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Networking Basics

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Agenda
Overview What is a Network? Establishing Network Connectivity OSI Model Physical Components DataLink Protocols Network Protocols Other Terms and Definitions
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Objectives
Upon completion of this course, the participant will be able to: Explain the network concept Explain how to connect to a network Describe the OSI Model layers Differentiate between Physical layer components
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Objectives (continued)
Identify characteristics of Ethernet and Token Ring Protocols Explain Network Protocols Define DNS, DHCP, WINS, Domain

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Overview
This course provides an agent with a fundamental knowledge of basic networking

The foundation this class provides is built upon in troubleshooting TCP/IP and Wireless Networking

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What is a Network?
A network exists when information and resources can be shared A network provides a mechanism for making better use of our resources When computers are linked to share resources a network exists Two computers connected by a crossover cable comprise the smallest computer network
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What is a Network?
One way to describe a network is by the area it spans LAN – Local Area Network
• Computer network that spans a relatively small area • Most are confined to a single building or group of buildings • All the computers use the same datalink protocol

WAN – Wide Area Network
• Group of connected LANs • One LAN can be connected to other LANs over any distance via telephone
lines, leased lines, fiber runs, or radio waves

• The Internet is the largest

MAN – Municipal Area Network
• A network within a city or town
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What is a Network?
A network can also be described by the architecture the computers use to communicate with one another Peer-to-Peer Model
• Each computer can share resources and get resources from
another computer in the network

• Access is determined by user’s security permissions on each
machine
Can I use the Printer?

Client and Server

Client and Server

Can I use the customer file?

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What is a Network?
Client/Server
• •
All computers get resources from the server Access is determined by the user’s security permissions on the network
Server

Can I add to the database?

Can I use your printer? Can I get the customer file?

Client Client Client

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What is a Network?
When using Client/Server model, the server operating system is a Network Operating System (NOS)
• Windows 2000/XP and Novell Netware are the most common • NOS contains a database of user accounts • Every user must logon and receive network credentials to access
network resources

• Security permissions are attached to resources • A specific user may have no access, read only access, or full
control of the resource
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What is a Network?
• In a NOS, users can be combined in groups • The groups can then be given access to a specific resource • This reduces administration of security permissions • In Windows, the server that verifies a user’s right to logon
the network is called a domain controller

• The domain controller contains the Security Account
Manager (SAM)

• This is the database of users
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Establishing Network Connectivity
Requires four steps: steps
• Install the network interface card (NIC) • Install the NIC driver • Install the client software • Install and configure the network communications protocol
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Establishing Network Connectivity
Install the NIC
• The NIC is an Input/Output (I/O) card plugged into a slot on the
motherboard

Install and Configure the NIC Driver
• I/O driver is the translator between the device and the operating
system

• Think of the operating system as speaking French and the network
as speaking Mandarin effectively

• Driver must speak both languages to allow them to communicate
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Establishing Network Connectivity
• Most NIC’s are PnP compatible • Resources are automatically assigned to the driver while the system
is booting DMA

• These include Interrupt Request (IRQ), I/O Memory, Memory, and

Install the Client Software
• Client software is specific to the NOS • If server is running Novell Netware, the Netware client must be
installed on the client computer default

• Many Microsoft operating systems install the Microsoft client by
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Establishing Network Connectivity
Install and Configure the Network Communications Protocol
• Package and address the network packets ensuring that they are
delivered within the LAN

• Protocol is determined by the NOS • Windows and the Internet communicate using the TCP/IP protocol • Novell Netware uses IPX/SPX and/or TCP/IP
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Establishing Network Connectivity
• The properties for the protocol must be configured in the properties
for the protocol

• With TCP/IP -- an IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway are
required

• Can be automatically acquired with access to a Dynamic Host
Configuration Protocol (DHCP)

• The IPX/SPX protocol uses an address based on the Media
Access Control (MAC) address on the NIC

