AIM: Preventing the four major non-communicable/Chronic/lifestyle related diseases, cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and diabetes mellitus, through the promotion of healthy lifestyle aimed at preventing the three commonly shared major risk factors; unhealthy diet. Physical inactivity and smoking. I. INTEGARATED COMMUNITY BASED NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASE PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROGRAM FOUR MAJOR NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES 1. Cardiovascular diseases 2. Cancer 3. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary diseases 4. Diabetes Mellitus

2005 - it was estimated that 35 million deaths would have occurred due to these diseases, contributing 60 % of deaths worldwide. As well as a high death toll, chronic diseases also caused disability, often for decades of a person s life. The most widely used summary measure of the burden of disease is the disability adjusted life year or DALY, which combines the number of years of healthy life lost to premature death with time spent in less than full health. One DALY can be thought of as one lost healthy year of life. The projected burden of disease of these diseases is approximately half or 48 % of the global burden of disease. 2020 - these diseases are expected to account for 73 % of deaths and 60 % of the disease burden. 2002 - life expectancy of Filipinos has gone up to 69.6 years. - MORTALITY statistics showed that 7 out of 10 leading causes of deaths in the country are diseases which are lifestyle related: diseases of the heart and the vascular system, cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, accidents, diabetes, kidney problem. - MORBIDITY statistics also showed that hypertension and diseases of the heart are among the top 10 leading causes of illnesses in the country

2003 the result of the National Nutrition and Health Survey conducted that recently 90 % of Filipinos has one or more risk factors associated with chronic, non communicable diseases. THE RISK FACTORS WITH THE CORRESPONDING PREVALENCE RATES: a. Physical inactivity 60.5% b. Smoking 34.8% c. Hypertension 22.5% (SBP>140 or DBP>90) d. Hypercholesterolemia 8.5% (TC>240) e. Obesity 4.9% (BMI>30) f. Diabetes 4.6% HEALTHY LIFESTYLE defined as a way of life that promotes and protects health and well being. This would include practices that promote health such as healthy diet and nutrition, regular and adequate physical activity and leisure, avoidance of substances that can be abused such as tobacco, alcohol and other addicting substances, adequate stress management and relaxation; and practices that offer protection from health risks such as safe sex and immunization.

GOAL: Reduce the toll of morbidity, disability and premature deaths due to chronic, non-communicable lifestyle related disease. OBJECTIVES: 1. Analyze the social, economic, political and behavioral determinants of NCD that will serve as bases for: a. Developing policy guidelines; b. Setting legislative and political directions, and c. Providing financial measures to support NCD prevention and control. 2. Reduce exposure of individuals and population to major determinants of NCD while preventing emergence of preventable common risk factors. To hasten this, the health sector lobby for a health protective environment by: a. Proposing healthy public policies that encouraged health promoting settings in school, workplaces and communities. b. Encouraging government to provide protection against activities by industry and commerce that promote unhealthy products and lifestyles. c. Communicating the consequences of major risk factors of NCD, paying particular attention to the most vulnerable population.

Changing environments 3. In order to contribute health status individuals and respond to the community s basic health care needs.3. To achieve significant reduction in morbidity and mortality from major NCD s. Comprehensive Approach Focused on Primary Prevention 2. Reorienting health services . there must be enhance capability to take action to address these major NCD risk factors. Changing lifestyle 4. Strengthen health care for people with NCD through health sector reforms and cost effective interventions. Integrated Approach KEY INTERVENTION STRATEGIES 1. Establishing program direction and infrastructure 2. Community-Based Approach 3. the following approaches should characterize the program: 1.

It is important to convey the problem. As a health advocate . The people must be assured that they have the right responsibility to make decisions and that they do not to change their decisions because of others objections. Thoroughly discussing with the people the nature of the alternatives. 3. the PHN helps the people toward optimal degree of independence in decisionmaking and in asserting their right to their right to a safer and better community.THE ROLE OF PUBLIC HEALTH NURSE IN NCD PREVENTION AND CONTROL Health Advocate Public Health Nursing promote active community participation in NCD prevention and control through advocacy work. 2. make substantial changes to solve the problem. Influencing public opinion. This involves: 1. needs demands of the people are amplified and eventually become the framework for decision-making. The advocate affirms the decision made by the people by getting powerful individuals or groups to listen. Supporting people s right to make a choice and to act on the choice. show it affects people in the community and describe possible actions to take. 4. their content and consequences. Informing the people about the rightness of the cause. support and eventually . In this manner. .

should conduct health education in a variety of settings. In noncommunicable disease prevention and control. Telling people about health is not enough. . health education focuses on establishing or inducing changes in personal and group attitudes and behavior that promote healthier living. physical inactivity and fat and sugar-rich diet. Misconceptions and ignorance will be corrected by disseminating scientific knowledge about causes. Motive the people. 2. They should be motivated to make own choices and decisions about habits and practices that are determined to health. such as cigarette smoking. as well as educators and media personel.Health Educator Health Education is an essential tool to achieve community health. PHNs. indulgence in alcohol. The health educator aims to: 1. prevention and control of non-communicable diseases. factors. Inform the people. Health education creates an awareness of health needs and problems which consequently make the people become conscious of their own responsibilities towards their own healthy.

In addition. Oftentimes. Guide people into action. Health Care Provider The Public Health Nurse is a care provider to individuals.3. action is directed towards the reduction of risk factors of non. emphasis of care is on health promotion and disease prevention focusing on promotion of rational diet and physical activity and cessation of smoking and alcohol drinking. families and communities rendering primary. . Primary prevention must be family. As a care provider.communicable diseases.oriented because the family members live and eat together and the roots of chronic diseases are related to personal habits and lifestyle. secondary and tertiary health care services in any setting including the community and workplace. people need to supported in their effort to adopt or maintain healthy practices and lifestyles.

prevention and control. the ultimate goal of the PHN is community health development and empowerment of the people.Community Organizer As an organizer. Health Trainer The PHN provides technical assistance in the assessment of the skills of auxiliary health workers in NCD prevention and control. * Organizing and mobilizing the community in taking action for the reduction of risk factors. It is inextricably related to community health practice since it provides the theoretical bases for developing appropriate and responsive intervention programs and strategies. its causes.communicable diseases. This is achieve by: * Raising the level of awareness of the community regarding non.communicable diseases and other community. Researcher Research is an integral part of a primary health care approach to noncommunicable disease prevention and control program. teaching and supervision on clinical management of non.based services and recording. . * Influencing executive and legislative bodies to create and enforce policies that favor a healthy environment. reporting and utilization of health information related to non.communicable diseases.

