High-Rise Construction

Construction Systems for High-Rise Structures

Introduction
y The determination of the structural form of a high-rise

building would involve the selection and arrangement of the major structural elements to resist most efficiently the various combinations of gravity and horizontal loading. y The principal objectives in choosing a building·s structural form are to arrange to support the gravity, dead and live loading, and to resist at all levels the external horizontal load shear, moment, and torque with adequate strength and stiffness.

Non-structural considerations
y The range of factors other than structural considerations that

influence the choice of structural form are
y Internal planning y Material y Method of construction y External architectural treatment y Planned location y Routing of the service systems y Height & proportions of the building

Weight of steel in tall buildings

while the weight of the columns is approximately proportional to the height. because of the typically allowed increase in permissible stresses in Design Codes for the combined loading. y Buildings of up to 10 storeys can accommodate wind loading without increase in member sizes.Height & Structural loading y In HRBs designed for a similar purpose and of the same material and height. y The weight of the floor framing is influenced by the floor span and is independent of the building height. . the efficiency of the structures can be compared roughly by their weight per unit floor area.

Height & Structural loading y For buildings of more than 10 storeys. . the additional material required for wind resistance increases nonlinearly with height. y For buildings of 50 storeys and more the selection of an appropriate structural form may be critical for the economy and indeed the viability of the building.

stair and service shafts. y Modern office buildings call for large floor spaces that can be subdivided with lightweight partitioning to suit the individual tenant·s needs ² the structure·s main vertical components are generally arranged as far as possible around the perimeter of the plan and internally in groups around the elevator. .Function of the building y A major consideration affecting structural form is the function of the building.

.5m or more.Function of the building y The floors span the areas b/w the exterior and interior components. y The services are distributed horizontally in each storey above the partitioning and are concealed in a ceiling space. The extra depth required by this space causes the typical storey height in an office building to be 3. leaving large column free areas available for office planning.

Plan of office block(tube-type) .

the partitioning. adjacent to the walls and columns or in separate shafts. along the corridor ceiling spaces. to emerge in each storey either very close to where required. y The services can then be run vertically. accommodation is subdivided permanently and usually repetitively from floor to floor. or fit within. y Therefore. or to be distributed horizontally from there to where required. .Function of the building y In a residential building or hotel. continuously vertical columns and walls can be distributed over the plan to form.

Plan of residential block .

therefore. y This allows the storey heights in a typical residential building or hotel to be kept down to approximately 2.7 m. y A 40-storey residential building is. . therefore. generally of significantly less height than a 40-storey office building.Function of the building y With the exception of the corridors. and the soffit of the slab can serve as the ceiling. a ceiling space is not required.

Positioning of vertical members y With regard to horizontal loading. a HRB is essentially a vertical cantilever. thereby avoiding the possibility of net tension occurring in the vertical members and uplift on the foundations. y Within the constraints of selected structural form. y This may comprise one or more individually acting vertical cantilevers. . advantage may be taken of locating the main vertical members on plan so that the dead load compressive stresses suppress the lateral load tensile stresses. such as shear walls or cores. each bending about its own axis and acting in unison only through the horizontal in-plane rigidity of the floor slabs.

expensive to clad and requires costly diagonal bracing or rigid-frame connections. leading to reduced site work and more rapid erection. because of its high strength-to-weight ratio. and of partial prefabrication. y Allows the possibility of longer spans. it has always been the material of construction for the tallest buildings. .Steel framing y Appropriate for all heights of structure and. y Disadvantages: needs fire & rust protection.

. y They differed in depending on the inherent rigid frame action of concrete construction to resist horizontal loading.RCC tall buildings y Introduced two decades after the first steel tall buildings. continued till late 1940s. y The subsequently introduced flat plate & flat slab forms and moment resistant frame. column and girder arrangements of their steel counterparts. y Earlier structures were influenced in form by the skeletal.

