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A LECTURE BY DANIEL WONG
What is photonics?
The photon is the basic unit of
light. It exhibits “wave-particle duality.” The “light” used in photonics includes:
Visible light (380 – 760 nm) Infrared light (760 – 1000 nm) Ultraviolet light (10 – 380 nm)
“Photonics is the science of generating and manipulating light for the purpose of transmitting information.”
c f = λ
1 f ∝ λ
WojPob, Wikiexpert in physics and the history of Nazi Germany
How do we produce light?
Two common types:
from http://www.freefoto.com/images/11/12/ 11_12_52---Electric-Light-Bulb_web.jpg
from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ File:Fluorescent_light_bulbs_09.JPG
How does it work? Hot objects have moving atoms. Principle: accelerating charged particles emit EMR.Incandescence Emission of light from a body due to its temperature. . The peak wavelength depends on the temperature of the object. The spectrum of thermal radiation produced is continuous and exhibits a peak wavelength. Accelerating electrons produce light. There are collisions between atoms. These collisions cause valence electrons to accelerate.
svg the lower the peak wavelength and the greater the amount of light emitted.org/ ashokantext/gallery/harris/20. .jpg The greater the temperature.Thermal spectrum from http://www.wikimedia.northeastblacksmiths. from http://upload.org/ wikipedia/commons/a/a2/Wiens_law.
files. from http://commons.svg .com/2009/08/candle.org/wiki/File: Incandescent_light_bulb_%28no_labels%29.jpg from http://www.wikimedia.com/ archive/articles/0707/070907sun. wordpress.jpg When current passes through the tungsten filament.enterstageright.Incandescent objects from http://ryanericsongcanlas. Collisions between atoms causes outer-shell electrons to accelerate and emit light. it heats up and its atoms vibrate.
SAYWHAA? from http://www.cfm?p=366 .Fluorescence Emission of light due to atoms being excited to higher energy levels and then falling back to ground state.org/page.masterschool.
The energy states of atoms Ground state Lowest energy Excited state Electrons have more energy When atoms absorb energy they enter higher energy states. .
Spontaneous emission Excited state Higher energy Ground state Lower energy When excited atoms return to the ground state. . they emit photons of discrete energy equal to the difference in energy levels.
The excited atoms release light of discrete wavelengths. Electrons pass through the gas between electrodes at either end of the tube. As they do not involve heating objects. they can be rapidly turned on and off.Fluorescent tubes The tube contains a gas at low pressure. As electrons pass through the gas. atoms in the gas are transferred to higher energy levels (become excited). .
Line emission spectrum from http://en. emission spectra.png Hence fluorescent light sources have discrete.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Yellow_fluorescent_light_spectrum. . rather than continuous.
from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LED from http://en.Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) An LED is a small semiconductor diode that emits light when a current passes through it.org/wiki/LED .wikipedia.
These divided energy levels form an energy band.Energy bands When n atoms come close together. their energy levels split into n parts. Materials have a valence band and a conduction band: Conduction band Energy level Valence band Lower energy levels .
The band gap is the difference in energy between the valence and conduction bands. .svg Conductors are materials for which the conduction band is close to the valence band (it requires little energy to move electrons from the valence band to the conduction band).org/wiki/File:Isolator-metal.Energy bands from http://en.wikipedia.
The wavelength of the photons released is given by: hc λ= Eg Where: h is Planck’s constant c is the speed of light Eg is the band gap .How do LEDs produce light? In LEDs. electrons in the conduction band fall into the valence band and EMR is released (spontaneous emission).
files.jpg .wordpress.wired.com/images_blogs/ph otos/uncategorized/2007/07/05/superla ser_01ds.com/ 2009/06/dr_evil_laser.Laser Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation from http://www.jpg from http://ericlightborn.
More atoms are in a higher energy state rather than the ground state (population inversion). Spontaneous emission of a photon occurs when one atom returns to the ground state and this triggers a chain reaction of stimulated emission.How do lasers produce light? A current excites atoms of the gain medium to a higher energy state. .
wikipedia. direction of motion and phase (they are coherent). .Stimulated emission from http://en.org/wiki/File:Stimulated_Emission.svg A photon interacting with an excited atom produces two photons of the same wavelength.
jpg .web.britannica. amplification of light occurs to produce a beam that is: Coherent (in phase) Monochromatic (same wavelength/colour) Parallel (not divergent) from http://media-2.Laser structure In the resonator.com/ebmedia/45/95645-004-32D0C70A.