It is not a single disease state but a disorder with many causes. hypertension is classified into primary and secondary hypertension. ETIOLOGY/ CAUSE In terms of etiology. which is more common. It is also called essential hypertension. we will be focusing on primary hypertension. Primary hypertension has no definite cause. Hypertension DESCRIPTION Hypertension or high blood pressure is defined as a sustained elevation in mean arterial pressure. Secondary hypertension is usually the result of some other primary diseases leading to hypertension such as renal disease. Hypertension is also a major risk factor for the development of others CVDs like coronary heart disease and stroke. Although exact cause is unknown.II. For the rest of these session. primary hypertension is attributed to atherosclerosis. a variety of symptoms. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ . DISEASES OF THE HEART AND BLOOD VESSELS (CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES) 1. and a range of responses to therapy. CAUSES AND RISK FACTORS OF MAJOR NCDS A.

not treated. excess alcohol consumption. and magnesium. increasing potassium in diet increase elimination of sodium). race and high salt intake. calcium.RISK FACTORS ‡ There is no single cause for primary hypertension but several risk factors have been implicated in its development. advancing age. ‡ Other lifestyle factors interact with these risk factors and contribute to the development of hypertension such as obesity. . intake of potassium(diet high in sodium is generally low in potassium. and use of contraceptive drugs. decreased baroreceptor sensitivity. However. therefore. AGE ‡ Older persons are at greater risk for hypertension than younger persons. ‡ For years. the Framingham study showed that there was two to five times increased in death from CVD associated with isolated systolic hypertension. FAMILY HISTORY ‡ People with a positive family history of hypertension are twice at risk than those with no history. stress. ‡ The aging processes that increase BP include stiffening of the arteries. ‡ Risk factors include family health history. increase peripheral resistance and decreased renal blood flow. systolic hypertension common in older persons was considered benign and.

more than doubled the success of withdrawal of drug therapy. ‡ Fat distribution is more important risk factor than actual weight as measured by waist. EXCESSIVE ALCOHOL INTAKE ‡ As much as 10% of hypertension cases could be related to alcohol consumption. nor does reducing salt intake reduce BP in all hypertensives. Whatever the cause. weight loss is effective in reducing BP in obese hypertensive patients. Systolic pressures were more markedly affected than diastolic pressure. OBESITY ‡ Risk for hypertension is two times greater among overweight/ obese persons compared to people of normal weight. Regular consumption of 3 or more drinks per day increased risk of hypertension. . Some people are more susceptible than others to effects of increased salt intake. controlled for 5 years. and three times more than that of underweight SALT INTAKE ‡ Excessive salt intake does not cause hypertension in all people.hip ratio. ‡ The exact mechanism of how obesity contributes to the development of hypertension is unknown. ‡ Weight loss or sodium restriction in hypertensives.

and sudden death.weight reduction through proper nutrition and exercise. quitting smoking anytime is beneficial.reduce salt and fat intake ‡ Prevent becoming overweight or obese. this refers to both active and passive smokers. chest pain(called ANGINA) occurs. 2.tobacco use promotes atherosclerosis that may contribute to hypertension. It is also known as Ischemic Heart Disease. arrhythmias. heart failure.KEY AREAS FOR PREVENTION OF HYPERTENSION ‡ Encouraged Proper Nutrition. ‡ Smoking cessation. ‡ CAD can cause myocardial infarction(heart attack).Coronary Artery Disease DESCRIPTION ‡ Coronary Artery Disease(CAD) is heart disease cause by impaired coronary blood flow. supply of blood and oxygen to the heart muscle is affected. ‡ When there is decreased oxygen supplied to the heart muscle. . ‡ When the coronary arteries become narrowed or clogged. ‡ Identify people with risk factors and encouraged regular check-ups for possible hypertension and modification of risk factors.

Hypertension c. myocardial infarction and stroke. Stress . Diabetes mellitus e. This thickening narrows the space through which blood can flow. It affects large and mediumsized arteries like the aorta. ‡ In diabetes mellitus. Obesity f. ‡ Atherosclerosis usually occurs when a person has high level of cholesterol in the blood. This is the thickening of the inside wall of arteries due to deposition of a fat like substance. Elevated blood lipids and cholesterol level ( hyperlipidemia) b. RISK FACTORS OF CAD a. Physical inactivity/ sedentary lifestyle g. there is a greater chance that it will be deposited onto the artery walls. atherosclerosis is accelerated. coronary arteries and the large vessels that supply the brain.ETIOLOGY/CAUSES ‡ The most common cause is atherosclerosis. Smoking d. decreasing and sometimes completely cutting off the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the heart. When the level of cholesterol in the blood is high. often resulting in coronary artery disease.

smoking. ‡ Not all cholesterol is bad. When HDL level is below normal.density lipoprotein) level is a risk factor of CAD. HDL( high density lipoprotein) is now acknowledged as a protective factor against coronary heart disease. sedentary lifestyle. HDL facilitates reverse transport of cholesterol to the liver where it may be excreted and therefore prevent atherosclerosis. particular those younger than 50 years old. androgens and certain drugs. SMOKING/TOBACCO USE ‡ Risk of death from CAD is 70-200 times greater for men who smoke one or more packs of cigarettes per day compared to those who do not smoke. this becomes a risk factor for CAD. . obesity and diabetes mellitus. This risk is most seen in young people. It is decreased in smoking. It is called the bad cholesterol because it is the main carrier of cholesterol and contributes to atherosclerosis. Reports have shown that modest reduction in total cholesterol can significantly lessen CVD morbidity and mortality. ‡ High LDL(low. obesity. Regular exercise and moderate alcohol consumption increased HDL levels. LDL level is increased by saturated fat intake.ELEVATED BLOOD LIPIDS/ CHOLESTEROL ‡ Increased blood cholesterol is an important risk factor in the development of CAD.

free environment through advocacy and community mobilization. . these diseases are risk factors and contribute to the development of coronary artery disease. ‡ Maintain body weight and prevent obesity through proper nutrition and physical activity/ exercise. ‡ Advise smoking cessation for active smokers and prevent exposures to second-hand smoke by family members. fruits. ‡ Encourage proper nutrition particularly by limiting intake of saturated fats that increased LDL. unrefined cereals and wheat breads. prevent obesity and improves optimum functioning of the heart. friends and co-workers of active smokers. In general.KEY AREAS FOR PREVENTION OF CAD ‡ Promote regular physical activity and exercise. promote a smoke. ‡ Early diagnosis. from prompt treatment and control of diabetes and hypertension. exercise increases HDL. limiting salt intake and increasing intake of dietary fiber by eating more vegetables.