• All clients must use the same frame type
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OSI Model
OSI (Open Systems Interconnect) model was created by the ISO (International Standards Organization)
• Sets the accepted procedures that govern the development of network
components

• Procedures provide standard interfaces that allow diverse programs and
hardware to interconnect

• Model addresses seven layers of network connectivity but a specific
component may only address one or two of the layers

• A network interface card (NIC), for example, only works at the Physical and
Data Link Layers

• The OSI model defines a consistent communication platform for
manufacturers and developers of network components
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OSI Model
Computer A Computer B
Application 7 Presentation 6 Session 5 Transport 4 Network 3 DataLink 2 Physical 1
Data

Application 7 Presentation 6 Session 5 Transport 4 Network 3 DataLink 2 Physical 1

Data

Data

Chunked Data

Packet

Frame

Bits

bits

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OSI Model
Application Layer Includes all the network applications a user interacts with including:
- HTTP – Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (www) is the protocol used on the world wide web and determines what types of information can be transferred. - FTP – File Transfer Protocol is the protocol used to transfer files between computers - SMTP – Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is used to send email. - POP3 – Post Office Protocol 3 is used to receive mail. - NNTP – Network News Transfer Protocol provides distribution, inquiry, retrieval and posting of news articles, bulleting boards and chats. - Gopher – Gopher is a search engine. - Telnet – Telnet allows a user to logon and control a remote computer.
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OSI Model
Presentation Layer Converts application layer information into a common format on the sending computer Converts the common format to the application format at the receiving computer, formats include:
- ASCII – text files - JPG, BMP, GIF – pictures - MPG, AVI, MOV – videos - MP3, WAV – music
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OSI Model
Session Layer Responsible for establishing a connection, maintaining the connection and ending the connection The decision to transmit data using half duplex or full duplex is made at this layer
- Half Duplex – This transmission type is similar to a one lane bridge. Cars can travel in both directions but not at the same time. With half duplex one computer send a message then waits for the other computer to respond. - Full Duplex – This transmission type allows both computers to transmit and receive at the same time.
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OSI Model
Tools that facilitate this process are Remote Procedure Calls (RPC) and named pipe
• RPCs are issued whenever a network resource is contacted • An RPC server is the server providing the specific resource • This could be a print server, a DHCP server, a domain controller or
a file server

• Named pipes are created to allow private communications to occur
over a public network
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OSI Model
Transport Layer Responsible for breaking information into chunks and assigning addresses to the different processes
• The process addresses are called ports • These should not be confused with external ports • These are virtual ports used to keep network applications separated in the
operating system

• Ports numbers are assigned based on the following:
- Well Known Ports - Registered Ports - Private Ports 0-1023 1024 – 49,151 49,151 – 65535
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OSI Model
Package being sent:
Data from HTTP web page

Source 52,999

Destination 80

Data

Source 52,999

Destination 80

Data

Source 52,999

Destination 80

Data

Package received:
Data to HTTP web page

Source 80

Destination 52,999

Data

Source 80

Destination 52,999

Data

Source 80

Destination 52,999

Data

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OSI Model
A private port address is assigned to the source port of the packet A well-known port or a registered port is assigned to the destination port This port is specific to the application that the packet was created for The following table lists some well-known ports: Port / Protocol Application 20,21/tcp 23/tcp 25/tcp, udp 53/tcp,udp 69/udp 70/tcp 80/tcp 110/tcp 3161 /tcp Ftp Telnet Smtp Dns Tftp Gopher www http Pop Snmp

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OSI Model
Two types of commonly used transport protocols that are part of the TCP/IP Protocol suite
- Transport Control Protocol (TCP) - At this layer the connection oriented protocol, TCP, establishes flow control by agreeing on the amount of data in each packet to be transferred (3 way handshake) and monitoring the packets that are received to ensure that lost packets are resent. - User Datagram Protocol (UDP) – At this layer the connectionless protocol, UDP, sends a packet and assumes the destination computer receives it. There is no check performed to ensure the packet arrived intact.
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OSI Model
Network Layer
• At this layer a packet is created • Packet includes information from the upper layers and the network
address for the source and destination computer

