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V Properties of Magnets
V Magnetic Properties of Materials
V The Magnetic Field of the Earth
 escribe the forces between two
permanent magnets
 etch the magnetic field of a single
permanent magnet
 Predict the direction of the force on a
magnet placed in a given magnetic
 Explain why ferromagnetic materials
always attract magnets of either pole
 escribe the theory behind why a
compass wors
 se a compass to find the direction of
true north
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ey Question:
How do magnets
interact with
each other?
a material is magnetic, it has the
V ¦f
ability to exert forces on magnets
or other magnetic materials
permanent magnet is a material
that eeps its magnetic properties
even when it is NOT close to other
V Magnets have two
opposite poles
0 north
0 south
V Magnets exert forces
on each other
V The forces depend on
the alignment of the
V Plastics,wood, and most insulating
materials are virtually transparent to
magnetic forces
V Conducting metals, lie aluminum,
also allow magnetic forces to pass
through, but may change the forces
V The strength of the
force between
magnets depends
on the distance
between them
V The magnetic
force decreases
with distance
much faster than
does either gravity
or the electric
V Two magnets near
each other often
feel a twisting
force, or torque
V This is a result of
having two poles
V The combination of
attractive and
repulsive forces on
the same magnet
creates a torque
create a
magnetic field in
the space
around them,
and the
magnetic field
creates forces on
other magnets
V The number of field lines in
a certain area indicates
the relative strength of the
magnetic field in that
V The arrows on the field
lines indicate the direction
of the force
V The closer the lines are
together, the stronger the
V Magnetic field lines
always point away from a
magnet·s north pole and
toward its south pole
ey Question:
How do
interact with
V The sources of nearly
all magnetic effects in
matter are the
electrons in atoms
V There are two ways in
which electrons create
 Electrons around the
nucleus and their
motion maes the
entire atom a small
 Electrons themselves
act as though they
were magnets
ll atoms have electrons, so you
might thin that all materials
should be magnetic, but there is
great variability in the magnetic
properties of materials
V The electrons in some atoms
align to cancel out one
another·s magnetic influence
V hile all materials show some
ind of magnetic effect, the
magnetism in most materials is
too wea to detect without
highly sensitive instruments
V ¦n diamagnetic materials,
the electrons are
oriented so their
individual magnetic fields
cancel each other out
V ¦ndividual atoms in
paramagnetic materials
are magnetic but the
atoms themselves are
randomly arranged so
the overall magnetism of ^   Ã
a sample is zero     Ã
à      Ã

small group of metals have
very strong magnetic properties,
including iron, nicel, and
V These metals are the best
nown examples of
ferromagnetic materials
toms with similar magnetic
orientations line up with
neighboring atoms in groups
called magnetic domains
V Magnetic domains in a ferromagnetic
material will always orient themselves to
attract a permanent magnet
0 ¦f a north pole approaches, domains
grow that have south poles facing out
0 ¦f a south pole approaches, domains
grow that have north poles facing out
V Materials that mae
good permanent
magnets are called
hard magnets
V teel, which contains
iron and carbon, is a
common and
inexpensive material
used to create hard
V Materials that lose their
magnetism quicly are
called soft magnets
ey Question:
How do we use
Earth·s magnetic
field to tell
s early as  B C people
discovered that some
naturally occurring
materials³ such as
m  and  
have magnetic properties
V By  , explorers from ¦taly
were using a compass to
guide ocean voyages
beyond the sight of land
V hen you use a compass,
the north-pointing end of the
needle points toward a spot
near (but not exactly at) the
Earth·s geographic north
V The Earth·s magnetic poles
are defined by the planet·s
magnetic field
V That means the south
magnetic pole of the planet
is near the north geographic
V The gauss is a unit used to measure the strength of
a magnetic field
V The magnetic field of the Earth is very wea ( 
gauss) compared with the strength of the field on
the surface of the classroom ceramic magnets
( gauss)
V Historical data shows that both the strength of the
Earth·s magnetic field and the location of the north
and south magnetic poles can switch places
V Today, the Earth·s magnetic field is losing
approximately 7 percent of its strength every 
V epending on where you are, a compass will point
slightly east or west of true north
V The difference between the direction a compass
points and the direction of true north is called
magnetic declination