The types of data collection begins after research problem has clearly defined and research design has

been develop . While deciding about the method of data collection to be used for the study , researcher should keep in mind two types data viz.., Primary Data and Secondary Data. Primary Data are those which are collected afresh and for the first time, thus happen to be original in character. Secondary Data, ae those which have already been collected by some one else and which have been passed through the statistical process. The researcher would have to decide what ilk of data would be using for his study accordingly he will have to select one or other method of data collection.

we can obtain data either through observation and or through direct communication with respondent in one form or another or personal interview There are several method of data collection ² a) Observational Method b) Interview Method c) Survey Method d) Experimentation Method e) Case study Method f) Questionnaire Method g) Schedule Method .We collect the primary data during the course of doing experiment in an experimental research but in case we do research of descriptive types and perform survey . whether sample survey and census survey.

He observe himself without asking from respondent EXAMPLE. .may himself look at the watch. Observation becomes scientific tool and method of data collection for the researcher under this method the information collected by the way of investigator .In a study relating to consumer behavior the investigator instead of asking brand of risk was use by respondent .It is most commonly used method specially a study related to behavioral science.

Š It is an expensive method In this method the researcher has to higher educated and specialist . This method is particularly suitable in study where respondent are more capable giving verbal reports of thiere feeling for reason or the other.MERITS Š DEMERITSŠ Š Š The main advantage of this method is that bias is eliminated if observation is done accurately. Information collected under this method related to what is correctly happen .

Š Š Š Š Š Š Structured Observation Unstructured Observation Non-participation Observation Disguised Observation Uncontrolled Observation Controlled Observation .

.In interview method of data collecting involved presentation of oral verbal response and reply in the same terms.

the organization required for selecting training and supervising the field staff is more complex . .MERITSŠ DEMERITS Š Š Š More information can be collected Data collected more reliable Non-response generally remains low . Š Š It is very expensive method This method is generally more time consuming Under this method .

. A survey is the fact finding study which deals with the nature and problems of communities. A survey is the process of by which quantitative data is collected about are social aspect of community a composition and activities.A survey is the method of analysis in a scientific and ordered way For define the purpose of given social situation or problem.

Š Š Š Š General and Specific Survey Regular Ad-Hoc Survey Primary and Final Survey Census and Sample Survey .

Š Š Š Š Direct contract between the researcher and respond Greater Objective Testing the validity of theory Formulation and testing of Hypothesis .

Questionnaire is the tools or device to securing answer to the set question from the respondent or information who fill the questionnaire. .

Š Š There is a problem of non. We can use it only for educated respondent There may be problem of ambiguity of questions which may lead to incorrect answer. .response. Respondent ensured of confidentiality and may answer freely in writing We can use questionnaire for large sample so data generated may be more reliable .MERITS OF QUESTIONAIREŠ Š EMERITS OF QUETIONNAIREŠ Š It is an costly method .

. It is the method of study in depth.Case study method is the very popular form of qualitative analysis and it involve a careful and complete observation of a social unit a person a family and institution a cultural group or even the entire community.

This method based on several assumption which may not the very realistic at time . This method can be used only in a limited area Response of investigator is an important limitation in this method .MERITS OF CASE STUDY Š DEMERITS OF CASE STUDYŠ Š Š A case study method enables to understand fully the behavior pattern of concerned unit It help in formulating relevant hypothesis along with the data which may be helpful in testing them. . It method increase the analytical method of researcher. Š Š Š It consume more time and required lot of expenditure.

secondary data may either be published data or un published data . When the researcher utilizes secondary data. .e. In this case he is certainly not confronted with the problems that are usually associate with the collection of original data . than he has to look in to various sources from where he can obtain them.they reoffers to the data which have already been collected & analyzed by someone else . Usually published data are available: .Secondary data means data that are already available i.


. He must make a scrutiny because it is just possible that the secondary data may be or may be or inadequate in the context of the problem which the researcher want to study. trade associations labor bureaus and other public & private individual and organizations The researcher must be very care full in using secondary data .biographies & autobiographies and also may be available with scholars and research workers .

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