Electron Configurations

• the arrangement of electrons in an atom • each type of atom has a unique electron configuration • electrons tend to assume positions that create the lowest possible energy for atom • ground state electron configurationlowest energy arrangement of electrons

Rules for Arrangements
• Aufbau Principle- an electron occupies the lowest-energy orbital that can receive it • Beginning in the 3rd energy level, the energies of the sublevels in different energy levels begin to overlap

Rules for Arrangements
• Pauli Exclusion Principle- no two electrons in the same atom can have the same set of 4 quantum numbers • Hund’s Rule- orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by one electron before any orbital is occupied by a second • all unpaired electrons must have the same spin

Rules for Arrangements

Writing Configurations
• Orbital Notation:
– an orbital is written as a line – each orbital has a name written below it – electrons are drawn as arrows (up and down)

• Electron Configuration Notation
– number of electrons in sublevel is added as a superscript

http://www.cowtownproductions.com/vining/Sims/atomic_electro

Order for Filling Sublevels

Writing Configurations
• Start by finding the number of electrons in the atom • Identify the sublevel that the last electron added is in by looking at the location in periodic table • Draw out lines for each orbital beginning with 1s and ending with the sublevel identified • Add arrows individually to the orbitals until all electrons have been drawn

Silicon
• number of electrons: 14 • last electron is in sublevel: 3p

1s

2s 3p

2p

3s

Valence Electrons- the electrons in the outermost energy level

Chlorine
• number of electrons: 17 • last electron is in sublevel: 3p

1s

2s

2p

3s

3p

Sodium
• number of electrons: 11 • last electron is in sublevel: 3s

1s

2s

2p

3s

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1

Calcium
• number of electrons: 20 • last electron is in sublevel: 4s

1s

2s 3p 4s

2p

3s

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2

Bromine
• number of electrons: 35 • last electron is in sublevel: 4p

1s 4s

2s

2p 3d

3s

3p 4p

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p5

Argon
• number of electrons: 18 • last electron is in sublevel: 3p

1s

2s

2p

3s

3p

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6

Noble Gas Notation
• short hand for larger atoms • configuration for the last noble gas is abbreviated by the noble gas’s symbol in brackets

Electron Configuration Exceptions

Copper
EXPECT: ACTUALLY:

[Ar] 4s2 3d9 [Ar] 4s1 3d10

Copper gains stability with a full d-sublevel.

Electron Configuration Exceptions

Chromium
EXPECT: ACTUALLY:

[Ar] 4s2 3d4 [Ar] 4s1 3d5

Chromium gains stability with a halffull d-sublevel.

Stability
Full sublevel (s, p, d, f) Half-full sublevel
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

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