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V Properties of Magnets
V Magnetic Properties of Materials
V The Magnetic Field of the Earth
 escribe the forces between two
permanent magnets
 etch the magnetic field of a single
permanent magnet
 Predict the direction of the force on a
magnet placed in a given magnetic
field
 Explain why ferromagnetic materials
always attract magnets of either pole
 escribe the theory behind why a
compass wors
 se a compass to find the direction of
true north
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ey Question:
How do magnets
interact with
each other?
a material is magnetic, it has the
V ¦f
ability to exert forces on magnets
or other magnetic materials
V
permanent magnet is a material
that eeps its magnetic properties
even when it is NOT close to other
magnets
V Magnets have two
opposite poles
0 north
0 south
V Magnets exert forces
on each other
V The forces depend on
the alignment of the
poles
V Plastics,wood, and most insulating
materials are virtually transparent to
magnetic forces
V Conducting metals, lie aluminum,
also allow magnetic forces to pass
through, but may change the forces
V The strength of the
force between
magnets depends
on the distance
between them
V The magnetic
force decreases
with distance
much faster than
does either gravity
or the electric
force
V Two magnets near
each other often
feel a twisting
force, or torque
V This is a result of
having two poles
V The combination of
attractive and
repulsive forces on
the same magnet
creates a torque
V
llmagnets
create a
magnetic field in
the space
around them,
and the
magnetic field
creates forces on
other magnets
V The number of field lines in
a certain area indicates
the relative strength of the
magnetic field in that
area
V The arrows on the field
lines indicate the direction
of the force
V The closer the lines are
together, the stronger the
field
V Magnetic field lines
always point away from a
magnet·s north pole and
toward its south pole
ey Question:
How do
magnets
interact with
different
materials?
V The sources of nearly
all magnetic effects in
matter are the
electrons in atoms
V There are two ways in
which electrons create
magnetism:
 Electrons around the
nucleus and their
motion maes the
entire atom a small
magnet
 Electrons themselves
act as though they
were magnets
V
ll atoms have electrons, so you
might thin that all materials
should be magnetic, but there is
great variability in the magnetic
properties of materials
V The electrons in some atoms
align to cancel out one
another·s magnetic influence
V hile all materials show some
ind of magnetic effect, the
magnetism in most materials is
too wea to detect without
highly sensitive instruments
V ¦n diamagnetic materials,
the electrons are
oriented so their
individual magnetic fields
cancel each other out
V ¦ndividual atoms in
paramagnetic materials
are magnetic but the
atoms themselves are
randomly arranged so
the overall magnetism of ^   Ã
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a sample is zero     Ã
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V
small group of metals have
very strong magnetic properties,
including iron, nicel, and
cobalt
V These metals are the best
nown examples of
ferromagnetic materials
V
toms with similar magnetic
orientations line up with
neighboring atoms in groups
called magnetic domains
V Magnetic domains in a ferromagnetic
material will always orient themselves to
attract a permanent magnet
0 ¦f a north pole approaches, domains
grow that have south poles facing out
0 ¦f a south pole approaches, domains
grow that have north poles facing out
V Materials that mae
good permanent
magnets are called
hard magnets
V teel, which contains
iron and carbon, is a
common and
inexpensive material
used to create hard
magnets
V Materials that lose their
magnetism quicly are
called soft magnets
ey Question:
How do we use
Earth·s magnetic
field to tell
direction?
V
s early as  B C people
discovered that some
naturally occurring
materials³ such as
m  and  
³
have magnetic properties
V By  , explorers from ¦taly
were using a compass to
guide ocean voyages
beyond the sight of land
V hen you use a compass,
the north-pointing end of the
needle points toward a spot
near (but not exactly at) the
Earth·s geographic north
pole
V The Earth·s magnetic poles
are defined by the planet·s
magnetic field
V That means the south
magnetic pole of the planet
is near the north geographic
pole
V The gauss is a unit used to measure the strength of
a magnetic field
V The magnetic field of the Earth is very wea ( 
gauss) compared with the strength of the field on
the surface of the classroom ceramic magnets
( gauss)
V Historical data shows that both the strength of the
Earth·s magnetic field and the location of the north
and south magnetic poles can switch places
V Today, the Earth·s magnetic field is losing
approximately 7 percent of its strength every 
years
V epending on where you are, a compass will point
slightly east or west of true north
V The difference between the direction a compass
points and the direction of true north is called
magnetic declination

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