Electric Charges and Forces Properties of Magnets € Magnetic Properties of Materials € The Magnetic Field of the Earth


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Describe the forces between two permanent magnets. Sketch the magnetic field of a single permanent magnet. Predict the direction of the force on a magnet placed in a given magnetic field. Explain why ferromagnetic materials always attract magnets of either pole. Describe the theory behind why a compass works. Use a compass to find the direction of true north.

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Key Question: How do magnets interact with each other? .

it has the ability to exert forces on magnets or other magnetic materials.€ If a material is magnetic. permanent magnet is a material that keeps its magnetic properties even when it is NOT close to other magnets. €A .

€ . € The forces depend on the alignment of the poles.€ Magnets have two opposite poles. ¾ north ¾ south Magnets exert forces on each other.

€ Conducting metals. also allow magnetic forces to pass through.€ Plastics. wood. and most insulating materials are virtually transparent to magnetic forces. but may change the forces. like aluminum. .

€ The magnetic force decreases with distance much faster than does either gravity or the electric force. .€ The strength of the force between magnets depends on the distance between them.

or torque. . € The combination of attractive and repulsive forces on the same magnet creates a torque.€ Two magnets near each other often feel a twisting force. € This is a result of having two poles.

€ All magnets create a magnetic field in the space around them. and the magnetic field creates forces on other magnets. .

€ € € € The number of field lines in a certain area indicates the relative strength of the magnetic field in that area. the stronger the field. The arrows on the field lines indicate the direction of the force. The closer the lines are together. Magnetic field lines always point away from a magnet·s north pole and toward its south pole. .

Key Question: How do magnets interact with different materials? .

Electrons around the nucleus and their motion makes the entire atom a small magnet. Electrons themselves act as though they were magnets.The sources of nearly all magnetic effects in matter are the electrons in atoms. € . 2. € There are two ways in which electrons create magnetism: 1.

€ . the magnetism in most materials is too weak to detect without highly sensitive instruments. € While all materials show some kind of magnetic effect. but there is great variability in the magnetic properties of materials.All atoms have electrons. € The electrons in some atoms align to cancel out one another·s magnetic influence. so you might think that all materials should be magnetic.

€ When paramagnetic materials are placed in a magnetic field.In diamagnetic materials. € Individual atoms in paramagnetic materials are magnetic but the atoms themselves are randomly arranged so the overall magnetism of a sample is zero. . the electrons are oriented so their individual magnetic fields cancel each other out. the atoms align so that the material is weakly magnetic.

and cobalt. Atoms with similar magnetic orientations line up with neighboring atoms in groups called magnetic domains.€ € € A small group of metals have very strong magnetic properties. nickel. . These metals are the best known examples of ferromagnetic materials. including iron.

€ Magnetic domains in a ferromagnetic material will always orient themselves to attract a permanent magnet. domains grow that have north poles facing out. ¾ If a north pole approaches. . domains grow that have south poles facing out. ¾ If a south pole approaches.


. which contains iron and carbon. Steel.€ € € Materials that make good permanent magnets are called hard magnets. is a common and inexpensive material used to create hard magnets. Materials that lose their magnetism quickly are called soft magnets.

Key Question: How do we use Earth·s magnetic field to tell direction? .

people discovered that some naturally occurring materials³ such as lodestone and magnetite³ have magnetic properties.€ € As early as 500 B.C. By 1200. explorers from Italy were using a compass to guide ocean voyages beyond the sight of land. .

.When you use a compass. the north-pointing end of the needle points toward a spot near (but not exactly at) the Earth·s geographic north pole. € The Earth·s magnetic poles are defined by the planet·s magnetic field. € € That means the south magnetic pole of the planet is near the north geographic pole.


€ Historical data shows that both the strength of the Earth·s magnetic field and the location of the north and south magnetic poles can switch places. the Earth·s magnetic field is losing approximately 7 percent of its strength every 100 years. € .The gauss is a unit used to measure the strength of a magnetic field.5 gauss) compared with the strength of the field on the surface of the classroom ceramic magnets (1000 gauss). € Today. € The magnetic field of the Earth is very weak (0.

a compass will point slightly east or west of true north. The large arrow points in the direction you want to go. .Depending on where you are. € The difference between the direction a compass points and the direction of true north is called magnetic declination. € After correcting for the declination. you rotate the whole compass until the north-pointing end of the needle lines up with zero degrees on the ring.

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