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Data & Signals


To be transmitted, data must be
transformed to electromagnetic signals.


Data can be analog or digital. The term analog data refers to
information that is continuous; digital data refers to
information that has discrete states. Analog data take on
continuous values. Digital data take on discrete values.

.Note Data can be analog or digital. Analog data are continuous and take continuous values. Digital data have discrete states and take discrete values.

Note Signals can be analog or digital. Analog signals can have an infinite number of values in a range. . digital signals can have only a limited number of values.

Comparison of analog and digital signals .

Periodic and Non periodic  A periodic signal completes a patterns within a measurable time frame. called a period. .  Repeats the pattern over the subsequent identical periods.  The completion of one full pattern is called a cycle.  A non periodic signal changes without exhibiting a pattern over time.

a sine wave. . cannot be decomposed into simpler signals. A simple periodic analog signal. PERIODIC ANALOG SIGNALS Periodic analog signals can be classified as simple or composite. A composite periodic analog signal is composed of multiple sine waves.

Sine Wave .

.Sine wave is represented by 3 parameters  Peak amplitude: of a signal is the absolute value of its highest intensity.  Frequency: Number of cycles per second  Phase: describes the position of the waveform relative to time 0. proportional to the energy it carries.

Wave Length  It is the characteristic of the signal traveling through a transmission medium.  The Band width of a composite signal is the difference between the highest and the lowest frequencies contained in that signal .  The wave length is the distance a simple signal can travel in one period.

Amplitude Change .

Frequency Change .

Phase Change .

 The band width of a composite signal is the difference between the highest and the lowest frequencies contained in that signal .Band width  The range of frequencies contained in a composite signal is its bandwidth.

Bandwidth l .

.  Broadband transmission: Changing the digital signal to an analog signal for transmission.Digital Signals  Bit Rate: is the number of bits sent in 1s  Bit length: is the distance of 1 bit occupies on the transmission medium  Baseband transmission: sending a digital signal over a channel without changing to an analog signal.

TRANSMISSION IMPAIRMENT Signals travel through transmission media. and noise. What is sent is not what is received. Three causes of impairment are attenuation. . which are not perfect. The imperfection causes signal impairment. distortion. This means that the signal at the beginning of the medium is not the same as the signal at the end of the medium.

Causes of impairment .

it loses some of its energy in overcoming the resistance of the medium.Attenuation  Means loss of energy. . travels through a medium.  When a signal. simple or composite .

Attenuation .

28 .Decibels for Example 3.

.Distortion  Means signal changes its form or shape.

Distortion .

Noise  Noise is another cause of impairment  Several types of noise. such as thermal noise. and impulse noise may corrupt the signal. cross talk. induced noise. .

Noise .

Signal to noise ratio(SNR)  SNR= Average signal power/average noise power .

synchronous. Parallel Transmission Serial Transmission . In serial mode. In parallel mode. multiple bits are sent with each clock tick. TRANSMISSION MODES The transmission of binary data across a link can be accomplished in either parallel or serial mode. there are subclasses of serial transmission: asynchronous. While there is only one way to send parallel data. 1 bit is sent with each clock tick.

Data transmission and modes .

Parallel transmission .

Serial transmission .

Note In asynchronous transmission. . There may be a gap between each byte. we send 1 start bit (0) at the beginning and 1 or more stop bits (1s) at the end of each byte.

Note Asynchronous here means “asynchronous at the byte level.” but the bits are still synchronized. their durations are the same. .

Asynchronous transmission .

.Note In synchronous transmission. It is the responsibility of the receiver to group the bits. we send bits one after another without start or stop bits or gaps.

Synchronous transmission .