Charge comes in two types, positive and negative Opposite charges attract each other

attraction

Identical charges repel each other
repulsion

attraction

repulsion

Model of charges in materials
According to our model: All objects contain many negatively charged electrons and positively charged protons. In neutral objects (with no net charge) the number of + charges is equal to the number of – charges and the charges are evenly distributed.

Model of charges in materials
An object aquires a charge when it gains or loses negative electrons. Electrons are small and light, and found on the outside of atoms. The positive charges are carried by protons which normally do not move. Protons are large and heavy and form the nuclei at the center of atoms.

Negatively charged object

Positively charged object

Nature of materials
A characteristic of different materials is their ability to allow internal negative charges to move. Materials can be broadly divided into two categories

Conductor

Insulator

Observe the behavior of the charges inside each material

What seems to be the biggest difference between these two types of material?
1) The balance of charges in the neutral state 2) The way in which equal charges interact with each other 3) The amount of movement in the material’s charges 4) One material does not interact with external negative charges 5) None of these describes a difference

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What seems to be the biggest difference between these two types of material?
1) The balance of charges in the neutral state 2) The way in which equal charges interact with each other 3) The amount of movement in the material’s charges 4) One material does not interact with external negative charges 5) None of these describes a difference

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Nature of materials
Conductor • Negative charges (electrons) can move freely through the material as they are pushed or pulled Insulator • Negative charges (electrons) can only redistribute themselves a little as they are pushed or pulled

Conductor

Insulator

Wimshurt Machine
Observe the operation of the Wimshurst machine.

Which item describes something you observe in the operation of the Wimshurst machine?are being 1) Charges
2) separated into positive and negative The handle is turned and after a period of time there is a spark and a noise between the two globes A positive charge and a negative charge are attracted to each other Charges are being moved from one globe to the other Microscopic charges accumulate in each globe until there are enough to

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Which item describes something you observe in the operation of the Wimshurst machine?are being 1) Charges
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Wimshurst machine
Suggest an explanation for what could be happening in the two globes of the Wimshurst machine when the crank is turned.

Which is the most plausible explanation of what happens in the globes, based on our model of charge and materials?
1) The machine is creating protons and/or electrons and storing them in the globes 2) The machine is moving protons from one globe and electrons from the other globe 3) The machine is moving electrons only 4) The machine is

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Which is the most plausible explanation of what happens in the globes, based on our model of charge and materials?
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Wimshurst machine
The machine may be moving the negative charges from one globe to the other According to our model, only negative charges move because they are carried by light, movable electrons. What explanations could you propose for the spark?

Which could best be an explanation for the spark, according to our model of charge spark is protons in materials? 1) The
that are moving to the negatively charged globe 2) The spark is charges moving, causing two neutral globes to become oppositely charged 3) The spark is electrons that are attracted to the negatively charged globe 4) The spark is caused by charges jumping

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Which could best be an explanation for the spark, according to our model of charge spark is protons in materials? 1) The
that are moving to the negatively charged globe 2) The spark is charges moving, causing two neutral globes to become oppositely charged 3) The spark is electrons that are attracted to the negatively charged globe 4) The spark is caused by charges jumping

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Wimshurst machine
A spark occurs because negative charges pushed off one globe are attracted to the other globe

If the spark is a movement of charges between the globes, which should be true after the spark?
1) Both globes will have opposite charges than they did before the spark 2) The separation of charges between the two globes will be less 3) The overall number of negative charges in the machine will change 4) One globe will have a greater net charge

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If the spark is a movement of charges between the globes, which should be true after the spark?
1) Both globes will have opposite charges than they did before the spark 2) The separation of charges between the two globes will be less 3) The overall number of negative charges in the machine will change 4) One globe will have a greater net charge

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Wimshurst machine
After the spark, there is less separation of charges between the two globes Some of the excess negative charges have moved back to the positively charged globe

Wimshurst machine and interactions
We will use our model of charges in materials to predict observations in an experiment with the Wimshurst machine

The material of a styrofoam packing peanut is an insulator Negative charges in an insulator can only move a little

The aluminum foil covering this ball is a conductor Negative charges in a conductor are free to move wherever they are pushed or pulled

Which is true about the objects that will be used in this experiment?
1) The charges in the styrofoam peanut cannot move at all 2) The foil is a conductor so it always has a net charge 3) The negative charges in both objects can move due to the influence of external charges 4) Charges in the insulator separate into

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Which is true about the objects that will be used in this experiment?
1) The charges in the styrofoam peanut cannot move at all 2) The foil is a conductor so it always has a net charge 3) The negative charges in both objects can move due to the influence of external charges 4) Charges in the insulator separate into