• The IP address is the network address assigned to a TCP/IP
packet

• The IPX address is the network address assigned to the IPX/SPX
packet

• The information in the packet is ordered based on the network
protocol

• A receiving computer will look for information in a specific place in
the packet based on the protocol
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OSI Model
IP Packet

Version

IHL

Type of Service

Total Length

ID

Flags

Fragment Offset

TTL

Protocol

Checksum

Source Address

Destination Address

Data

IPX Packet

Checksum

Packet Length

Transport Control

Packet Type

Destination Network

Dest. Node

Dest. Socket

Source Network

Source Node

Source Socket

Data

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OSI Model
Data-Link Layer
• Controls the movement of data on the network • The packet from the network layer is modified to include the frame
source and destination address

• This address is the media access control (MAC) address on the NIC • Once these addresses are added the packet is called a frame • Data-link protocols differ in the way frame is sent on the network
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OSI Model
Ethernet Protocol (IEEE 802.3)
• Based on the bus physical topology and uses Carrier Sense,
Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD)

• Means the computer that wants to send a message listens on the
media, sends the message if it hears nothing

• If two computers send a message at the same time, a collision occurs • When a collision occurs the sending computers wait a random
amount of time, listen, and resend the message
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OSI Model
Token Ring Protocol (IEEE 802.5)
• Based on the ring physical topology and puts a token message on
the ring

• The computer that wants to send a message must first control the
token

• The message is sent, then the token is re-released • This ensures that only one message is on the ring at a time
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OSI Model
Wireless Protocol (IEEE 802.11x) (Similar to Ethernet)
• The computer listens for traffic on the radio waves, if there is none
the package is transmitted

• If a collision occurs the package is retransmitted • This protocol is affected by anything else transmitting in the same
radio wave space

• Examples include cell phones and microwaves, common examples
are 802.11b, 802.11g. and 802.11f

• They vary in transmission speed and frequency
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OSI Model
Physical Layer A frame is conveyed as bits onto the media The physical topology and the components are the issues at this layer Physical components include the media (cabling, radio waves, etc), the connectors, the NIC and the signal repeating devices like the hub and repeater
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Physical Components (Layer 1)
Network Topologies Bus
• A bus topology is a single cable that connects all computers in a line • Each end must be terminated, one must be grounded

Computer A

Computer B

Computer C

Computer D

Computer E

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Physical Components (Layer 1)
Ring
• A ring topology
connects all computers on a single cable
Computer F Computer A Computer B

Computer C

• Ends are not
terminated, a loop is formed that connects the last computer to the first computer
Computer D Computer E

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Physical Components (Layer 1)
Star
• In a star topology the computers are connected to a central HUB
via cable segments
HUB

Computer A

Computer E

Computer D Computer B

Computer C

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Physical Components (Layer 1)
Mesh
• Commonly used in • Routers are
WAN configurations
Router A Router E

connected to multiple links for redundancy
Router B Router D

• Provides the ability to
determine the quickest route to a destination and to change routes when a connection is broken
Router C

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Physical Components (Layer 1)
Network Media
• Transmission of a signal from one computer to another occurs on the media • Can be a physical cable or the atmosphere • In data networks, two types of signal can be sent • Both are generated by electrical current and are measured in voltage

Analog Signal
• With analog signals, the voltage varies continuously, resemble waves • Strength of an analog signal is measured in amplitude • Phones transmit analog signals
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Physical Components (Layer 1)
Digital Signal
• Turn on and off continuously • Voltage varies from 0 to a specific positive voltage • Computers use a series of 1s and 0s to create the digital pattern • Digital signaling is more efficient than analog signaling because fewer errors
occur so there is less need to resend the message

