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Algorithms

Introduction

• Data Structures

– Arrays

– Lists

– Trees

– Graphs

• Algorithms

Abu Ja'far Mohammed Ibn Musa al-Khowarizmi

Algorithms

Example

• 1. Algorithm Max(A,n)

• 2. // A is an array of size n

• 3. {

• 4. Result := A[1];

• 5. for i=2 to n do

• 6. If A[i] > Result then Result :=

A[i];

• 7. return Result;

• 8. }

What are Algorithms

Satisfy the criteria

1.Input

2.Output

3.Definiteness

4.Finiteness

5.Effectiveness

6.Generality

Write an algorithm to find the speed at which the

electrons travel.

Areas of Study

• How to Devise

• How to Validate

• How to Analyze

• How to Test

Recursion

Recursive Algorithms

• Direct Recursive

Program A

Calls A

Program A

• Indirect Recursive Calls B

Program B

Calls A

Whose Code is Better ?

Performance Analysis

Memory

Program

• Space Complexity

Program

CPU

• Time Complexity

Space Complexity

locations needed by the algorithm is termed as the

space complexity

S(P) = c + Sp

c = Fixedpart

Sp = Variable part.

Example

Algorithm ex1(a,b,c)

{

return a+b+c;

}

variables, hence space complexity is 3, this is fixed.

Example

Algorithm ex2(a,n) One location for s

One location for n

{ N locations for a

One location for i,

s := 0.0;

for i : = 0 to n do Therefore total locations

needed are

s : = s + a[i];

return s; S(p) >= n+3

}

Example

Algorithm ex3(a,n)

{

If (n<= 0) then return 0.0;

else return ex3(a,n-1) + a[n];

}

Each function call needs:

One Location for n

One Location for a[n]

One location for the return address

Time Complexity

algorithm.

Example

Algorithm ex1(a,b)

{

return a+b;

}

Counting steps

Algorithm ex2(a,n) Increment a variable

{ after every statement

s := 0.0;

for i : = 0 to n do

{

s : = s + a[i];

}

return s;

}

Example

Algorithm ex2(a,n) Count the number of

{ Statements

s := 0.0;

count = count+1;

for i : = 0 to n do

{

count=count+1; Count the number of times

s : = s + a[i]; the for loops is executed

count=count + 1;

}

count = count +1 ;

count = count +1 ;

return s;

}

Example

Each Function call has 2

Algorithm ex3(a,n) statements.

{

count = count + 1

If (n<= 0) then

{

count = count + 1;

return 0.0; How many times is the

} recursion called ?

else

{

count = count + 1

return ex3(a,n-1) + a[n];

}

Try it out

bubble sort algorithm

Which looks better ?

O(n3 )

Asymptotic Notation

• Big Oh

• Omega

Big Oh

Upper Bound

Big Oh

f(n) is O(g(n) ) iff

f(n) <= c* g(n) for all n> n0

Graphical Represntation

f(N)

running time

N

n0

Example

1000n2 + 100n -6 = O(n2 ) as

1000n2 + 100n -6 <= 1001n2 for n >= 100

Big Oh

computing time.

Omega

Lower Bound

f(n) is omega( g(n)) iff

f(n) >= c* g(n) for all n>=n0

Graphical Represntation

cg(N)

running time

N

n0

Example

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