.Shear walls y A major step forward in RC high-rise structural form to resist horizontal loading. the 20 to 25 storey limitations of the rigid frame and flat plate systems. y The innovation and refinement of these forms with the development of HPC has allowed the height of concrete buildings to reach within striking distance of 100 storeys. y Freed the concrete HRBs.

Construction Systems for HR Structures y Braced-Frame structures y Rigid-Frame structures y Infilled-Frame structures y Flat-Plate and Flat-Slab structures y ShearWall structures y Wall-Frame structures y Framed-Tube structures y Outrigger-Braced structures y Suspended structures y Core structures y Space structures y Hybrid structures .

y Horizontal shear is resisted by the horizontal components of the axial tensile or compressive actions in the web members. . y Sometimes concrete bracing of the double diagonal form are used where each diagonal designed as a compression member to carry the external shear.Braced-Frame Structures y The lateral resistance of the structure is provided by diagonal members. y Generally regarded as an exclusively steel system because the diagonals are inevitably subjected to tension.

Braced Frame .

Braced Frame .

y Disadvantages: y It obstructs the internal planning and the location of windows and doors.Braced-Frame Structures y Advantages: Able to produce a laterally very stiff structure for a minimum of additional material makes it an economical structural form for any height of building. y Diagonal connections are expensive to fabricate and erect. .

y Advantage: Its open rectangular arrangement allows freedom of planning and easy fitting of doors and windows. y Disadvantage: In its typical 6 x 9 m bay size. y The lateral stiffness of a rigid-frame bent depends on the bending stiffness of the columns. Above 25 storeys the relatively high lateral flexibility of the frame calls for uneconomically large members in order to control the drift.Rigid-Frame Structures y Consist of columns and girders joined by moment- resistant connections. girders. and connections in the plane of the bent. . rigid framing is economic only for buildings up to about 25 storeys.

Rigid-Frame .

y Gravity loading also is resisted by the rigid-frame action. y Also used for steel frame buildings.Rigid-Frame Structures y Ideally suited for RC buildings because of the inherent rigidity of RC joints. but MR connections in steel tend to be costly. . y Negative moments are introduced in the girders adjacent to the columns causing the mid-span positive moments to be significantly less than in a simply supported span.

Rigid-Frame Structures .

y When an infilled frame is subjected to lateral loading. or sometimes steel. . is filled by panels of brickwork. y Because the infills serve also as external walls or internal partitions. the system is an economical way of stiffening and strengthening the structure. the infill behaves effectively as a strut along its compression diagonal to brace the frame. y Column and girder framing of RC.Infilled-Frame Structures y Most usual form of construction for tall buildings of up to 30 storeys in height in many countries. or cast-in-place concrete. block-work.

Infilled-Frame Structures .

Infilled-Frame Structures
y The complex interactive behaviour of the infill in

the frame, and the rather random quality of masonry, has made it difficult to predict with accuracy the stiffness and strength of an infilled frame. y No method of analyzing infilled frames for design has gained general acceptance. y Because of the fear of the unwitting removal of bracing infills at some time in the life of the building, the use of the infills for bracing tall buildings has mainly been supplementary to the rigid-frame action of concrete frames.

Flat-Plate and Flat-Slab Structure
y The simplest of all structural forms that consists of uniform

slabs of 12-20 cm thickness, connected rigidly to supporting columns. y The system, which is essentially of RC, is very economical in having a flat soffit requiring the most un-complicated formwork and, because the soffit can be used as the ceiling, in creating a minimum possible floor depth. y Under lateral loading the behaviour of a flat-plate structure is similar to that of rigid frame, that is, its lateral resistance depends on the flexural stiffness of the components and their connections with the slabs corresponding to the girders of the rigid frame.

Two-way flat-plate

Two-way flat-slab

y When Code requirements for wind design were less stringent. many flat-plate buildings were constructed in excess of 40 stories. y The flat-plate structure is economical for spans of up to about 8 m. .Flat-Plate and Flat-Slab Structure y Appropriate for apartment and hotel construction where ceiling spaces are not required and where the slab may serve directly as the ceiling. y Buildings that depend entirely for their lateral resistance on flat-plate or flat-slab action are economical up to 25 storeys. above which drop panels can be added to create a flat-slab structure for spans of up to 12 m. and are still performing satisfactorily.

shear wall structures can be economical up to 35 storeys. and service shafts. Act as vertical cantilevers in the form of separate planar walls. stair. Shear walls are entirely responsible for the lateral load resistance of the building. . Much stiffer horizontally than rigid frames. Very high in-plane stiffness and strength makes them ideally suited for bracing tall buildings. and as non-planar assemblies of connected walls around elevator.Shear Wall Structures y Concrete or masonry continuous vertical walls may serve y y y y both architecturally as partitions and structurally to carry gravity and lateral loading.

Shear Wall Structure .

50-story tower with 2.700 hotel rooms .the tallest hotel tower (543· tall) on the Las Vegas Strip - .WYNN LAS VEGAS Concrete shear wall structure with posttensioned floor system.

y Well suited to hotels and residential buildings where the floor-by-floor repetitive planning allows the walls to be vertically continuous and where they serve simultaneously as excellent acoustic and fire insulators b/w rooms and apartments. if shear walls are combined with frames. it is reasonable to assume that the shear walls attract all the lateral loading so that the frame may be designed for only gravity loading.Shear Wall Structures y In contrast to rigid frames. the shear walls· solid form tends to restrict planning where open internal spaces are required. . y In low-to-medium-rise buildings.

Shear Wall Structures y It is especially important in shear wall structures to try to plan the wall layout so that the lateral load tensile stresses are suppressed by the gravity load stresses. . y Shear walls structures have been shown to perform well in earthquakes for which case ductility becomes an important consideration in their design. This allows them to be designed to have only the minimum reinforcement.

or almost the same plane. y The effect of the shear-resistant connecting members is to cause the set of walls to behave in their plane partly as a composite cantilever bending about the common centroidal axis of the walls.Coupled Wall Structures y Two or more shear walls in the same plane. connected at the floor levels by beams or stiff slabs. y Results in a horizontal stiffness very much greater than if the walls acted as a set of separate uncoupled cantilevers. .

Coupled Wall Structure .

y Although shear walls are obviously more appropriate for concrete construction. of shear walls b/w which there are corridor or window openings. or trios.Coupled Wall Structures y Coupled walls occur in residential construction where lateral-load resistant cross walls. they have occasionally been constructed of heavy steel plate in the style of massive vertical plate or box girders as parts of steel frame structures. which separate the apartments consist of in-plane coupled pairs. . y They have been designed for locations of extremely heavy shear such as at the base of elevator shafts.

well beyond that of rigid frames or shear walls alone. the walls and frames interact horizontally. are constrained to adopt a common deflected shape by the horizontal rigidity of the girders and slabs. y As a consequence. which tend to deflect in a shear mode. and the frames. which tend to deflect in a flexural configuration. . especially at the top to produce a stiffer and stronger structure.Wall-Frame Structures y When shear walls are combined with rigid frames the walls. y The interacting wall-frame combination is appropriate for buildings in the 40 to 60 storey range.

Wall-Frame Structure .

a steel counterpart using braced frames and steel rigid frames offers similar benefits of horizontal interaction. with shear walls and concrete frames. the shear in the frame can be made approximately uniform over the height.Wall-Frame Structures y An additional feature of the wall-frame structure is that in a carefully ´tunedµ structure. y Although the wall-frame structure is usually perceived as a concrete structural form. y The braced frames behave with an overall flexural tendency to interact with the shear mode of the rigid frames. . allowing the floor framing to be repetitive.