Wear safety goggles and avoid shining lasers into people’s eyes. .” Due to their high energy.Laser safety Key knowledge: “identify and apply safe and responsible practices when working with photonics equipment. some lasers can cause eye damage or even burn skin. Some lasers that produce light outside the visible light spectrum can cause damage to the retina.
wikipedia.Optical fibres Uses total internal reflection to carry light along the core.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fibre-optics from http://upload.jpg . from http://en.org/wikipedia/ commons/b/b2/Stomach_endoscopy_2.
.edu/ boss/classes/SMS_491_2003/refraction.gif and the angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence. Snell’s law: n1sinθ1 = n2sinθ2 Some light is also reflected from http://misclab.umeoce.Reflection and refraction LMT: When light enters a material of greater refractive index (greater density) it refracts towards the normal.maine.
wikipedia. The angle of incidence is given by n1sinθ1 = n2sinθ2 where sinθ2 = 1 (as θ2 = 900). only reflection occurs (total internal reflection).org/wiki/Total_internal_reflection .The critical angle and TIR When the angle of incidence equals the critical angle. the angle if refraction is 900. We get: n2 θ c = sin n1 −1 from http://en. Beyond this.
The surrounding cladding has a lower refractive index so that TIR of the light occurs.Basic structure of optical fibres Consists of a core through which the light travels.wikipedia. from http://en.org/wiki/Fibre-optics .
Numerical aperture The light-gathering ability of an optical fibre. .wikipedia.org/wiki/Fibre-optics The acceptance angle (α) is made by the edge of the acceptance cone and the axis of the optical fibre. from http://en. 2 2 α = sin −1 n12 − n2 NA = sin α NA = n12 − n2 ( ) Where n1 refers to the core and n2 refers to the cladding.
Acceptance angle A better illustration: from http://www.timbercon.gif .com/Fiber-Optic-Glossary/images/Acceptance-Angle.
wikipedia. The lower the critical angle for the interface between the core and the cladding. from http://en. the greater the numerical aperture.Factors affecting NA The greater the diameter of the core. the greater the numerical aperture.org/wiki/Total_internal_reflection .
There are two kinds: Modal dispersion Material dispersion .Dispersion through optical fibres Dispersion is the spreading out of a light signal as it travels through an optical fibre.
org/wiki/File:OF-na.wikipedia. from http://en.svg .Modal dispersion A mode is a particular pathway that a ray of light can follow as it is transmitted along an optical fibre.
com/reference/21709/160210/Chapter-2-13-1-Modal-Dispersion .globalspec.Modal dispersion Modal dispersion causes a pulse to widen and lose intensity. As the pulse widens. From http://www. limiting bandwidth. the frequency of pulses must be lowered to prevent overlapping.
thorlabs. from http://www.Material dispersion Different wavelengths of light light travel at different speeds through a non-vacuum medium. Light of greater wavelength travels faster. As the pulse is widened.com/newgrouppage9.cfm?objectgroup_id=2996 . a lower frequency must be used.
org/wiki/Fibre-optics .wikipedia.Solutions from http://en.
Pout Attenuation in dB = −10 log10 Pin Two main causes of attenuation in optical fibres are: Rayleigh scattering Absorption . It is measured in decibels (dB).Attenuation Attenuation is the loss of power of a signal.
Worse for shorter wavelengths of light.Rayleigh scattering The scattering of light in random directions due to small imperfections in the core of an optical fibre.jpg .org/img/rayleigh_scattering. from http://atmoz.
absorption rather than scattering is the main cause of attenuation. At longer wavelengths.Absorption Molecules (including impurities) in the core absorb light energy and transform it into heat. .
jpg .com/ NitroFiber/Images/Index-fiber-bundle.Bundles of optical fibres Incoherent bundle Coherent bundle from http://www.org/wiki/File:Flexibles_Endoskop.resilientnetwork.jpg from http://en.wikipedia.
The End Daniel Wong Contact: email@example.com .
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