Data Modulation
• Data must be modulated when it is sent from a digital medium to an analog
medium

• A modem is a modulator/demodulator • A modem takes a digital signal and converts it to analog to transmit it to
another computer through a phone line

• At the other end the analog signal is converted back to a digital signal or
demodulated
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Physical Components (Layer 1)
Baseband and Broadband
• Baseband transmits one digital signal at a time on the media • The digital signal has exclusive use of the wire until the transmission
is complete

• Broadband modulates signals into radiofrequency (RF) analog
signals using different frequencies

• Because different frequencies are being used, signals can travel on
multiple channels at the same time

• Because a signal on a wire can only travel in one direction, two wires
are required to send and receive

• Cable TV is an example of a broadband transmission
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Physical Components (Layer 1)
Types of Cable
• Three types of cable used today • Two of the types, coaxial and twisted pair, use copper as the transmission
media for an electrical signal

• The third type, fiber optic, uses glass as the transmission media, the signal is
light

Coaxial Cable
• Coaxial cable was used for many years with Ethernet bus networks • In most networks today, twisted pair in a star configuration has replaced
coaxial

• There are two types of coaxial cable, Thicknet (RG-58) and Thinnet(RG-8) • Thicknet has less bend radius than Thinnet but a signal can travel further
without disruption
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Physical Components (Layer 1)
Cable type Thicknet Ethernet Designation 10Base5 Throughput 10Mbps Cable Length Connector 500 meters with no AUI connector more than 100 (also called DIX or connections per DB15) to segment no closer transceiver and than 2.5 meters computer and vampire tap to network 185 meters with no BNC barrel more than 30 connector to the nodes per segment computer and BNC no closer than 2.5 T connector to meters network

Coaxial Cable

Thinnet

10Base

10Mbps

BNC Connector

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Physical Components (Layer 1)
Twisted Pair Cable
• Consists of 4 to 8 color-coded wires • Each pair is twisted to reduce the effects of crosstalk on the wire • Crosstalk occurs when signals on nearby wires cross over and
interfere with the signal traveling on each wire

• Two types of twisted pair wire, shielded and unshielded
- Shielded twisted pair (STP) is insulated to reduce noise on the wire - Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) is more common and less expensive than STP
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Physical Components (Layer 1)
Twisted Pair Cable (Continued)
• TIA/EIA developed the standards for twisted pair • Standards describe categories of the cable • Cat5E is current minimum standard for new Ethernet networks • Cat 5 is the most common in existing networks • Cat 5 or 5E uses 2 or 4 pairs of wires, both support throughput of
100Mbps at a 100MHz signal rate 20MHz

• Cat 3 uses 2 pairs of wires but only supports data rates of 10Mbps at
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Physical Components (Layer 1)
Cable type
UTP Cat3 or higherUses 2 pair UTP Cat5 or higherUses 2 pair UTP Cat3 or higher Uses 4 pair UTP Cat3 or higherUses 4 pair

Ethernet Designation
10BaseT

Throughput
10Mbps

Cable Length

Connector

100 meters with one RJ45 node per segment 100 meters with one RJ45 node per segment 100 meters with one RJ45 node per segment 100 meters with one Uses NICs and node connectors specific to 100BaseVG

100BaseTX

100Mbps

100BaseT4does not 100Mbps support full duplex transmissions 100BaseVGvoice gradedoes not support full duplex transmissions on Ethernet or Token Ring 100Mbps

Twisted Pair

RJ45 Connector

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Physical Components (Layer 1)
Fiber Optic Cable
• Fiber optic cable contains one or several pure glass tubes • Light is sent through the glass using a light-emitting diode (LED) • A layer of impure glass surrounds the tubes • This is called cladding • The cladding reflects the light back into the tube allowing the signal
to travel for very long distances