‡ Prevent thrombus formation in rheumatic heart disease and arrhythmias with appropriate medications. heart attacks and a variety of other cardiovascular complications. ‡ Avoid intravenous drug abuse and cocaine. ‡ Smoking cessation and promoting a smoke-free environment. not more than one drink per day. Cerebrovascular Disease Or Stroke DESCRIPTION ‡ Stroke is the loss or alteration of bodily function that result from insufficient supply of blood to some parts of the brain. Health workers need to remind these persons to take their medications as prescribed.many people believe that effective treatment of high blood pressure is a key reason for the rapid decline in the death rates for stroke. Cocaine use has been closely related to strokes. ‡ Limit alcohol consumption for women. KEY AREAS FOR PREVENTION OF STROKE ‡ Treatment and control of hypertension. Some of them have been fatal even in first time cocaine users. and for men.3. These medications are usually taken on a daily basis. not more than two drinks per day. For human brain to function at emboli. ‡ Prevent all other risk factors of atherosclerosis. .

. a person s DNA becomes damaged by exposure to something toxic in the environment such as chemicals.cancer is not a single disease.B. It occurs as the cancer cells get into the bloodstream or lymph vessels of our body. isolated cancer cells will usually be detected and removed from the body. people with organ transplant who are receiving immunosuppresant drugs. . radiations or viruses. Many times though. CANCER . People can inherit damage DNA which account for inherited cancers.cancer develops when cell in a part of the body begin to grow out of control. When the immune system is intact. CAUSES OF CANCER -normal cells transform into cancer cells because of damage to DNA. This process is called metastasis.they compete with normal cells for the blood supply and nutrients that normal cells need thus causing weight loss. . there is usually an increase in cancer incidence.cancer cells often travels to the other part of the body where they begin to grow and replace normal tissue. . . or in AIDS.the immune system seems to play a role in the development and spread of cancer. When the immune system is impaired as in people with immunodeficiency diseases.

the greater the risk of cancer. Chemicals And Environmental Agents ‡ Polycyclic hydrocarbons are chemicals found in cigarette smoke. ‡ Many cancers are associated with lifestyle risk factors such as smoking. industrial agent. ‡ Also produced when food is fried in fat that has been reused repeatedly. ‡ Aflatoxin is found in peanuts and peanut butter. nitrosamines. the larger the dose or the longer the exposure. an environmental agent. This maybe a chemical.Carcinogens ‡ a carcinogen is an agent capable of causing cancer.g tinapa or smoked fish). Avoid reusing cooking oil. ‡ Effect of carcinogenic agents usually depend on the dose or amount of exposure. . or in food such as smoke foods. Polycyclic hydrocarbons produced from animal fat in the process of broiling meats and are present in smoked meats and fish. and a lot more. ‡ Other includes benzopyrene. Benzopyrene ‡ Produced when meat and fish are charcoal broiled or smoked(e. radiation and viruses. dietary factors and alcohol consumption. Avoid eating burned food and eat smoked foods in moderation.

Viruses ‡ a virus can enter a host cell and cause cancer. RISK FACTORS OF CANCER .Nitrosamines ‡ These are powerful carcinogens use as preservatives in food like tocino. This is found in cervical cancer(human papilloma virus). Still others are related to lifestyle factors such as tobacco and alcohol use. ‡ Formation of nitrosamines may be inhibited by the presence of antioxidants such as Vit. Limit eating preserved food and eat more vegetables and fruits that are rich in dietary fiber. c in the stomach. lymphoma an nasopharyngeal cancer( epstain barr virus). liver cancer( hepatitis B virus). Radiation ‡ Radiation can also cause cancer including ultraviolet rays from sunlight. sex and family medical history. diet and sun exposure. . x-rays.risk factors for cancer include a person's age. bacon and hotdog. Other are linked to cancer thus causing factors in the environment. certain leukemias. longganisa. radioactive chemicals and other forms of radiation.

paint fumes ‡Gender:4-5 times more common in man ‡Age:more than 60 years ‡Laryngeal cancer .cigar. ‡Radiation exposure ‡Second-hand smoke ‡Oral cancer ‡Tobacco use(cigarette.g.chewing tobacco nad snuff. including cigarettes.pipe.pipe. Ill-fitting dentures) ‡Vitamine A deficiency ‡Tobacco use(cigarette.smokless tobacco) ‡Excessive alcohol use ‡Chronic irritation(e.cigar.smokless tobacco) ‡Poor nutrition ‡Alcohol ‡Weakened immune system ‡Occupational exposure to wood dust.cigars.‡CANCER ‡Lung cancer ‡RISK FACTORS ‡Tobacco use.

smokless tobacco) ‡Occupational exposure:dry es.smokeless tobacco) ‡ Human papillomavirus infection ‡ Chlamydia infection ‡ Diet: low in fruits and vegetables ‡ Family history of cervical cancer ‡Tobacco use(cigarette.pipe.smokeless tobacco):increase risk by 40% ‡Obesity ‡Diet: well cooked meat ‡Occupational exposure: asbestos organic solvents ‡ Age: 50.cigar.70 years old ‡ Tobacco use(cigarette.cigar.cigar.CANCER Renal cancer RISK FACTORS ‡Tobacco use(cigarette.pipe.pipe.solvents ‡Chronic bladder inflammation Cervical cancer ‡Bladder cancer .

smokeless tobacco) ‡Gender: 3 times more common in man ‡Alcohol ‡Diet: low in fruits and vegetables ‡Early menarche or late menopause ‡Age. and age at menopause ‡High fat diet ‡Obesity ‡Physical inactivity ‡Some studies have also shown a connection between alcohol consumption and an increase risk of breast cancer Breast cancer .changes in hormone levels throughout life.CANCER RISK FACTORS Esophageal cancer ‡ Tobacco use(cigarette. such as age at first menstruation.cigar.pipe. number of pregnancies.

race and diet ‡ Race: more common among AfricanAmerican man than among white man ‡ High fat diet ‡ Man with a father or brother who has had prostate cancer are more likely to get prostate cancer themselves Liver cancer ‡ Certain types of viral hepatitis ‡ Cirrhosis of the liver ‡ Long. soybeans. such as advancing age.CANCER Prostate cancer RISK FACTOR ‡ While all man are at risk. several facctors can increase the chances of developing the disease. wheat. corn and rice .term exposure to aflatoxin ( carcinogenic substance produced by a fungus that often contaminates peanuts.

