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PRESENTED BY-
NAVAZ THOKUR
LECTURER,
MBA DEPT
PACE- MANGALORE

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MODULE- 3
WRITTEN COMMUNICATION

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ΠTo inform &

ΠTo persuade

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Persuasive writing aims at convincing the reader about a matter, which is debatable; it
expresses opinion rather than facts.

It supports & argues a certain viewpoint or position.

The writer seeks to influence & convince the reader to accept the position put forth.

Persuasive writing is found in essays, editorials & letters to the editors, book reviews,
business research proposal etc.

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ΠIssuing Order ΠTime Consuming

Œ Can¶t be distorted Œ Formal

ΠEconomical ΠAmendments may not be possible

ΠClear & specific ΠMisunderstood

ΠResponse ΠFeedback

ΠRecord can be kept.

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ΠBrevity

ΠClarity

ΠCommunication

ΠPassion and Control

ΠSound and Rhythm

ΠPlace the reader first

ΠKeep to the point

ΠSet the right tone

ΠWrite a strong opening

ΠWrite a strong close

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The message to be communicated should be brief & should not contain any unnecessary
words which may create confusion.
Brevity does not mean that giving incomplete information. It implies less words with
proper & accurate information.

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The message should be clear & precise &
Jargons should be avoided

  

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Right tone, appropriate language & right amount of information should be included.
The gist of the entire writing should be understood by the reader very easily.

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ΠMake a list of topics you want to cover

ΠUnder each topic list keywords, examples, arguments


& facts

ΠReview each topic in the outline

ΠCut out any irrelevant information

ΠSort the information in the best order

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Be helpful & friendly & set the right tone

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ΠThank you for your letter of 8 September 2010, which has been passed to me for
my attention

ΠI refer to previous correspondence in respect of the above & note that till date
we have not received your cheque for the O/S arrears

ΠI write with reference to our telephone conversation regarding

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A closing paragraph should end the letter on a polite & business like note

 
ΠI would again apologise for the delay in replying & I am confident that this has clarified
the points you have raised. However, if you wish to discuss any points I have not
clarified, or need any further information, you may call me or contact me accordingly

ΠI look forward to hearing from you & in the meantime, if you have any queries, please do
not hesitate to contact me.

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ΠDefine your purpose

ΠSelect the most appropriate channel

ΠVisualize the audience

 - Put yourself in the reader¶s position & predict


his/her response to the message


-Shape message to benefit the reader

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 - Collect data formally & informally



- Group ideas in to list or outline

  write a first draft

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- for clarity, tone & vigor, improve readability

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- For spelling, punctuation & format, check overall appearance

  - Will the final product achieve its purpose?

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- Establish a purpose, the message to be conveyed to the reader
Channels used to deliver the message- E.g. e-mail, memo, letter, report, etc.

 -Have an idea about the audience¶s knowledge & adapt


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ΠUrgency

ΠSpeed of feedback

ΠPermanent record

ΠCost of channel

ΠDegree of formality

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After knowing the audience, adapt the language so that it speaks to them in the right
tone & using the right vocabulary so that they easily understand it.

   


 
    ³We require all staff to complete these forms in compliance with
company policy´
    ³Please complete these forms so that you will be eligible for health
& dental benefits´

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³I/We´- ³We are issuing a refund´
³You´- ³You will receive a refund´

   
  
You failed to«« you are careless
Your delay«« you are at fault

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You must complete this report before Friday
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    fax me, e-mail me

     

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Research- Gather all your data you need in order to make a truthful post with all substance.

Collecting the information from different sources such


ΠLook in files
ΠSpeak with boss/colleagues
Œ Speak with ³target audience´



Organise the message in a proper order starting with header, sub header & list of items . It
should contain
ΠLists & outlines

ΠOrganise ideas

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Use the active voice in most sentence- E.g. We lost money

  

  
An autopsy revealed that the cause of death was
strangulation by the coroner.

     

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ΠGroup similar ideas
ΠStart a new paragraph for each new topic


    
 t- main sentences & supporting sentences

      

    - additionally, however, as a result etc

  
  fewer than eight lines

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ΠRevising for clarity

ΠKeep it simple

ΠKeep it conversational;

ΠEliminate redundancies

ΠDevelop parallelism

ΠApply graphic highlighting

ΠLetters such as (a) & (b) within the text


Bullets & numberings
Headings using Options such as Capital Letters, Bold, Italics etc.

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Look for

ΠSpelling

ΠGrammar

ΠPunctuation

ΠNames & numbers

ΠFormat

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ΠOrganisation

ΠCoherence

ΠAppropriate tone

ΠReadability

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It implies how various parts /words are sticking together in a sentence.

     Writing style increases emphasis on the messages


Consider the following techniques

9   at the beginning of the sentence- Raj proposed««

m     the three regions report improvements in sale 12,21. & 37
percent respectively

9   on important words & create memorable statement, such as,´ We
try harder´ or ³just point & click to shop our online catalog´

     ´ Because of her timely investment, she quadrupled her profit´.

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E.g. your bid for the project was rejected


We selected another firm for the project

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Clear writing avoids muddy, incorrect, overly complex phrases & jargons.

   

A number of (Use Many)

At your earliest possible (Use Soon)


convenience
Fullest possible extent (Use fully or completely)

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  - Avoid wordy phrases & long, complex words, instead for short,
familiar words.

The consensus of opinion (Use the Consensus or opinion)


The first & foremost (Use first or foremost)
Over & over & over gain (Use over)

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9     It is the use of the same grammatical form or structure for
equal; idea in a list

      


  items should be presented in grammatically parallel structure.
Following points should be considered
ΠConsider your audience
ΠPrepare your message
ΠThink of non-verbal communication in your talk

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Such as either/or , neither/nor etc.
Wrong usage- You are either the best employee in the dept., or I am mistaken
Right usage- Either you are the best employee in the dept., or I am mistaken

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9   is a sentence that contains a series
E.g. At the grocery shop I need to buy some potatoes, bread, & I¶ll also get milk
To make the sentence parallel, remove the words´ I¶ll get some´ so it reads:
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Not Parallel: The production manager was asked to write his report quickly, accurately, and
in a detailed manner.
Parallel: The production manager was asked to write his report quickly, accurately, and
thoroughly.

Use parallelism in  
   
 in reports & proposals.

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Electronic writing process is facilitated by facilities like hardware, software & all the
other computer equipment available.
It is a speedy & efficient method of writing which is most commonly preferred by
everyone.

The following are the steps involved in Electronic writing process


Step-1- Note Taking Step-7- Searching & replacing

Step-2- Searching Step-8- Linking

Step-3- Word-polishing Step-9- Adding attribution

Step-4- Outlining Step-10- Using E-mail

Step-5- Changing defaults

Step-6- Using Multiscreens

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Make a brief note of the contents, use abbreviations such as J. for journal.

Record the notes to a file.

Then, use the word-processing feature called search & replace to search for each
occurrence of J. & replace it with journal. Same thing can done with other abbreviations

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During a lengthy project work or assignment, similar topics can be put under the
same heading & can be easily searched.

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Built- dictionary & lot of other software support facility is available using
which spell-check , style check & lot of other functions can be performed.

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Changing the default font, size, colour, page alignment & all other changes can be
made according to the user¶s requirement

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Spreadsheets, graphical analysis & other related information can be linked

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CONCLUSION
Written Communication plays a very important role in
every organization.
Written messages should be composed carefully as 
 

    
    
  to a
situation.

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