• There are two types of fiber, single-mode and multi-mode
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Physical Components (Layer 1)
Single-mode
• Cable using one narrow tube (10 microns in diameter) • The light has very little room to reflect enabling it to travel long
distances without requiring attenuators

• Single mode is used to connect buildings

Multi-mode
• Cable is 50 to 100 microns in diameter • Light reflects much more so the signal cannot travel as far and it may
carry more than one signal

• Multi-mode is much cheaper than signal mode • Multi-mode is usually used to connect wiring closets within a building
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Physical Components (Layer 1)
Cable type Ethernet Designation 100BaseFX Throughput Cable Length Connector Single Mode 100 Mbps to 1Gbps 3km 10 excepted connectors but ST or SC are the most common ST

Multi-mode2 strands

10BaseFFull Duplex

10 Mbps to 1Gbps 2km

Fiber Optic Cable

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DataLink Protocols
DataLink Protocols
• Most common Datalink protocols are Ethernet and Token Ring • Also referred to as the logical topology or network transport system • Datalink protocol determines how a message will transmit across the
media

• At this layer the frame packaging is determined • Frame must include a source and destination MAC address • The Media Access Control (MAC) address is hard-coded on the
network interface card
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DataLink Protocols
Ethernet (IEEE 802.3)
• Requires a bus topology and uses the Carrier Sense Multiple Access
with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) method for controlling how network nodes will communicate

• Requires all nodes to listen on the media • If no messages are being transmitted, the node may transmit • If two nodes transmit at the same time a collision will occur • All nodes hear the collision • The two nodes that had messages that collided will wait a random
amount of time within a short window then retransmit
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DataLink Protocols
Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) continued
• The other computers must wait longer to ensure the messages are
transmitted

• Every computer in an Ethernet network receives the message and must
assemble it in memory

• If the destination MAC address belongs to the receiving computer the
message is sent up the OSI model and read

• If the MAC address does not belong to the computer, it is dumped • Switches reduce collisions by directing messages to specific nodes within an
Ethernet network but cannot stop broadcasts

• A broadcast will not stop until it reaches a router
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DataLink Protocols
Token Ring (IEEE 802.5)
• A Token Ring uses a ring topology • The ring can be located in the hub called a Multiple Access Unit
(MAU)

• A token is released on the ring • A token is a 24 bit frame
Starting Deliminator 8 bits Access Control 8 bits Ending Deliminator 8bits

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DataLink Protocols
Token Ring (IEEE 802.5) (continued)
• When a node wants to send a message it must grab the token • The node can then send the message • No other node can transmit without possession of the token • When the message has come completely around the circle, the token is
released and another node can pick it up

• No collisions occur on a Token Ring network • Only one node transmits at a time • Every node must read the message and discard it if the MAC address does
not match the MAC address of the node
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Network Protocols
A network protocol is an agreed-upon format for transmitting data between two devices The protocol determines the following:
• The type of error checking to be used for Data Compression method, if any • How the sending device will indicate that it has finished sending a message
and how the receiving device will indicate that it has received a message

• The order and contents of the package

There are a variety of standard protocols from which programmers can choose Each has particular advantages and disadvantages; for example, some are simpler than others, some are more reliable, and some are faster
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Network Protocols
TCP/IP
• Transport Control Protocol/Internet Protocol is the protocol used on
the Internet and by Windows networked operating systems network and node

• TCP/IP uses 32 bit IP addresses and subnet masks to identify the

IPX/SPX
• Novell Netware uses this protocol that is easier to configure but
both nodes must use the same frame type for communication to work

• The IPX address is based on the node MAC address
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Network Protocols
NetBEUI (the enhanced version of NetBIOS protocol)
• This protocol uses the SMB (Simple Message Block) Broadcast
recognized within Windows operating systems

• It requires no configuration but is not a routable protocol • Because of this, it is limited to use on small networks of 25 nodes or
less

For more detailed information on protocols, go to:
• http://www.protocols.com/pbook/
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Other Terms and Definitions
IP address
• The IP address is a 32 bit binary address unique to the specific
computer. The IP address identifies the network and the node.