CANCER RISK FACTORS Skin cancer ‡ Unprotected exposure to strong sunlight ‡ Fair complexion ‡ Occupational exposure Colonic cancer ‡ Personal or family history of polyps ‡ High fat diet and or low fiber diet ‡ History of ulcerative colitis ‡ Age: >50 years Uterine endometrial cancer ‡Estrogen replacement therapy ‡Early menarche/late menopause .

KEY AREAS FOR PRIMARY PREVENTION OF CANCERS ‡Smoking Cessation ‡Encourage Proper Nutrition ‡Drink alcoholic beverages in moderation. ‡The sooner a cancer is diagnosed and treatment begins. . the better the chances of living longer and enjoying a better quality of life. ‡Avoid/control obesity through proper nutrition and exercise.

with hyperglycemia present at time of diagnosis. ETIOLOGY/CAUSES Specific cause depends in the type of diabetes. poor nutrition. It is genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of metabolic disorders characterized by glucose intolerance. DIABETES MELLITUS Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the leading causes of disability in persons over 45. lack of exercise) .More than half of diabetic persons will die of coronary heart disease. DESCRIPTION Diabetes mellitus is not a single disease.C. It also increases the risk of dying of cardiovascular disease like heart attack or stroke among women. however it is easier to think of diabetes as an interaction between two factors: Genetic Predisposition (diabetogenic genes) and Environment/Lifestyle(obesitity. CAD tends to occur at an earlier age and with greater severity in persons with diabetes.

congenital rubella) and chemical toxins(e. Type I DM ‡ Characterized by absolute lack of insulin due to damaged pancreas. ‡Usually occurs in older and overweight persons (about 80%). ‡Possible causes include impaired insulin secretion. and dependent on insulin injections.TYPES OF DIABETES Type I diabetes is insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and Type II is noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). . mumps. It is also more preventable because it is associated with obesity and diet. peripheral insulin resistance and increased hepatic glucose production. Type II DM ‡Characterized by fasting hyperglycemia despite availability of insulin. environment. Gestational Diabetes is diabetes that develops during pregnancy. It may develop into full-blown diabetes. Nitrosamines). ‡Genetic. prone to develop ketosis.g.g. or may be acquired due to viruses (e. occurring in about 90-95% of all persons with diabetes. NIDDM is more common.

Risk Factors of Type 2 DM ‡Family history of diabetes (i.0 Kgs) ‡Previously identified to have Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) . parents or siblings with diabetes) ‡Overweight (BMI 23 kg/m ) and obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m ) ‡Sedentary lifestyle ‡Hypertension ‡HDL cholesterol < 35 mg/dl (0.90 mmol/L) and/or triglyceride level > 250 mg/dl (2..28mmol/L) ‡History of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) or delivery of a baby weighing 9 Ibs (4.e.

neuropathy and foot ulcers KEY AREAS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF DIABETES ‡Maintain body weight and prevent obesity ‡Encourage proper nutrition ‡Promote regular physical activity and exercise ‡Advise smoking cessation for active smokers and prevent exposure to secondhand smoke. blindness (retinopathy). These include chronic renal disease (nephropathy).Complications ‡ Acute comlications include diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). coronary artery disease and stroke. hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic coma (HHNK) and hypoglycemia especially in type I daibetics ‡Chronic complications cause most of the disability associated with the disease. .

COPD is currently the fourth leading cause of death in the world. CAUSES AND RISK FACTORS COPD is usually due to chronic bronchitis and emphysema. The diagnosis is confirmed by spirometry. and more cases and deaths due to COPD can be predicted in the coming decades because of smoking. or dyspnea. DESCRIPTION COPD is a disease state characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. DIAGNOSIS A diagnosis of COPD should be considered in any patient who has symptoms of cough. and/or a history of exposure to risk factors for the disease. CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a major cause of chronic morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Cigarette smoking is the primary cause of COPD. . sputum production.D. both of which are due to cigarette smoking.

COMPLICATIONS Respiratory failure In advanced COPD. parenchymal destruction. later on. peripheral airways obstruction. is the major cardiovascular complication of COPD and is associated with the development of cor pulmonale and a poor prognosis. Cardiovascular disease Pulmonary hypertension. and pulmonary vascular abnormalities reduce the lung s capacity for gas exchange. . which develops late in the course of severe COPD). hypercapnia. producing hypoxemia and.

particularly at night or in the early morning. BRONCHIAL ASTHMA Asthma is a chronic disease. Chronic inflammation causes an associated increase in airway hyper responsiveness that leads to recurrent episodes of wheezing. chest tightness and coughing.E. CAUSES AND RISK FACTORS Asthma development has component. These episodes are usually associated with widespread but variable airflow obstruction that is often reversible either spontaneously or with treatment. both genetic and environment . It is an inflammatory disorder of the airways in which many cells and cellular elements play a role. breathlessness.

Host Factors: predispose individuals to protect them from developing asthma  Genetic predisposition Atopy or allery Airway hyperresponsiveness Gender Race/Ethnicity b.a. Environmental Factors:  Indoor allergens Outdoor allergens Occupational sensitizers Tobacco smoke  Air pollution Respiratory infections Parasitic infections Socioeconomic factors Family size Diet and drugs Obesity .

