as fuel leaks (see category 2 structure)
General visual Visual check of exposed area of wing lower surface, lower
A-check
(no MSG-3 credit) fuselage, doors and door cutouts, and landing gear bays
Visual examination of defined internal or external structural
area from a distance considered necessary to carry out an
Surveillance
adequate check. External includes structure visible
(MSG-3 general C-check
through quick-opening access panels or doors. Internal
visual equivalent)
applies to obscured structure requiring removal of fillets
fairings, access panels or doors, etc. for visibility
Detailed Close intensive visual inspections of highly defined
D-check
(MSG-3 detailed structural details or locations searching for evidence of
selected items
equivalent) structural irregularity
Special (see Inspections of specific locations or hidden details using D-check
Book 3 pg. 12-26) specified nondestructive inspection (NDI) procedures. selected items

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Structural Maintenance Planning
Damage Detection Period

Engineering Format Maintenance Planning Format

Critical Critical
Crack Length

Crack Length
Surveillance Surveillance

Detailed Detailed

NDI NDI

Crack Growth Interval, Flight Cycles Damage Detection Period, Flights to Critical

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Maintenance Planning
Determining Probability of Detection Parameters for Inspections
0.99
Need to relate
Probability of Detection

0.1 General Visual Inspection method


Surveillance Probability of detection
0.01
Detailed Crack length
0.001 Audited by the
FAA in 1980
Inspectable Crack Growth Curve

Inspectable Crack Length


0.0001 N N N
0.1 1 10
Inspectable Crack Length (in)

For n inspections of the


first crack
( )
n
PD = 1 − ∏ 1 − P̂Di
i =1
For n inspections on m cracked airplanes Flights
m n
PD = 1 − ∏ ∏ 1 − P̂Dij ( ) Safe damage detection period
j=1 i =1
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Relative Damage Detection Reliability for
Visual Inspections
1

0.1
Probability of Detection

Probability of Detection
0.99
0.01

0.95

0.001 0.9
3 5 7 10 30
Inspectable Crack Length (in)

0.0001
0.1 0.5 1 5 10 30

Inspectable Crack Length (in)

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Inspectable Crack Length
Actual Crack Growth Curve

Inspection access: Top


X Critical
Crack Length

C
A A

B
NC NA NB
Flights

Inspectable Crack Growth Curves B C


Crack Length
Inspectable

Inspection access: Bottom

NC N A NB Flights

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When do Supplemental Inspections Start?

Current inspection threshold determination


 Based on crack growth from an equivalent manufacturing flaw
 FAA recommended (used for 757 and 767)
 Initial flaw size regardless of material or manufacturing process of
– 0.05” for open holes
– 0.03” for filled holes
– 0.005” for cold worked holes
 Threshold life is crack growth life from initial flaw to critical divided by 2
 FAA mandated 100% inspection after reaching threshold
 Boeing new method (used for 777,
737NG and new models and
derivatives) DFR
 Establish initial flaw sizes based on
fatigue quality of detail
Equivalent Manufacturing
 Crack growth life to detectable or Quality Flaw Size
through thickness
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Documentation for a New Airplane Program

Structural Inspection Planning Data Document (SIPD)


 Description of structure
 Completed EDR/ADR forms
 DTR forms from feasibility study
Maintenance Planning Data Document (MPD)
Maintenance Review Board (MRB) Report

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Reported Discrepancies
Discrepancies to be reported
 All cracks and previously unreported occurrences of significant corrosion involving any SSI or
PSE shall be reported promptly to Boeing
Boeing follow-up actions
 All adverse SSI or PSE reports will be reviewed immediately to determine if they are findings
directly applicable to the SSI being addressed.
 If discrepancies are related to fatigue cracking of the SSI, the following actions are to be taken
– Report factual data available on finding, with appropriate priority, to operators and airworthiness authorities
– If required, develop a fleet inspection program to obtain additional data necessary to formulate a service
bulletin
– Prepare and issue a service bulletin addressing recommended structural modifications and inspections
– Revise the Supplemental Inspection Program Document (SIPD) to eliminate this SSI or a portion of the SSI,
and reference the new service bulletin in the safety of flight service bulletin list

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Supplemental Structural Inspection Programs
Methods are based on current practice, accessibility, critical crack length and non-destructive inspection
procedures

707/720 SSIP 727/737/747 SSIP


Assessment of all SSI's Assessment of all SSI's (with
Damage (with and without a history no history of in-service
Tolerance of in-service fatigue fatigue cracking) requiring
Assessment cracking) assuming inspection to ensure timely
cracking may have occurred detection of fatigue damage
Programs augment or modify
existing maintenance plans
Intervals determined by and intervals are based on
Inspection
dividing life (from detectable life (from detectable to
Program to critical) by a scatter factor critical), multiple inspections
and multiple fleet cracking)

All airplanes exceeding the Only candidate fleet


threshold for an SSI are airplanes subject to in the
subject to the requirements inspection program
for that SSI requirements
Airplane Details with known fatigue Details with known fatigue
Effectivity problems have post- problems covered by existing
terminating inspection service bulletins are
requirements with unique reassessed with inspections
thresholds based on service added as needed
data

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Maintenance Planning
Damage Detection Rating System

Need a quantitative measure of the probability of detecting a crack


DTR = Damage Tolerance Rating
Calculated DTR vs. Required DTR

Required
Structure
DTR
Externally visible areas 4
Wings and nacelles Areas not externally visible 6
Number of 50/50
chances of
Primary flap structure 8
detecting damage

Empennage Primary structure 6

Contribution of <50% 6
Fuselage cabin differential
pressure to total
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fail-safe stress >= 50% 10 BYJ30-SDT-P00-00x Page 1-63
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