and those normal to the direction of the loading act as the ´flangesµ. joined by deep spandrel girders. y Although the tube carries all the lateral loading. the perimeter frames aligned in the direction of loading act as the ´websµ of the massive tube cantilever.Framed-Tube Structures y The lateral resistance of framed-tube structures is provided by very stiff MR frames that form a ´tubeµ around the perimeter of the building. 2 ² 4m b/w centres. . the gravity loading is shared b/w the tube and interior columns or walls. y The frames consist of closely spaced columns. y When lateral loading acts.

which make for rapid construction. y Most significant modern developments in HR structural form which offers efficient and easily constructed structure for greatest of heights.Framed-Tube Structures y The tube is suitable for both steel and RC construction and has been used for buildings ranging from 40 to more than 100 storeys. . y The highly repetitive pattern of the frames lends itself to prefabrication in steel and to the use of rapidly moving gang forms in concrete.

Framed-Tube .

(a) Tube-in-Tube or Hull-core Structures y The variation of the framed tube consists of an outer framed tube. the ´hullµ together with an internal elevator and service core. y In a steel structure the core may consist of braced frames. y The hull and core act jointly in resisting both gravity and lateral loading. whereas in a concrete structure it would consist of an assembly of shear walls. .

Tube-in-Tube .

y The Sears Tower consists of four parallel rigid steel frames in each orthogonal direction. y In Sears Tower. and so reduce the plan of the building at stages up the height.(b) Bundled-Tube Structures y Used for the Sears Tower in Chicago ² the then world·s tallest building. . advantage was taken of the bundled form to discontinue some of the tubes. interconnected to form nine ´bundledµ tubes.

Bundled-Tube .

Sears Tower .

in NewYork·s 780Third Avenue Building. in Chicago·s John Hancock Building and in RC structure in 1985. y First used in a steel structure in 1969. whereas in the concrete structure the bracing is formed by a diagonal pattern of concrete window-size panels. is to add diagonal bracing to the faces of the tube. thereby increasing its potential for use to even greater heights as well as allowing greater spacing b/w columns. y In the steel tube the bracing traverses the faces of the rigid structures.(c) Braced-Tube Structures y Another way of improving the efficiency of the framed tube. poured integrally with the frame. .

Steel-braced tube & Concrete-braced tube .

Chicago·s John Hancock Building .

New York·s 780 Third Avenue Building .

Outrigger-Braced Structures y Consists of a central core. . with horizontal cantilever ´outriggerµ trusses or girders connecting the core to the outer columns. vertical plane rotations of the core are restrained by the outriggers through tension in the windward columns and compression in the leeward columns. comprising either braced frames or shear walls. y When the structure is loaded horizontally.

the outriggers join the columns to the core to make the structure behave as a partly composite cantilever.Outrigger-Braced Structures y The effective structural depth of the building is greatly increased. y Used for buildings form 40 to 70 storeys high. y In effect. . thus augmenting the lateral stiffness of the building and reducing the lateral deflections and moments in the core. but the system should be effective and efficient for much greater heights.

Outrigger-braced structure & Outrigger-braced structure under load .

thereby allowing an open concourse. . have a minimum sized section and therefore less obtrusive. except for the presence of the central core. the hangers. or plate are attached. rod. also. because they are in tension and consequently can be of high strength steel. to which vertical hangers of steel cable.Suspended Structures y Consists of a central core. y The floor slabs are suspended from the hangers. the ground storey can be entirely free of major vertical members. or cores. with horizontal cantilevers at roof level. y Advantages: Primarily architectural in that.

Suspended structure & sequence of construction .

Two-tiered suspended structure .

in providing a columnfree perimeter at the ground level and at other levels just below the cantilevers. the slabs are suspended at each level by cantilevers from the core. y Advantages: mainly architectural. In others. . y In some. the slabs are suspended b/w the core and perimeter columns. which terminate either on major cantilevers at intervals down the height.Core Structures y A single core to carry the entire gravity and horizontal loading. or on a single massive cantilever a few storeys above the ground.

Core Structure .

y Highly efficient. relatively lightweight structure with a potential for achieving the greatest heights.Space Structures y The primarily load-resisting system of a space structure consists essentially of a 3D triangulated frame ² as distinct from an assembly of planar bents ² whose members serve dually in resisting both gravity and horizontally loading. y The 76-storey Hong Kong bank of China Building is a classic example. .

Core Structures .

Core Structures .

76-storey Hong Kong bank of China Building .

Suspended Structures .

either by direct combination as in a suspended tube and outrigger system or by adopting different forms in different parts of the structure as in a tube system on three faces of the building and a space frame on a faceted fourth face. facets. an engineer is able to analyze a structure to suit a building of almost any conceivable irregularity. y Combinations of two or more of the basic structural forms have often been used in the same building. with large scale cutouts. y New . y With the ready availability of powerful computers and highly efficient structural analysis programs.Hybrid Structures generation of ´postmodernµ buildings that are emphatically non-regular in shape. flutings. and crowns that defy classification.

Hybrid Structure .

Hybrid Structure .

Floor Systems .

Floor Systems ² Reinforced Concrete y One-way slabs on beams or walls y One-way pan joists and beams y One-way slab on beams and girders y Two-way flat plate y Two-way flat slab y Waffle flat slabs y Two-way slab and beam .

Floor systems ² Steel framing y One-way beam system y Two-way beam system y Three-way beam system y Composite steel-concrete floor systems .

Burj Dubai Project A Case Study .

commercial. office. y 160 floors. shopping and leisure.000 square meters y Multi-use: residential. hotel. .60. y Total floor area 4.Burj Dubai.Artist·s Rendering y 828 meters tall. entertainment.

Samsung Joint Venture (consisting of Samsung.The Main Team y Client of Burj Dubai Tower . Korea base contractor.Emaar Properties. Besix. Dubai base contractor). y Construction Manager . Belgium base contractor. and Arabtec. a major developer of lifestyle real estate in the Middle East.Turner International y General Contractor . .

. Each wing consists of four bays. At every seventh floor.The Design y Derived from geometries of the desert flower. the Y-shape floor plans of Burj Dubai maximize views and provide tenants with plenty of natural light. y The tower massing is organized around a central core with three wings. y Unlike many super high-rise buildings with deep floor plates. which is indigenous to the region. one outer bay peels away as the structure spirals into the sky. and the patterning systems embodied in Islamic architecture.

y The tower superstructure is designed as an all reinforced concrete building with high performance concrete from the foundation level to level 156. and is topped with a structural steel braced frame from level 156 to the pinnacle. .

. y The core walls are typically linked through a series of 800mm to 1100mm deep reinforced concrete or composite link beams at every level.Structural System Lateral Load Resisting System y The tower·s lateral load resisting system consists of high performance. reinforced concrete ductile core walls linked to the exterior reinforced concrete columns through a series of reinforced concrete shear wall panels. y The core walls vary in thickness from 1300mm to 500mm.

with shear studs embedded in the concrete section. y These composite ductile link beams typically consist of steel shear plates. ductile composite link beams are provided in certain areas of the core wall system. a very tall spire tops the building. y At the top of the centre reinforced concrete core wall. y The lateral load resisting system of the spire consists of a diagonal structural steel bracing system at level 156. .y Due to the limitation on the link beam depth. or structural steel built-up Ishaped beams. making it the tallest tower in the world for all categories. The link beam width typically matches the adjacent core wall thickness.

Floor Framing System y The residential and hotel floor framing system of the Tower consists of 200mm to 300mm two-way reinforced concrete flat plate slabs spanning approximately 9 m between the exterior columns and the interior core wall. y The floor framing system within the interior core consists of a two way reinforced concrete flat plate system with beams. . y The floor framing system at the tips of the tower floor consists of a 225mm to 250mm two-way reinforced concrete flat plate system.

Comparison of various structural systems .

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