Asthma triggers Triggers are risk factors for asthma exacerbations. early introduction to cow s milk may predispose baby to allergies and possible asthma . It involves further exposure to causal factors(allergens and occupational agents) that have already sensitized the airways of the person with asthma. inhaled allergens. additives and drugs. respiratory infection. mattresses. house dust mite found in pillows. These cannot cause asthma to develop initially. certain foods. particularly smoking ‡Promote exclusive breastfeeding as long as possible. weather changes. but can exacerbate established asthma. exercise. carpets. KEY AREAS FOR PRIMARY PREVENTION AND EXACERBATION OF ASTHMA ‡ Recognize triggers that exacerbate asthma ‡Avoid these triggers if possible. They induce inflammation and/or provoke acute bronchoconstriction. Other form of triggers are irritant gases and smoke. cold air.

softdrinks ‡Start developing healthy habits in children ENCOURAGE MORE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND EXERCISE ‡ Moderate physical activity of atleast 30 minutes for most days ‡Integrate physical activity and exercise into regular day to-day activities ‡Walking is one form of exercise that is possible for including older persons and persons with cardiovascular disease PROMOTE SMOKE-FREE ENVIRONMENT ‡Smoking cessation for active smokers to reduce risk ‡Prohibit smoking inside living areas. instant noodles. houses and closed areas DISCOURAGE EXCESSIVE DRINKING OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES EARLY DIAGNOSIS AND PROMPT TREATMENT Overweight and Obesity Sedentary lifestyle Smoking.Risk factors  Elevated blood lipid (Hyperlipidemia) High intake of fatty foods Inadequate intake of dietary fiber Key Areas for Prevention PROMOTE PROPER NUTRITION ‡Limit intake of fatty. both active or passive /secondhand Excessive use of alcohol Hyperlipidemia. Hypertension. salty and preserved foods ‡Increase intake of vegetables and fruits ‡Avoid high caloric low-nutrient value food like junk food. Diabetes Mellitus .

III. RISK ASSESSMENT AND SCREENING PROCEDURES The basis of noncommunicable disease (NCD) prevention is the identification of the major common risk factors and their prevention and control. A risk factor refers to any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual, which increases the likelihood of developing NCD. Assessment of these risk factors and screening for NCDs in individuals and communities are important in preventing and controlling future diseases. RISK FACTOR ASSESSMENT A.Cigarette Smoking
‡ Assess smoking status by asking individuals whether they smoke or not.In order to monitor trends, collect information not only on smoking status but also on age of onset , amount smoked by current and former smoker s, and quit attempts. Every client should be asked about tobacco use. Smoking status should be recorded and updated at regular intervals. Diet is a combination of related behaviors , which are often culture-specific. Comprehensive nutritional assessment involves detailed recall methods (e.g. 24-hours food diary) or extensive food frequency questionnaires and estimation of nutrients based on food composition tables. At the very least, the following question should be ask to determine the contribution of the patient s nutrition to NCD development. These include:

B. Nutrition/Diet

Vegetables ‡Number of servings of vegetables per day and usual types of vegetables eaten Fruits ‡Number of servings of fruit per day Fat ‡Number of servings of meat and poultry ‡Which part (e.g. skin of chicken) ‡How often fried foods are eaten ‡How often fast foods/restaurants are visited Sodium/Salt ‡How often preserved, canned and instant foods are eaten per week ‡How much salt is added when cooking food

‡Eat 2-3 servings of vegetables each day, one serving of which is green or yellow leafy vegetables. One serving means: Raw vegetables 1 cup Cooked vegetables ½ cup ‡Eat at least 2 servings of fruit per day, 1 serving is a vitamin C rich fruit. One serving of fruit depends on type of fruit.

C. Overweight/Obesity Body fat can best be assessed using Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference . BMI correlates closely with total body fat in relation to height and weight. However, this does not compensable for frame size, does not indicate fat distribution, and cannot be adjusted for age.

Weight In children and adults, regular weighing is the simplest way of knowing if energy balance is being achieved. The use of weight-for-age or weight-for-height tables will help determine the desirable weight either according to age (children) or height (adults) Body Mass Index (BMI) BMI is calculated using the following formula: BMI= Weight in Kgs/ Height in meters GUIDELINE Based on Asia-Pacific Obesity Guidelines: BMI Interpretation <18.5 Underweight 18.6-22.9 Healthy weight >23.0 Overweight 23.0-24.9 At risk 25.0-29.9 Obese I >30.0 Obese II

Use nonstretchable tape measure and do not compress the skin. Clinical Thresholds: Men < 90 cm (35 inches) Women <80 (31. feet together. and standing with abdomen relaxed.Waist Circumference (WC) This alone is an accurate measure of the amount of visceral fat. Remember that the central obesity is a significant risk factor to heart disease and stroke. ASSESSING DEGREE OF RISK CO-MORBID CONDITIONS BASED ON BMI AND WC Measuring Waist Circumference Procedure: Subject should be unclothed at the waist. arms at the sides.5 inches) Greater than these value is not normal and the person is at risk even if BMI is normal .

Physical Inactivity/ Sedentary Lifestyle Assessment of physical activity includes on type of work. .0 (men).0 (men) and 0. means of transportation and leisure-time activities like sports and formal exercise.85 (women) = android or central obesity D. WHR= Waist circumference (cm)/Hip circumference (cm) WHR Interpretation: ‡Less than 1.85 (women) = normal WHR ‡Equal to or greater than 1. It is obtained by dividing the waist circumference at the narrowest point by the hip circumference at the widest point.Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) Another useful measure of obesity is the waist-to-hip ratio. less than 0.

E. such as driving or operating machinery while intoxicated. Excessive Alcohol Drinking Assess habitual alcohol intake and risky behavior. .Minimum recommended amount of physical activity needed to achieve health benefit: Regular Physical Activity: Minimum 30 minutes per day most days of the week preferably daily If moderate intensity: 5 or more days of the week If vigorous intensity 3 or more days of the week Guideline At least 30 minutes of cumulative physical activity moderate in intensity for most days of the week.

Screening for Hypertension ‡ Hypertension is defined as a sustained systolic BP of 140 mm Hg or more and sustained DBP of 90 mmHg or more based on measurements done during at least 2 visits taken at least 1 week apart. A. Prior to testing. examination or other procedures which can be applied rapidly. B. Screening programs are usually disease specific and thus may be called hypertension screening or diabetes screening. screening is the presumptive identification of unrecognized disease or defect by the application of tests. . Screening for Elevated Cholesterol in the Blood ‡The recommended screening test for cholesterol is taking a small blood sample and testing for total blood cholesterol. Drinking water is acceptable.SCREENING GUIDELINES AND PROCEDURES According to WHO. make sure that the person has not eaten any food nor taken any drinks containing calories for atleast eight hours. The primary goal of screening is to detect a disease in its early stages to be able to treat it and prevent further development of the disease.

Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) is not recommended for routine clinical use nor screening purposes. Performed two hours after using 75g glucose dissolved in water or after a good meal.C. . only water is allowed. milk. advise blood test for serum or plasma glucose. Screening for Diabetes ‡The hallmark of diagnosis of diabetes mellitus is the presence of Hyperglycemia. ‡Fasting blood sugar (FBS)- ‡Two-hour blood sugar test- Fasting is defined as no caloric intake for atleast eight hours. this include no food. juices. For those with family history and symptoms of DM.

unusual bleeding or discharge T.sudden weight loss .change in bowel or bladder habits A.thickening or lump in the breast or elsewhere I. Screening For Cancer ‡ Early detection and prompt treatment are keys to curing cancer.obvious change in wart or mole N. WARNING SIGNS FOR CANCER (CAUTION US) C.nagging cough of hoarseness in voice U.D.a sore that does not heal U.unexplained anemia digestion and difficulty swallowing O.

mammogram should be started at age 30. ‡ Breast mammography -baseseline mammogram is suggested for all women between the ages of 35-39 and yearly mammogram after age 40. Breast Cancer a. b. Prominent venous pattern). .cheapest and most affordable screening procedure for breast cancer. Rashes or Discharge). Ulceration. Dimpling or inflammation peau de orange . Nipple abnormalities ( Retraction.SPECIFIC GUIDELINES FOR EARLY DETECTION OF COMMON CANCERS 1. Abnormal Contours ( Variation in size and shape of breasts). If with family history of breast cancer. Put in mind that BSE does not take the place of mammogram or vice versa. facing the mirror standing up or lying down. Early Detection ‡ Breast peal like skin. The best time to do BSE is one week after menstrual period while taking a shower. Warning Signs includes skin changes ( Edema.

b. Early Detection ‡ Annual digital rectal exam starting at age 40 ‡ Annual stool blood starting at age 50 ‡ Annual inspection of colon . These include those who are -Sexually active. Cervical Cancer a. rectal bleeding.should be done in between menses (two weeks after menses). . Warning Signs includes change in stool. it should be done yearly.2. post-coital bleeding) b.g. 3. abdominal pain. Early Detection ‡ Pap s smear primary screening tool for women over age 18 . Warning Signs includes often asymptomatic and Abnormal vaginal bleeding (e. Colon Rectal Cancer a. pressure on the rectum. -Have multiple partners -Commercial sex workers.For persons at high risk.

history of weight loss b. Early Warning Signs are those with a long history of smoking and/or smoking two or more packs of cigarette per day. Lung Cancer a. Early Detection ‡ Chest x-ray every six months for patients who have history of smoking two packs per day ‡ Sputum cytology . 5. Early Detection ‡ Digital rectal exam for mean ‡ Prostate specific antigen (PSA) determination a blood test.4. Warning Signs  Symptoms of urethral outflow obstruction: ‡ Urinary frequency ‡ Nocturia ‡ Decrease in stream ‡ Post-void dribbling b. localized pain. Prostate Cancer a. dull intermittent. confirms diagnosis. chronic cough or nagging cough.

A history of any of the following: ‡Symptoms triggered by exogenous factors ‡A family history of asthma. Screening for COPD Characteristic and symptoms: ‡ cough ‡ sputum production ‡ dyspnea upon exertion  SPIROMETRY done to determine degree of obstruction.One or a combination of cardinal symptoms (dyspnea. F. wheezing.E.Temporal waxing and waning and/or nocturnal occurrence of symptoms. 3. Screening for Asthma Suspect asthma in persons with the following: 1. allergic rhinitis or atopy ‡An improvement of symptoms with bronchodilator use . 2. cough. chest discomfort).

or members of the household during home visits.Every client not only the patient seeking consultation. . 4. the grandmother or aunt bringing a sick child for consultation. should be assessed for the presence of risk factors and early signs of NCD.Educate people on how to prevent the NCD risk factors through a healthier diet. This includes the mother bringing her newborn infant for immunization. 3. It will be good to periodically check their skills like BP taking. engaging in moderate physical activity and not smoking.ROLE OF PUBLIC HEALTH NURSE IN RISK ASSESSMENT AND SCREENING 1. using BMI table.Train other health workers . measurement of height and weight.Educate as many people and in every opportunity on the warning signs of NCDs and other risk 2. even the barangay health workers and barangay nutrition scholars on performing risk factor assessment.

IV. PROMOTING PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND EXERCISE Health Benefits of Regular Physical Activity ‡Reduces the risk of dying from coronary heart disease (CHD) ‡Reduces the risk of having a second heart attack in people who have already experienced one heart attack ‡Lowers both total blood cholesterol and triglycerides and many increase high.density lipoproteins (HDL or the good cholesterol) ‡Lowers the risk of developing high blood pressure ‡Helps reduce blood pressure in people who already have hypertension ‡Lowers the risk of developing non-insulin-dependent (Type II) diabetes mellitus ‡Reduces the risk of developing colon cancer .

muscles. and joints Helps older adults become stronger and better able to move about without falling or becoming excessively fatigued .‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Helps people achieve and maintain a healthy body weight Reduces feelings of depression and anxiety Promotes psychological well-being and reduces feelings of stress Helps build and maintain healthy bones.

or instead of walking around while using the phone one opts to sit down. like washing the dishes . or walking to the neighborhood store or jeepney terminal instead of riding the tricycle .UNDERSTANDING PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND EXERCISES  Physical activity is something done at home. like sweeping or raking leaves in the yard or gardening. Another example is attending a regular aerobics class 3 times a week is structured exercise. like instead of climbing the stairs one takes the elevator. It involves energy expenditure and planning.  . structured and repetitive movement done to improve or maintain one or more components of physical fitness. sweeping the floor. a planned. It is also what is done outside the house. Walking or jogging for three kilometers each day before or after work is a structured exercise. and cleaning the house. It is something that one might be avoiding doing in the office.

ROLE OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH NURSE The public health nurse play a big role in motivating individuals and groups to prevent living sedentary lifestyles that increase their risk for NCD. She has the responsibility of increasing their knowledge and skills needed to engage in physical activities and exercise as well as motivating them enough to start being physically active and to encourage them to main .

Recent research demonstrates that 90% of illness is stress-related. but also normal part of life. stress is not only inevitable and essential. PROMOTING STRESS MANAGEMENT Stress is an everyday fact of life and everyone experience stress from time to time. ranging from the negative extreme of actual physical danger to exhilaration of falling in love or achieving some long desired success. day to day living confronts even the most well managed life with continuous stream of potentially stressful experiences. the risk for serious health problems is greater because stress can exhaust the immune system. . Everybody can learn to effectively handle stress even when pressures persist. Stress is any change that one must adapt to. it is important to remain attentive to negative stress symptoms and to learn to identify the situations that evoke them. and to manage reactions to stress and minimize its negative impact. However. When these symptoms persist. Thus. However. And in between.V. stress management is largely a learnable skill. Fortunately. normal does not necessarily mean healthy. But one can learn ways to handle the stress of daily life efficiently. It is not possible to live without stress.

