You are on page 1of 32

m Definition of GPS.
m Determining position.
m Applications in military, navigation, surveying,«
.

m 2 e Ê     .

Receivers on t e ground wit a fixed position can also be used to calculate t e precise time as a reference for scientific experiments. usually called Ê . .) . Latitude. and Altitude) in wit in a few meters using time signals transmitted along a line of sig t by radio from satellites. is t e only fully-functional satellite navigation system(allow small electronic devices to determine t eir location (Longitude.

. and launc ed t e first experimental satellite in 1978. officially named î   Ê (îigation ignal iming nd anging Êlobal ositioning ystem).m 2 e United States Department of Defense developed t e system.

Y   .

  .

  YY     .

   .

.

.

     .

   .

  .

    .

         .

    m  .

Y     .

  .

  .

   .

  .

Y    .

.

  .

 .

      .

  .

   .

  .

Y .

| |pa e |eg en Con rol |eg en er |eg en .

 Satellites orbit t e eart in 1 rs. .  6 orbital planes inclined at 55 degrees wit t e equator.  GPS space ve icles(SVs).  2 is constellation provides 5 to 8 SVs from any point on t e eart .

clock performance and ealt of t e satellite are determined and determines w et er repositioning is required. 2 e control segment comprises of 5 stations.  2 is information is sent to t e t ree uplink stations .  Here t e satellite orbit.  2 ey measure t e distances of t e over ead satellites every 1.5 seconds and send t e corrected data to Master control.

m 2 e receiver performs following tasks: £ Selecting one or more satellites £ Acquiring GPS signals £ Measuring and tracking £ Recovering navigation data .m ^t consists of receivers t at decode t e signals from t e satellites.

m 2riangulation from satellite m Distance measurement t roug travel time of radio signals m Very accurate timing required m 2o measure distance t e location of t e satellite s ould also be known m Finally delays ave to be corrected .

.6 miles) above t e Eart . 2 e satellites are spaced so t at from any point on Eart . 2 e satellites use t eir on- board atomic clocks to keep precise time. and various radios.m GPS works like t is: m A minimum of  GPS satellites are in orbit at . Wit an understanding of its own orbit and t e clock. at least four satellites will be above t e orizon. t e satellite continually broadcasts its c anging position and time.  kilometers (1 . but are ot erwise very simple and unsop isticated w en compared to ot er modern spacecraft. m Eac satellite contains a simple computer. atomic clocks.

2 e receiver is located w ere t ese sp eres intersect. By estimating ow far away a satellite is. .m A GPS receiver "knows" t e location of t e satellites. one for eac satellite. t e receiver also "knows" it is located somew ere on t e surface of an imaginary sp ere centered at t e satellite. ^t t en determines t e sizes of several sp eres.

m . .Satellite's position is determined relative to t e Eart . All measurements must are done to suc a precision t at t e location on t e Eart is known to wit in 15 m.Location on Eart is located relative to t e satellite. m .m 1.2HEN t e Location's position on t e Eart can be determined from t e VE 2R sum of t e ot er two measurements.

2 e delay of t e code in t e receiver multiplied by t e speed of lig t gives us t e distance .m Distance to a satellite is determined by measuring ow long a radio signal takes to reac us from t e satellite m Assuming t e satellite and receiver clocks are sync.

m But if imperfect t e four satellite will not intersect at t e same point. m 2 e receiver looks for a common correction t at will make all t e satellite intersect at t e same point .m ^f t e clocks are perfect sync t e satellite range will intersect at a single point.

environment and atmosp ere m ^ntentional signal degradation £ Selective availability .m 95% due to ardware .

 km/s in a vacuum.m 2 e distance from t e satellite is determined by t e time it takes for a radio wave to reac t e site from t e satellite. m 6   6      m 2 is is very simple but t ere are a few difficulties: £ 2 e receiver clock is not exactly sync ronized wit t e satellite clock so t e time of flig t will be imprecise. £ 2 e satellite and receiver are in different velocity reference frames and gravitational regimes . . w ile traveling t roug t e Eart ^onosp ere and 2roposp ere. t e radio waves travel at slig tly slower speeds. £ 2 e speed of lig t is . However.

m 2wo components £ Dit er : manipulation of t e satellite clock freq £ Epsilon: errors imposed wit in t e ep emeris data sent in t e broadcast message .

 Satellite errors ± Errors in modeling clock offset ± Errors in Keplerian representation of ep emeris ± Latency in tracking  Atmosp eric propagation errors ± 2 roug t e ionosp ere.carrier experiences p ase advance and t e code experiences group delay  Dependent on  Geomagnetic latitude  2ime of t e day  Elevation of t e satellite .

m Atmosp eric errors can be removed by £ Dual freq measurement low freq get refracted more t an ig freq t us by comparing delays of L1 and L errors can be eliminated m Single freq users model t e effects of t e ionosp ere .

m 2roposp ere causes delays in code and carrier But t ey aren¶t freq dependent But t e errors are successfully modeled m Errors due to Multipat m Receiver noise .

but t ese are very well modeled ± Not a perfect vacuum ence drag but it is negligible at GPS orbits ± Solar radiation effects w ic depends on t e surface reflectivity.luminosity of t e sun. Forces on t e GPS satellite ± Eart is not a perfect sp ere and ence uneven gravitational potential distribution ± t er eavenly bodies attract t e satellite. t is error is t e largest unknown errors source .distance of to t e sun.

 Poor GDP ± W en angles from t e receiver to t e SVs used are similar  Good GDP ± W en t e angles are different .

m ^f a fourt satellite can be received. t e position can be s own on t e map. your receiver may also be able to calculate your speed and direction of travel and give you estimated times of arrival to specified destinations.m ^f t e receiver is also equipped wit a display screen t at s ows a map. m Some specialized GPS receivers can also store data for use in Geograp ic ^nformation Systems (G^S) and map making. t e receiver/computer can figure out t e altitude as well as t e geograp ic position. . m ^f you are moving.

m  .

6  .

         6       .

 .

      .

                    6              6    .

m GPS as different uses suc as: £ Military £ Navigation £ Mobile satellite communication £ Location based services £ Surveying £ agriculture .

w ic form a major portion of t e United States Nuclear Detonation Detection System. as well as improved command and control of forces t roug improved locational awareness. .GPS allows accurate targeting of various military weapons including cruise missiles and precision-guided munitions. 2 e satellites also carry nuclear detonation detectors. ivilian GPS receivers are required to ave limits on t e velocities and altitudes at w ic t ey will report coordinates.

Low cost GPS receivers are often combined wit PDAs. airplanes. and ot er ve icles. and s ips. car computers. cell p ones. .. 2 e system can be used to automate arvesters. or ve icle tracking systems. Glider pilots use t e logged signal to verify t eir arrival at turn points in competitions.eld GPS are used by mountain climbers and ikers. GPS is used by people around t e world as a navigation aid in cars. mine trucks. Personal Navigation Devices(PND) suc as and.

m Ê       .

  6     6      6  6 6 66      .

 6  6Ê     ! "#$ 6 6         6    6         Ê  Ê        6  6Ê      6  6 6  %  66 .

    .

structures.m More costly and precise receivers are used by land surveyors to locate boundaries. and survey markers. and for road construction. 2 ere is also a growing demand for Mac ine Guidance suc as Automatic Grade ontrol systems t at use GPS positions plans to automatically control t e blades and buckets of construction equipment. .

pdf.com .December 18.erols.gpsuser. m ttp://www. tm m www. 1998. m ttp//www. Wikipedia .m an essay by Larry Bogan .com/dlwilson/gpscomp.