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 The ancient Greeks made their idealized marble sculptured human forms to honor

their gods.
 The Romans learned sculpture from the Greeks and added a more natural look to
show the softness of the skin, old age, physical defects, and other human qualities.
They produced sculptures to honor their great leaders, poets and other Romans
noted for sports, the arts and politics.
 Sculptures are meant for public viewing. Monuments are placed outside the
buildings to symbolize something significant, historical or memorial.
 Sculptures also take the form of anitos or images that represent ancestors or gods
and goddesses.
 In Africa, masks and small sculptures are believed
to house the soul of their dead and the crafting of
these sculptures is accompanied with a traditional
ritual attended by community members.
Ijaw Mask

The role of prayer in the traditional Ijaw system of belief is to maintain the living in the good
graces of the water spirits among whom they dwelt before being born into this world, and each year
the Ijaw hold celebrations in honor the spirits lasting for several days.
 In churches, they are meant to inspire the believers. Sculptures are part of a
community or society’s beliefs and values. They are made to give glory to God,
honnor to man or provide a medium of human expression.
Sculpture is the art of making figures,
such as human forms, animals or
geometrics that can either be
standing freely or attached to a
background frame, either single or in
a group.
Can stand freely
The viewer can go around the figure and gaze
at it from different angles. The different parts
of the figure: front, back and side are all
exposed to the viewer.
Michelangelo Moses, (c. 1513–1515)
housed in the church of San Pietro
in Vincoli in Rome. The sculpture
was commissioned in 1505 by Pope
Julius II for his tomb.
 The figure is mounted to the background, which may either
be a frame, a wall or a flat surface
 The form is embossed or raised above the surface of the
 High relief metope from the Classical Greek Elgin Marbles.
 the figure is raised only a little from the background, as in the case of coins.
Sestertius of Marcus Clodius
Pupienus Maximus, 238 AD
 In some artworks, the artist cuts into the surface or carves deep into the material
until the form is incised but separated from the background

Madonna and Child in Marcus Aurelius, relief profile -

Swaddling Clothes - Mino da Fiesole
Desiderio da Settignano
 The carving is sunk below the level of the surrounding surface and is contained
within a sharpely incised contour line that frames it with a powerful line of shadow.

A sunk-relief depiction of Pharaoh Akhenaten with his wife Nefertiti and

 Subtraction
Carved works are subtractive. Using a large block of wood or stone, the sculptor
carves out the figure or “frees” the figure from imprisonment in its original block
form to give it an artistic look.

Micahelangelo used the

subtractive process of carving
 Construction
The sculptor chooses a base material such as metal, plastics, aluminum, steel or
found objects and then adds other elements to “construct” the idea or image that
he/she wants to express.
These materials require welding, or adhesive to be attached together.
 Substitution
Any material transformable from a plastic, molten or fluid state can be molded or
cast into a work of sculpture.
Positive- artists creates an identically sized model
Negative- covering the model with plaster, which when hardens is removed, the
sculptor has created the negative mold for the sculpture
Sculptor pours metal into mold, the metal hardens when cooled and the sculpture
emerges- it can be then polished

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