People respond to stressful situations in different ways. These will vary between individuals. Stressful situations can trigger different types of responses. some may be psychological and some may be behavioral. . Some may be physical.

is a state or quality of being spiritual. The idea of mediation is to focus one s thoughts on one relaxing thing for a sustained period of time. It is pure. ecclesiastica. holy. It is very effective method of relaxation. possessing the nature of qualities of a spirit. SPIRITUALITY .STRESS MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES 12 Stress Management Techniques 1. Mediation can have the following effects: Lowers blood pressure Slows breathing helps muscles relax Gives the body time to eliminate lactic acid and other waste products Eliminates stressful thoughts Helps with clear thinking Helps with focus and concentration Reduces stress headaches . relating to matters of sacred nature. Mediation. not a way of reaching the world beyond the senses.

SCHEDULING: TIME MANAGEMENT Time is a resource. Managing time really refers to managing one s self in such a way as to optimize the time available in order to achieve gratifying results. It increases sensitivity to the inner self and relationship with the world around. . A resource is something that lies ready for use. or being open to means knowing one s self. getting in touch with one s feelings. or something that can be drawn upon for aid. Time is a tool that can be drawn upon to help accomplish results. an assistant in solving problems. 3. an aid that can take care of a need. SELF AWARENESS .

4. no special clothes. SIESTA it means taking a nap. It relieves stress tension and one wakes up invigorated and set for the next activity. .are simple movements performed at a rhythmical and slow pace executed at the start of a demanding activity to loosen muscles. lubricate joints. It requires no special equipment. Performance of an individual scored high when siesta is observed with a 15-30 minutes nap. It had been proven thru a study that siesta invigorates one s body. It helps relax the mind and body muscles. a break or recharging of battery in order to improve productivity. short rest. STRETCHING . and no special skills and can be done anywhere and anytime. and increase body s oxygen supply. 5.

SENSATION TECHNIQUES The sense of touch is a powerful and highly sensitive form of communication. It also gives the body the exercise it badly needs. promotes healing and tones muscles. It is a natural reaction to reach out and touch whether to feel the shape or texture of something or to respond to another person. SPORTSEngaging in sports and in physical activities like these have been known to relieve stress. Massage helps to soothe away stress. perhaps by comforting them. But massage is also invigorating. unknotting tensed and aching muscles. it improves the functioning of many of the body s systems. . 7. leaving with a feeling of renewed energy. relieving headaches and helping sleep problems.6.

Music adds to the quality of life of a person . Socialization plays a very important role in the development of intrapersonal relationships. happy and worthy. On the contrary without socialization life will be boring and empty. Through socialization life becomes meaningful. It provides a medium of expression for thoughts and emotions. SOUNDS AND SONGS Music plays an important part in the everyday life of a person. SOCIALS A man is a social being who exist in relationships with his physical environment and in relationship with people and society.8. It also a way to relieve tension. 9.

so it must remain open until the goal is reached. SPEAK TO ME The world is designed as a mutual support system in which all things relate to each other. It is the way they obtain understanding.10. . Communication is the means by which people make their needs known. reinforcement and assistance from others. Talking to someone when feeling overwhelmed or unable to deal with stress or feeling helpless is often the best way of coping with stress. Interpersonal conflicts generally are resolved most effectively by open communications that accept the feelings of the persons involved and leas to better resolution of problems. Communication is aimed at a goal.

. STRESS DEBRIEFING Critical Incident is any usually strong or overwhelming emotional reactions which have potential to interfere with work during the event or thereafter in the majority of those exposed.11. as well as information about stress management. Critical Incident Stress Debriefing means to assist crisis workers/ team member to deal positively with the emotional impact of a severe event/ disaster and to provide education about current and anticipated stress responses.

It is also considered one of the ingredients or factors that motivates and encourages people to work harder and improve their level of performance in anything they do. It has been found out through research that it relieves all kinds of stresses.12. SMILE . physical. or mental. .It has been observed that people who always smile are healthy people. Smile is an expression of pleasure.

. The program is a partnership between the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Agency for Prevention of Blindness (IABP). mental disorders. which is the umbrella organization for eye care professional groups and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) involved in eye care.PROGRAMS FOR THE PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF OTHER NONCOMMUNICABLE DISEASES The following are some of the programs that addresses other noncommunicable diseases particularly blindness. NATIONAL PREVENTION OF BLINDNESS PROGRAM VISION 2020: The Right to Sight is a global initiative to eliminate avoidable blindness by the year 2020. renal disease and programs for disables persons.

VISION/ MISSION/ GOALS/ OBJECTIVES Vision All Filipinos enjoy the right to sight be year 2020 Mission The Department of Health. 4. partners and stakeholders commit to: 1. 2. Work towards poverty alleviation through preservation and restoration of sight to indigent Filipinos. 3. Local Health Units. Strengthen partnership among and with stakeholders to eliminate avoidable blindness in the Philippines. Provide access to quality eye care services for all. . Goal Reduce the prevalence of avoidable blindness in the Philippines through the provision of quality eye care. Empower communities to take proactive roles in the promotion of eye health and prevention of blindness.

2 : Reduce visual impairment due to refractive errors by 10% by the year 2010 ‡General Objective no.20% by the year 2010 .Objectives: ‡General Objective no.500 by the year 2010 ‡General Objective no. 3 : Reduce the prevalence of visual disability in children from 0. 1 : Increase Cataract Surgical Rate from 730 to 2.43% to 0.

INTERVENTIONS BY EYE DISORDER: 1.06% in the population). Cataract The pacification of the normally clear lens of the eye. Errors of Refraction It is the most common cause of visual impairment in the country (prevalence is 2. is the most common cause of blindness worldwide. 2. . Interventions will therefore consist of increasing awareness about cataract and cataract surgery. contact lenses or surgery. as well as improving the delivery of cataract services. It is corrected either with spectacle glasses.

06% while the prevalence of visual impairment in the same age group is 0. Childhood Blindness The prevalence of blindness among children (up to age 19) is 0. school clinics and healthy workers. Screening of children for any sign of visual impairment can be done by pediatricians.3.43%. .

blinding error of refraction and vitamin A deficiency thru enhanced services ‡Pooling of resources of government and non-government agencies to address the problem of cataract. and affordable to everyone ‡Reduction of the prevalence of cataract. blinding error or refraction.Vision 2020 Philippines envisions to eliminate avoidable blindness though three strategies: ‡Ensuring that cataract surgery is available. accessible. . and Vitamin A deficiency.

