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Basic Metallurgy

• Material science
• Properties of materials
• Heat treatment of steel
Chemical Bonds
• The atoms in all the materials are
held together by bonds existing
between atoms and molecules.
• The properties of materials depends
upon the type of Bond present in the
• Two types of bonds:
– Primary bonds or inter atomic
– Secondary bonds or inter
molecular bonds
• Primary bonds are stronger in nature, bond
strength varies from 1 to 5eV and bond
length range from 1 to 2 Å
• Secondary bonds are weaker, bond
strength 0.02 to 0.5eV and bond length
range2 to 5Å
• Primary bonds:
– Ionic Bond
– Covalent Bond
– Metallic Bond
• Secondary bond:
– Vanderwaals Bond
Ionic Bond
• It exists due to the
electrostatic force of
attraction between +ve and
–Ve ions of different atoms.
• It is formed between two
different element. One of the
atoms loses its valence
electron and the other
accepts it. The ions so
formed attract each other
and form ionic bond.
• The ionic solids have very
low electrical and thermal
• The ionic solids have high hardness
because of their crystalline structure.
• The ionic solids are not malleable and
• The ionic solids have high melting and
boiling temperatures.
• The ionic compounds are transparent to
• The ionic compounds exists in the form of
solids only.
• The examples: NaCl, CaCl2
Covalent Bond
• It exists due to the
electrostatic force of
attraction between atoms
which share the electron pairs
to form a covalent bond.
• It is formed due to the sharing
of electron pairs between
atoms of same or different
• The covalent compounds
exists in the form of solids,
liquids or gases.
• The covalent solids have low electrical and
thermal conductivities.
• The covalent solids have low hardness
except diamond, silicon carbide etc.
• The covalent solids are non malleable and
• The covalent solids have low melting and
boiling temperatures than the ionic solids.
• The covalent compounds are opaque or
transparent with high refractive index.
• Examples: Hydrogen, Diamond
Metallic Bond
• It exists due to the electrostatic
force of attraction between
electron cloud and the positive
ions of same or different metals.
• It is formed when valence
electrons detach themselves
from their parent atom and form
a common pool. The force of
attraction between the electron
cloud and positive ions of the
metal forms the metallic bond.
• In electron cloud, electrons have complete
freedom to move and thus have high
thermal and electrical conductivities.
• The metallic solids have crystalline
structure, but are soft in nature.
• The metallic solids are malleable and
• The metallic solids have slightly lower
melting and boiling temperatures than
ionic solids.
• The metallic compounds exists in solids
• The metallic solids are opaque and light
• Examples: Sodium, Copper
Vanderwaal Bond
• Some of the elements either
solids liquids or gases have
stable electronic
configurations and their
outermost shell have 8
electrons which make them
• They neither transfer the
electrons nor share the
electron, the atoms of these
elements have little
attraction among
• The bond formed is because of Vander
walls attraction force among the
• They exists in gas, liquids and solids.
• They are soft and can be plastically
• They are insulators, have low melting point
and transparent.
• Examples: Argon, Ice and Polymers
Crystal Structures
• Metals are having crystalline
structure, which describe the
properties of the metal.
• Atoms in metal are
distributed in a regular
pattern at distances which
are the same throughout the
• The pattern repeat
periodically in three
• If the centers of the crystals
are joined, “Space lattice” is
• Repetition of unit cell in
space forms the crystal.
• The No. of atoms in the unit
cell is very small, since it
does not constitute a crystal
in itself, but is only the
building block of the crystal.
• Each unit cell in the space
lattice is identical in size,
shape and orientation with
each other.
Types of crystal
• There are 14 types of space lattice
that exist.
• Most of the important metals
crystallize either in the cubic or
hexagonal system.
• Only three types of crystals are
commonly encountered in the metals
Body centered cubic lattice (BCC)
Face centered cubic lattice (FCC)
Hexagonal close packed lattice (HCP)
Body centered cubic
lattice (BCC)
• Atoms are located at the eight
corners of a cube and at the
centre of the volume of the cell.
• No. of atoms belonging to a unit
= (1/8x8)+1x1 = 1+1 = 2
• Packing factor for BCC structure
is 0.68
• Common examples are: Sodium,
Molybdenum, Tungsten, and
Alpha Iron
• BCC structured material is found to have
high yield strength and limited workability.
• Steel up to 723 deg C has BCC structure,
called alpha iron, ferrite
Face entered cubic
lattice (FCC)
• Atoms at each corner and an atom
in the centre of each of the six
cubic faces.
• No of atoms which can be
attributed to a unit cell are counted
as (1/8x8)+(1/2x6)=1+3=4
• Packing factor 0.74
• Typical metals and alloys of this
type are: Copper, Aluminium, Silver,
Gold, Nickel, Gamma Iron.
