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GENERAL TYPES

OF
INTERMOLECULAR
FORCES
•INTERMOLECULAR FORCES
- are attractive coulombic interactions
between molecules.
- are defined as the set of attractive
and repulsive forces that occur between the
molecules as a result of the polarity of the
molecules.
COULOMBIC INTERACTIONS
•It is an interactions between charged
particles, which in turn helped to
explain where the stabilities and
instabilities of various particles come
from.
•Coulomb’s law states that electrons,
which are negatively charged, repel
each other but attract protons.
Likewise, protons repel each
other.
KINDS OF FORCES
INTERACTIONS
DIPOLE-DIPOLE INTERACTION
Are attractive forces that act between polar
molecules.
It is a result when two dipolar molecules interact
with each other through space. When this occurs, the
partially negative portion of one of the polar
molecules is attracted to the partially positive
portion of the second polar molecule.
• It occur due to the unequal sharing of electrons between
atoms in a molecule. Those atoms that are more
electronegative pull the bonded electrons closer to
themselves. The buildup of electron density around an atom
or discreet region of a molecule can result in a molecular
dipole in which one side of the molecule possesses a
partially negative charge and the other side a partially
positive charge. Molecules with dipoles that are not canceled
by their molecular geometry are said to be polar.
EXAMPLE:

•Hydrogen chloride (HCl): the positive end of a


polar molecule will attract the negative end of
the other molecule and influence its position.
Polar molecules have a net attraction between
them.
HYDROGEN BONDING
•It occurs only in molecules that contain
HYDROGEN bonded to a small, highly
electronegative atom like FLOURINE, NITROGEN
AND OXYGEN.
•It is a weak type of force that forms a special type
of dipole-dipole attraction which occurs when a
hydrogen atom bonded to a strongly
electronegative atom exists in the vicinity of
another electronegative atom with a lone pair of
electrons. These bonds are generally stronger than
ordinary dipole-dipole and dispersion forces, but
weaker than true covalent and ionic bonds.
EXAMPLE:

•Water molecules bonding


together in the form of ice.
DISPERSION FORCES
•Dispersion forces act not only between
nonpolar molecules but also between all
molecules.
•It is the only intermolecular force
exhibited by nonpolar molecules.
•It is the weakest intermolecular force.
•It is a temporary attractive force that results when
the electrons in two adjacent atoms occupy
positions that make the atoms form temporary
dipoles.
•It causes nonpolar substances to condense to
liquids and to freeze into solids when the
temperature is lowered sufficiently.
EXAMPLE:
ION-DIPOLE INTERACTIONS

•It is an attraction between ionic and


polar molecules.
•It happens when ionic and polar
substances are mixed together.
•It is the result of an electrostatic
interaction between a charged ion
and a molecule that has a dipole. It is
an attractive force that is commonly
found in solutions, especially ionic
compounds dissolved in polar liquids .
EXAMPLE:
•One good example of a ion-dipole interaction
is the solvation of an ionic compound like sodium
chloride in water. The Na+ ion is attracted to
oxygen end of a water molecule because it has
a negative dipole, while the Cl− ion is attracted
to hydrogen end of a water molecule because it
has a positive dipole.
IDENTIFYING THE TYPE
OF INTERMOLECULAR
FORCES AS REFLECTED
BY THE PROPERTIES OF
SUBSTANCES
•Properties of substances depend
upon the type of intermolecular
forces that hold them together.
•The positive end of one dipole gets
attracted to the negative end of
another dipole.
IONIC AND
COVALENT
CLASSIFICATIONS
MOLECULAR COVALENT TYPE
•In this type the atoms in the molecules are
held together by strong covalent bonds.
•But the intermolecular forces are very weak
which makes the molecules very easy to
separate.
•Mostly GASES or LIQUIDS.
•LOW melting and boiling points. (Very rare to
have a melting points of above 300°C and a
boiling point of 500°C.)
NETWORK TYPE SPECIES
•The attractive forces between the
atoms are very strong.
•They are invariably solids with very
high melting and boiling point.
IONIC COMPOUNDS
•It has the ability to
conduct electric current
when molten.