MENTAL HEALTH AND MENTAL DISORDERS World Health Organization (WHO) defines mental health as a stage of well being where a person can realize his or her own abilities to cope with normal stresses of life and work productively. .

Undefined Burden The portion of the burden relating to the impact of mental health problems to persons other than the individual directly affected. . Hidden Burden of mental illness Refers to the stigma and violations of human rights.FOUR FACETS AS A PUBLIC HEALTH BURDEN: Defined Burden Refers to the burden currently affecting persons with mental disorders and is measured in terms of prevalence and other indicators such as the quality of life indicators and disability adjusted life years (DALY). increasing social problems and unrest inherited from the existing burden. Future Burden Refers to the burden in the future resulting from the aging of the population. Stigma is a mark of shame. disgrace or disapproval that results in a person being shunned or rejected by others.

‡To categorize/prioritize the extreme life experiences which may be the concern of mental health. ‡To identify programs that could address psychosocial consequences and mental health issues of persons with extreme life experiences. B. ‡To ensure access of preventive and promotivemental health services.Mental Health Sub-Programs A. Extreme Life Experience An extreme life experience is one that is out the ordinary and which threatens personal equilibrium. ‡To identify situations which may be extreme life experiences. Objectives: ‡To increase awareness among the population on mental health and psychosocial issues. Wellness of Daily Living The process of attaining and maintaining mental-well being cross the life cycle through the promotion of healthy life style with emphasis on coping with psychosocial issues. . Objectives: ‡To differentiate between critical incident and extreme life experiences.

refugees. . Mental Disorder Objectives: ‡Promotion of mental health and prevention of mental illness across the lifespan and across sectors (children & adolescents.C. elderly. ‡To rationalize and enhance the drug program to different key settings as a form of deterring factor. Health Care Setting. technical information about the psychosocial effects of drugs. ‡To promote protective factors against the development of substance abuse/addiction in the following key settings (Family. persons with disabilities) D. School. adults. Substance Abuse & Military Other Forms of Addiction Objectives: ‡To provide implementers for advocacy accurate. OFWs. Workplace. Industry) through existing DOH programs and responsible agencies. Community. & special population such as military.

‡Help people in the community understand basic emotional needs and the factors that promote mental well being. ‡Teach parents the importance of providing emotional support to their children during critical periods in their lives as first day in school graduation. ‡Utilize opportunities in his/her everyday contacts with other members of the community to extend the general knowledge on mental hygiene. etc.NURSING RESPONSIBILITIES AND FUNCTIONS 1. In Mental Health Promotion ‡Participate in the promotion of mental health among families and the community. .

vices. ‡Impart information and guidance about the treatment scheme of the patients. ‡Recognize pathological deviations from normal in terms of acting. ‡Help the family to understand and accept the patient s health status and behavior so that all its members may offer as much support in the readjustments to home and community. ‡Be aware of the potential causes of breakdown and when necessary take some possible prevention action. ‡Encourage feeling of achievement be setting health goals that patient can attain. thinking. long standing physical illness. In Prevention and Control ‡Recognize mental health hazards and stress situations as unemployment. ‡Help patient assess his/her capacities and his/her handicaps in working towards a solution of his/her problem. psychiatric emergency management and other basic nursing care. divorce or abandonment of children. the desired and undesirable effect of the tranquilizers. all of which may make heavy demands on the emotional resources of t he persons concerned. and f eeling and make early referral so that diagnosis and treatment could be done early. .2. ‡Encouraged the patient to express his/her anxieties so that fears and misconceptions can be cleared up.

. experience and training. ‡Encourage and initiate patients to partake in activities of CIVIC organization in the community through the cooperation of patient s family. 4. ‡Make regular home visits to observe patients conditions during conversation and follow-up of medication. Rehabilitation ‡Initiate patient participation in occupational activities best suited to patient s capabilities.3. ‡Advice the family about the importance of regular follow-up at the clinic. education. In Research and Epidemiology ‡Participate actively in epidemiology survey to be aware of the size and extent of mental health problems of the community and organize a program for better preventive. capacities and interest. curative and rehabilitative measures.

‡Avoid excessive physical. ‡Develop and sustain solid spiritual values.POINTERS FOR HAVING MENTAL HEALTH ‡Maintain good physical health ‡Undergo annual medical examination or more often as needed ‡Develop and maintain a wholesome lifestyle (balanced die. substance abuse and excessive alcohol. ‡Avoid smoking. ‡Have a friend in whom you can confide and ventilate your problems. ‡Don t live in the past and avoid worrying about the future. adequate rest. exercise. mental and emotional stress. ‡Live-one day at a time. ‡Have a realistic goal in life. recreation). sleep. .

RENAL DISEASE CONTROL PROGRAM (REDCOP) It is started as a Department of Health (DOH). with the National Kidney and Transplant Institute (NKTI) as the main implementing agency. .Preventive Nephrology Project (PNP) in June 1994.

3. both local and national through: ‡Conduct training on nephrology. ‡Internal and external quality assurance. To conduct researches/studies that will establish the true incidence of existing renal problems and its sequel in the country. . To assist the existing health facilities. and related specialties to enhance the expertise of medical practitioners and related professions ‡Facilitation of sourcing out of funds for the development and upgrading of manpower. etc. equipment.THE GOALS OF THE PROGRAM ARE AS FOLLOWS: 1. urology. for use of medical practitioners and other related professions. 2. To formulate guidelines and protocols on the proper implementation of the different levels of prevention and care of renal diseases.

4. funding assistance and implementation. both GOs and NGOs. To assists in the development of dialysis and transplant centers/units in strategic locations all over the Philippines. . To establish an efficient and effective networking system with other programs and agencies. 6. 5. To give recommendations to lawmakers for health policy development.

causing death to about 7.000 Filipinos every year. Kidney Diseases ‡Chronic glomerulonephritis ‡Diabetic kidney disease ‡Hypertensive Kidney Disease ‡Chronic and repeated kidney infection(Pyelonephritis) ‡These often lead to End-Stage Renal ‡Disease (ESRD) due to the inability to recognize them in the early stages.IMPORTANT INFORMATION ABOUT KIDNEY DISEASES AND ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION Kidney diseases rank as the number 10 killer in the Philippines. .



Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful