WTO / GATT Impact on India

Most prominent round of GATT was Uruguay round.  . 1995. 3. Discussions of Uruguay round lasted between 1986 till1993 and finally resulted in the creation of WTO in Jan. Worldwide growth of income and employment. Expansion of production. Role of GATT ± Promotion of foreign trade. 2.History of GATT   1. GATT was signed in Jan 1948 and had 23 signatory member nations.

Committee on Trade and Development.WTO   Current Director General is Pascal Lamy. General Council ± Carries representatives of all member countries. 4. Under the council works the secretariat of WTO. 3. 2. 5. . committee on budget finance and Administration. Councils ± There are three permanent councils in WTO : Council for trade in goods.It consists of following committees ± Committee on BOP. Council for trade in services. Dispute Settlement Body. ( second term 2009 ±13) Total number of member countries is 148 Organizational structure of WTO is based on following hierarchy ± Ministerial Conference ± Highest authority. Council for TRIPS.  1. . Trade policy Review body .

Reduction in tariff and non-tariff barriers. Co-operation with other world agencies like WB and IMF. Resolution of trade disputes.Objectives of WTO      Promotion of trade in goods and services Expansion of world output and income levels. .

Dismantling of Tariff and Non-tariff barriers. . Better treatment of LDC¶s. Transparency. National treatment. Environment protection.Role of WTO       MFN for all countries.

3.dumping measures. Anti. Export of final products not mandatory. Rights of foreign investors which are equal to that of domestic investors.Impact of WTO agreements     1. 2. No restrictions on investment in any business area No domestic content regulation. . Textile ± Dismantling of MFN on 1st Jan 2005. Agriculture ± Reduction in tariffs and export subsidy. 6. 4. No restriction on repatriation of profits. 5. TRIMS ± Abolition of restrictions imposed on flow of foreign capital.

. Consumption abroad.GATS ± Modes of Supply     Cross border supply. Presence and movement of natural persons. Commercial Presence.

2. TRIPSPatents ± Indian patent Act 1970 amended in 1999 and 2002. . Copyrights ± Indian copyrights Act 1957 amended in 1993 and 1999. 5. 3. 4. Trade Secrets Geographical indication ± geographical act passed in 1999. 6. Design of Integrated Circuits ± Industrial Design Act amended in 1999.Contd«  1. Trademarks ± Trade and Merchandise act 1958. 7. Industrial Design ± Industrial Design Act 1911.

Use of environmental issues and sanitary measures to create non-tariff barriers .Some important cases     University of Mississippi Vs CSIR Ricetec Incorporation case Cases involving Monsanto and Delta and pine land company producing GM seeds.

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