• FCC structured materials are characterized
by lower yield strength but greater
capacity for cold work
• Steels above 910 to 1400 deg. C have FCC
structure, called gamma iron, austenite
Hexagonal close packed
• Atoms are located at 6 corners
and at the centre of upper and
lower faces of hexagonal prism
and in addition there are three
atoms between these two faces.
• Each upper and lower face is
called “basal plane”.
• No. of atoms in the unit cell
= 2(6x1/6)+2(1x1/2)+3=6
• Packing factor 0.74
• Zinc, Cadmium, Magnesium,
Titanium and Beryllium
Grains and grain
• When a metal is cooled from
liquid stage to the solid stage,
solidification starts from low
temperature points and
impurities locations.
• Cooling can not be exactly
same of each atom.
• Atoms will be attached to each
other to form a unit cell.
• Solidification starts at many
locations and solidifying
crystals interfare with each
other during growing.
• As the cooling proceeds,
crystals take their positions
along side this nucleus and the
crystal or the grain will grow in
• These misplaced atoms are in
layers about the grain and are
known as grain boundaries
• They are interruptions in the
orderly arrangement of the
space lattice and offer
resistance to deformation of the
metal under load.
• Fine grained metal with large
number of interruptions will be
harder and stronger.
Structure of alloys
• Most of the commercially used metallic
material are not pure metals but alloys
which consist of more than two
elements, some of them may be non-
metallic elements also.
• Three modes of arrangements of atoms
can exist in alloys. Each mode of
arrangement is called “phase”.
• A phase is defined as any group of
system cells “which are in the same
• The three phases are
– Pure metal
– Solid solution
– Inter-metallic compound.
• Substitutional Solid Solution:
When the atoms of the two
elements solute and solvent
are of approximately the same
size, the atoms of one element
can substitute for the atoms of
the other in the lattice.
• The maximum concentration of
solute depends mainly on the
relative size of solvent and
solute atoms.
• If, the difference in size is less
than 15% wide miscibility can
be expected.. e.g. Copper and
• Interstitial Solid Solution: If the
atoms of one of the elements
are very small compared to the
other atoms, the smaller atoms
enter into the small interstices
between the larger atoms and
solid solution is formed. e.g.
Carbon, Oxygen, Nitrogen and
Hydrogen. Carbon in iron giving
• Addition of atoms in solid solutions in
crystal may cause lattice expansion or
contraction and this results in hardening of
the metals.
• The degree of hardening depends on the
size and quantity of solute atoms.
• Intermetallic Compound:
Combinations of metals other than solid
solutions are known as intermetallic
• Combinations which obey the chemical
valency rule.
• Compound of Carbon in Iron, Fe3C, Iron
Carbide is an intermetallic compound
• Allotropy is the
property of the given
material to have
different crystal
structures at different
temperatures, during
heating and cooling
• It exists in many
metals, such as Iron,
Chromium, Cobalt,
Titanium etc.
• At temperature above 1536 ºC it completely
liquid (MP). When it is cooled from 1536 ºC,
crystals of δ iron start forming. δ iron exists
up to 1390ºC.It has BCC structure.
• Below this temperature δ iron transforms to γ
iron, Austenite having FCC structure, it
exists up to 910ºC. Austenite has high
solubility of Carbon
• If cooling is continued, it again transforms to
BCC structure at 910ºC, but it is called α iron,
ferrite. It is non magnetic.
• Non magnetic property of ferrite remains up
to 769 ºC, called Curie point.
• After 769 ºC, it becomes magnetic and
remains magnetic at temperatures below it,
called magnetic α iron, having BCC structure.
Allotropy in some of the
• Metals which do not • Metals which show
change crystal allotropy
structure • Chromium: HCP,BCC
• Aluminium: FCC • Cobalt:HCP,FCC
• Copper:FCC • Iron:BCC,FCC,BCC
• Moly: BCC • Titanium: HCP,BCC
• Nickel:FCC
• Tantalum: BCC
• Tungsten: BCC
• Vanadium: BCC
Iron Carbon Phase
• Iron is mixed with different alloying
elements and applying appropriate heat
treatment to get desired properties.
• The mechanical properties depend chiefly
on chemical composition & microstructure.
• The microstructure of steel can
advantageously changed by heat treatment
to obtain desired mechanical properties
• Carbon is the most important alloying
element controlling mechanical properties
• Carbon up to 6.7% can be dissolved in Iron
• Carbon is present either in solution or in
elementary form of graphite or in
combination of Iron Carbide (Fe3C).
• The diagram which depicts the temperature
at which phase changes occur during very
slow heating or cooling and in relation to
the Carbon content is called Iron-Carbon
phase diagram.
• A-1539ºC, Frezing point of Iron
• N-1400ºC, Transformation of delta iron to
gamma iron
• G-910ºC, Transformation of gamma iron to
alpha iron
• 770ºC, at which alpha iron becomes
• Following phases are present in the
phase diagram
• Ferrite or α iron
• Austenite or γ iron
• δ iron
• Liquid iron
• Cementite
• Free graphite
• Three important metallurgical reactions:
– Peritectic reaction
– Eutectic reaction
– Eutectoid reaction
• Ferrite or α iron
– It is solid solution of Carbon in Iron,
having BCC structure
– Carbon up to 0.02% can be dissolved
in ferrite at 723ºC, at room
temperature only up to 0.008%, pure
– It exists in the region GPQ.
– It exists from room temperature to
910 ºC
– It is very soft, ductile and highly
• Austenite or γ iron
– It is solid solution of Carbon in Iron,
having FCC structure
– Carbon up to 2.11% can be dissolved
in Austenite at 1130ºC, No Carbon at
1400 ºC, and up to 0.17% at 1500 ºC
– It is non magnetic, ductile, soft and
– It has larger atomic spacing
compared to ferrite for high
• δ iron
– Solubility of Carbon is very small
(0.09%), but more than ferrite at higher
– It exists from 1392 ºC up to melting point
– It has BCC structure, like Ferrite, called
δ ferrite
– It exists in the AHN region
• Cementite
– The crystal which appear in melt
containing over 4.3% C when the
temperature reaches CD on cooling are
iron carbide, Fe3C, a chemical compound
of Iron and Carbon, called Cementite
– It can dissolve up to 6.67% carbon
– It melting point around 1500 ºC
– It is very hard and brittle
• Peritectic Reaction
– Peritectic reaction takes place along
horizontal line HJB at 1492ºC
• H-Delta iron of peritectic composition,
0.08% C
• J-Gamma iron of peritectic composition,
0.18% C
• B-Peritectic liquid, 0.55% C
– Just above this line two phase δ iron
and liquid iron exists
– When mixture of two phases cooled
below 1492ºC, a new solid solution,
Austenite is formed
– The reaction starts at point J, at
constant temperature, it is called
Peritectic transformation
• Eutectic Reaction
• ECF- part of eutectic line
• E-Eutectic austenite
• C-The eutectic, also called Ledeburite
– It takes place at line ECF at 1130ºC
– When liquid iron containing Carbon
4.3% is cooled from 1130ºC the two
solids γ iron, Austenite and Fe3C Iron
Carbide or Cementite is formed
– Pig iron is Ledeburite having 4.3%
• Eutectoid Reaction
• PSK- part of eutectoid line
• P-eutectoid ferrite, containing 0.035% C
• S-The eutectoid, containing 0.8% C
– It takes along line PSK at
temperature 723ºC
– Austenite of 0.8% Carbon is cooled
from 723ºC, it transform into two
different solid phases α iron and
Fe3C, Iron Carbide or Cementite
– This eutectic mixture is called
– It has alternate layers of ferrite and
Heat treatment of Steel
• Heat treatment of steel is carried out to
change mechanical and metallurgical
properties of steel, such as hardness, grain
refinement, softness, stress relieving etc.
• Hardening: The steel is heated to above
transformation temperature and held for
sufficient time and the quenched in water
or oil.
• The type of structure and hardness
obtained is described by TTT diagram.
• Temperature of heating, soaking period,
and rate of cooling plays important role in
determining the final properties of steel
• Annealing: Annealing is a softening
process for easy machining and stress
• The steel is heated slowly above upper
critical temperature 800-1000 ˚C for
sufficient time.
• The steel is then slowly cooled in furnace
• Normalizing: Normalizing is done for grain
refinement after hot working or welding
process and to remove the strains locked
up due to cold working.
• Steel is heated above 1000 ˚C and allowed
to cool in air.
• Tempering: The hardened steel is brittle,
the hardness id reduced to some extent
and stresses are relieved
• The steel is heated below lower critical
temperature up to 600 deg. C and cooled in
• Spheroidizing: Minimum hardness and
maximum ductility can be produced by this
• In this process iron carbide is changed to
spheres of ferrite matrix.
Heat Affected Zone
(HAZ) in Welding
• HAZ is that portion of base metal lying next
to the fusion line of weld, which had not
melted but whose mechanical properties or
microstructures have been affected by the
heat of welding.
• HAZ is subjected to complex thermal cycle
(sudden heating followed by rapid cooling) in
which all temperatures from the melting
range of the steel down to mere warming are
• Hence it consists of series of graded
structures ringing the weld bead.
• Region 1:Just in contact in fusion line was
heated high into austenite temperature
range and is therefore extremely coarse
• It is having normally high hardness zone and
if the cooling rate is high enough can readily
transform to brittle martensite.
• It is the potentially most dangerous area in
• Region 2:Was heated to slightly above A3
into fully austenite range.
• It is normally fine grained, of moderate
hardness and not likely to transform to
• Region 3: Was heated between A1 and A3
i.e. partially into the austenite range and
thus acquires a mixed structure. A small
amount of martensite may form in it, if
cooling rate is high enough. It is usually
not very hard and yet may be brittle if
martensite is present.
• Region 4: Was not heated high enough to
form martensite, but welding heat was
served to temper the metal to soft
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