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Induced separation of charge
Draw the charges in a styrofoam peanut suspended between the two globes. Remember, styrofoam is an insulator material. What will happen to the peanut? Draw the charges inside the peanut

What can you tell about the styrofoam peanut from drawing the charges inside it?
1) The peanut will be attracted to both globes 2) The peanut will be attracted to one globe and repelled from the other 3) The peanut will be repelled from both globes 4) The peanut will experience no net force from the two

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What can you tell about the styrofoam peanut from drawing the charges inside it?
1) The peanut will be attracted to both globes 2) The peanut will be attracted to one globe and repelled from the other 3) The peanut will be repelled from both globes 4) The peanut will experience no net force from the two

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Induced separation of charge
The charges inside the peanut rearrange a little. The peanut is attracted to both globes and ends up moving toward one of them. What happens when it hits the globe?

attraction

attraction

Induced separation of charge in an insulator
Since charges cannot move much inside the peanut, it remains attracted to the globe

Induced separation of charge in a conductor
Draw the charges in an aluminum ball suspended between the two globes. What will happen to the ball?

Aluminum ball

What can you tell about the foil ball from drawing the charges inside it?
1) The ball will be attracted to both globes 2) The ball will be attracted to one globe and repelled from the other 3) The ball will be repelled from both globes 4) The ball will experience no net force from the two

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What can you tell about the foil ball from drawing the charges inside it?
1) The ball will be attracted to both globes 2) The ball will be attracted to one globe and repelled from the other 3) The ball will be repelled from both globes 4) The ball will experience no net force from the two

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Induced separation of charge in a conductor
Charges in the ball will move, the ball will be attracted to both globes, and will move toward one of them. What happens when it hits one of the globes?

a

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Aluminum ball

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Induced separation of charge in a conductor
Charges in the aluminum ball are free to move, so they can move between the ball and the globe due to the forces exerted upon them. What happens to the ball now?

What happens when the foil ball touches one of the globes?
1) The net charge on the ball does not change 2) Charges can move through the ball 3) There is no net force on the charges in the ball 4) Charges in the ball can realign themselves but cannot move much
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What happens when the foil ball touches one of the globes?
1) The net charge on the ball does not change 2) Charges can move through the ball 3) There is no net force on the charges in the ball 4) Charges in the ball can realign themselves but cannot move much
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Induced separation of charge in a conductor
Now the ball has the same charge as the globe, so it is repelled from the globe. What happens to the ball now?

pel re

Induced separation of charge in a conductor
The ball is attracted to the other globe, which now has the opposite charge. What happens when it hits the other globe?

What’s the difference between the styrofoam peanut and the foil ball in this experiment?
1) The way both objects, in their neutral state, are attracted to the globes 2) One object does not experience an induced separation of charges 3) The net charge on one of the objects does not change in this experiment 4) One object does not

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Induced separation of charge in a conductor
Charges are free to move in the conductor, so they move into the ball due to the forces acting on them

Induced separation of charge in a conductor
Now the ball has the same charge as the globe, so it is repelled from the globe. The charged ball is now attracted to the opposite globe and the cycle continues.

When will the ball stop bouncing back and forth between the two globes?
1) It will not stop, it will keep moving back and forth indefinitely 2) It will keep moving until all the extra charge on one globe is transferred back to the other 3) It will stop when all the charges in the ball are gone 4) It will stop when the total number of

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Observe and explain
A soda can is mounted horizontally. At one end is a Wimshurst machine, at the other end a disk covered in foil hangs from a string, resting against the end of the can Part 1: Describe what you observe in this experiment

Observe and explain
Sample observation: "A foil disk hangs from a string, resting against a soda can. A Wimshurst machine is cranked, and one globe of the machine is touched to the soda can. The hanging disk is repelled away from the can." Part 2: Explain what happened using your knowledge of charges and materials

Observe and explain
Sample observation: "A foil disk hangs from a string, resting against a soda can. A Wimshurst machine is cranked, and one globe of the machine is touched to the soda can. The hanging disk is repelled away from the can." Part 2: Explain what happened using your knowledge of charges and materials

Observe and explain
Sample explanation:

Charges are balanced and evenly distributed in the neutral can and disk The charged globe creates a net charge on the can. Charges move through the conductor and create the same net charge on the disk The disk is repelled

Represent and reason
A different type of electroscope has a metal disk on top, connected to a metal bar with a central indicator that can swivel as shown. Show how this electroscope would react if a negatively charged object was brought near without touching

Represent and reason
Negative charges in the electroscope are repelled by the negative charges in the other object. The lower parts of the scope have a net negative charge and the indicator is repelled away from the bar