You are on page 1of 53

Physiology of aging

Dicky Moch Rizal


Physiology Dept., SoM, GMU

1
• Meuteselah project

• Longevity of life in Indonesia

2
• chronological age

• Biological age

3
• Biological changes
– Cell
– Tissue
– Organs
– Whole of the body

4
5
The theory of aging…
• Genetic clock
• Error catastrophe
• Immune system damage
• Free radical
• Metabolism disorder
– Glycooxidation theory
• Inflammation theory
• Hormonal theory

6
7
• Genetic clock
– All species have genetic clock in nucleus

– To count number of cell mitosis

8
• Error catastrophe
– Environment factor

– cause DNA somatic mutation

– Hypothesis of “ error catastrophe”

9
10
• Immune system damage

– Decline of function to resistance to stress

– Humoral immunity decline with age

– Aging appears to effect T cell number

11
– Decline to increase risk of viral infection an cancer

– Cell loss (apoptosis)

12
• Free radical theory

– Most common…
– Free radical is very dangerous for cell and tissue

– Oxidative metabolism produce highly rective free


radical that subsequently damage protein and
DNA

13
– What happens if the oxidant production greater
than anti-oxidant defences?
• DNA,Protein and lipid damage

– Resulting in structural degeneration (apoptosis),


functional decline and age related disease

– Deliver mitochondrial theory

14
15
16
• Metabolism disorder

– Cooking ad browning reaction


• Cooking food accelerated the Browning or Mallard
reaction

• The toxic product can lead to the mutation and cancer

17
• The inflammation theory

– Based on specific anti aging calorie restriction


such as the reduction of TNFα and NF-КB

– This theory goes hand in hands with free radical


theory and glycooxidation theory

18
19
• Hormonal theory
– Declining of several hormone lead to apoptosis
process
– DHEA is master hormone because of it is convert
into several hormone that involve in strenght and
growth
– Supplementation of these hormone (which
decline with increasing of age) can combat of
debilitating sign of aging of some organs

20
21
Benefits of Human Growth Hormone Therapy

• Reverses the overall effects of aging


• 14.4% loss of body fat on average after six months, without dieting
• 8.8% increase in lean muscle after six months, without exercise
• Reduces wrinkles producing younger, tighter, thicker skin
• Increased energy level, endurance
• Enhanced sexual performance
• Mood elevation
• Enhanced immune system function

22
• Improved cholesterol profile, with higher HDL and
lower LDL
• Lower blood pressure
• Reduced fatigue
• Elimination of cellulite
• Increased cardiac output and exercise performance
• Re-growth of heart, liver, spleen, kidneys and other
organs that shrink with aging

23
• Reverse osteoporosis
• Better kidney function
• Accelerated wound healing
• Improved memory retention
• Improved sleep
• Sharper vision

24
• Decreasing of melatonin/circadian deregulation

25
Physiological changes In the human body

26
• neurological
• Cardiovascular
• Respiratory
• Renal function
• Gastrointestinal system
• Endocrine, immune and stress responses
• musculoskeletal

27
28
• Cardiovascular
– Decrease of cardiomyocyte number
– Increase of cardiomyocyte volume in both of
ventricle

29
30
• Renal function
– The first 50 years in life : grow from 50-250g
– Above 50 yo : weight decrease to 180 g
– Glomerulosclerosis
– Reduce of cortical tissue
– Atherosclerosis in renal artery

31
• GI system
– Changes in neuromuscular function
– Changes in GI wall structure
– Changes in secretion and absorption

• Alteration in hepatobiliary

32
33
34
35
36
37
38
• PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF TESTOSTERONE
(non reproductive)
– Nervous system
– Skin
– Muscle
– Bone
– Cardiovascular
– blood
– Metabolism

39
40
41
• ADAM SCORE
– Loss of libido
– Decrease of erection
– Decrease of concentration
– Swinging mood
– Decrease of height
– Weakness
– Sleepy after meal

42
20 30 40 50 60
YO YO YO YO YO

43
• Loss of tunica albuginia
• Decrease of penile size
• Loss of sensation
• Loss of nocturnal and morning erections
• Lack of ejaculation volume
• Increase of refracter phase

44
Changes with Collagen
• Collagen fibres are widespread in the body.
• They undergo continuous change with age.
• Increased cross-linkage causes collagen
• fibres to become stiffer, less flexible and more fragile
• This effect is most marked in:
• The lungs which become stiffer and less elastic
• The skin becomes creased and less pliable

45
Ageing of Elastin
• Ageing of Elastin results in reduced
• elasticity and thickening of elastic fibres
• The lungs loses elastic recoil, reduces
• compliance and decreases reserves
• Elasticity is lost in arteries. They become
• thicker and calcified.

46
• Changes in sexuality

47
• Thermoregulatory Mechanisms
– In Old Persons Thermoregulatory mechanisms are not
usually deranged
– Perception of cold, heat and thirst are decreased
– Tolerance may be increased
– There is a tendency of lethargy. This prevents remedial
action to be taken
– There may be fear of catching cold or using appliances
– Poverty may contribute to lack of use of appliances.

48
– Cold stress
• Decreased peripheral resistance
• Reduced thermogenesis

49
– Heat stress
• Sweat gland function
• Skin blood flow
• Cardiac out put
• Blood flow redistribution

50
Immune System
Ageing attributes to abnormal function of
• the immune system
• The Thymus gland atrophy with age (source of
T-Lymphocytes)
• B-Lymphocytes slightly reduced

51
52
53