Subnet Mask
• The subnet mask is a 32 bit binary number that masks the network
portion of the address enabling a router to direct a message to its proper destination.

Default Gateway
• The default gateway is a combination of hardware and software that
links two different types of networks. Gateways between e-mail systems, for example, allow users on different e-mail systems to exchange messages. The normal default gateway address will be the port on the router connected to the local area network (LAN).

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Other Terms and Definitions
DHCP • The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol is a server
application. When a computer boots up on a network using DHCP, the computer will send a broadcast to all computers on the network looking for IP address information. The DHCP server will respond by providing the information to the computer. The server leases the information to the computer. When half the leased time has passed, the computer requests a new lease. Until a computer receives IP information, the computer cannot communicate on the network.

DNS • Domain Name System (or Service), an Internet service that

translates domain names into IP addresses. Because domain names are alphabetic, they are easier to remember.

WINS • Windows Internet Naming Service, a system that determines the Service
IP address associated with a particular network computer
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Other Terms and Definitions
FQDN
• A Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) is required for
Windows 2000 and newer operating systems. www.unisys.com is a FQDN for a web presence. Tr1.astn.Unisys.com is a FQDN for a specific computer

UNC
• The Universal Naming Convention (UNC) structure is (UNC
\\server name\share name. The server name is normally the NetBIOS name of the computer. The share name is assigned when the folder or resource is shared.

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Other Terms and Definitions
Hub/Repeater
• A hub is a device used to connect two or more computers. • Uses a bus topology to connect computers. Because of this,
every computer receives every message.

• A hub can be passive which means it only acts as a
connection point, or it can be active, which means it can regenerate the signal allowing it to travel further.

• Hubs work at Layer One of the OSI model. They are only
concerned with bits.
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Other Terms and Definitions
Bridge
• Bridges are similar to repeaters. They are used to connect
network segments and can also connect dissimilar physical media, like coaxial cable and twisted pair or fiber.

• A Bridge can also connect an Ethernet network with a Token
Ring network.

• Bridges can filter traffic between network segments by

looking at the MAC address. The frame is forwarded if it is not on the same network as the source MAC address.

• A bridge operates at Layer 2 in the OSI model.
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Other Terms and Definitions
Switch
• A switch is a high-speed multiport bridge that maintains a
bridging table with MAC addresses for the segments it connects.

• A switch works at layer 2 of the OSI model. • A switch can regenerate a signal but can also direct a
message to a specific node reducing collisions in an Ethernet network.

• Switches are used more than hubs today.
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Other Terms and Definitions
Router
• The router is the device that forwards data packets from one
Local Area Network (LAN) or Wide Area Network (WAN) to another.

• Routers connect networks running at different speeds and
using different protocols. i.e. Ethernet and Token Ring.

• Based on routing tables and routing protocols, routers read
the network address in each transmitted frame and make a decision on how to send it based on the most expedient route (traffic load, line costs, speed, bad lines, etc.).

• Routers operate at Layer 3 of the OSI model. • Because routers can route based on the network portion of
the IP address, routers stop network broadcasts.
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Other Terms and Definitions
Brouter
• A brouter routes routable packets but acts as a bridge for
non-routable protocols.

• Brouters operate at Layers 2 and 3 of the OSI model.

Gateway
• A gateway is a networking device that translates information
between Internet protocols, like TCP/IP to IPX/SPX, or dissimilar LANs, like a TCP/IP network to an SNA mainframe network.

• Gateways operate at Layers 1-7 of the OSI model.
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Objectives Revisited
Explain the network concept

Explain how to connect to a network

Describe the OSI Model layers

Differentiate between Physical layer components
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Review

Review / Questions

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