Drugs vs.

Medicines:

Drugs:
-
NO Medical Use
-
Potentially Addictive
-
Physically Harmful
-
Usually Abused
-
Against the Law
-
Overdose Potential
-
NO Margin of Safety
-
NO Controlled Dosage
-
Unknown Ingredients
-
Unknown Side Effects

Medicines:
-
FDA Approved
-
AMA Recommended
-
Pharmaceutically
Manufactured
-
If used properly; there is
minimal risk for addiction and
health problems
-
Medically are Used for:

Treatment

Cure

Prevention
of Diseases and
Health Conditions
Controlled Substance Act:

Schedule I: ALL ILLEGAL DRUGS, HAVE NO
MEDICAL USE, ADDICTIVE SUBSTANCES

Schedule II: Written Prescription Required with NO
REFILLS. Abuse can cause Addiction.

Schedule III: Written Prescription Required with Refills
up to 5 times within 6 months. Moderate chance of
Addiction.

Schedule IV: Written Prescription Required with Refills
up to 5 times within 6 months. Low chance of Addiction

Schedule V: Mostly Over the Counter
Drug & Medicine Risks:

Effective Dosage:
+
the amount of a drug or medicine that
it takes to produce an effect

Therapeutic Dose:

prescribed amount for health problems

Lethal Dosage:

the range between the effective dose
and the lethal dose of the drug or
medicine
+
the amount of a drug or medicine that
it takes to cause a fatal overdose

Margin of Safety:
+
Physicians know how to determine proper dosage
+
Drug Dealers have NO IDEA WHAT DOSAGE IS!
+
Because drugs are rarely pure, there is no way to
determine lethal dose.
Smoking Cigarettes
What does cigarette smoke
contain?
E
Nicotine
E
Cigarette smoke contains about 4000 chemical agents including 60
carcinogens
E
carbon monoxide
E
tar
E
Arsenic
E
Cyanide
E
Benzene
E
Formaldehyde
E
Methanol
E
Acetylene
E
Ammonia
E
Lead
The Monetary Cost
E
Figuring that a pack of
cigarettes costs about $6, and
if you smoke a pack a day for
your entire college career,
you’ve just spent $8760 on
cigs. To compare…
E
2008 Honda Civic $14,810
E
College Tuition at Stanford
University for 2007-2008 $11,
600
E
2700 gallons of gas
Some effects of Smoking
(first or secondhand)
¤
Brain- cerebrovascular disease
¤
Heart-cardiovascular disease
¤
Lung- chronic obstructive pulmonary
disease and cancer
¤
Stomach and intestines-ulcers and
cancers
¤
Increase bone loss and fracture
¤
Premature wrinkling
¤
Periodontal disease
source: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/
¤
Reduced stamina
¤
Chronic hoarseness and laryngeal
polyps
E
Erectile dysfunction
E
Impotence
E
Reduced fertility
E
Low birth weight babies
So how cool is smoking?
A Pack of Lies
Really, smoking gives
you:
E
Stained teeth & bad breath
E
More wrinkles
E
Smelly clothes
E
False sense of security
E
A pawn in the tobacco industry
E
High price of cigarettes
E
Less money
E
An addiction
E
Long-term negative health
consequences
E
Who wants to kiss a smoker?
Benefits of Quitting
E
20 min. – blood pressure and pulse return to normal, circulation
improves to make hands & feet warmer
E
24 hours – carbon monoxide is eliminated from the body and
the lungs start to clear out mucus
E
72 hours – breathing becomes easier and energy levels
increase
E
2-12 weeks – circulation improves through the body, exercise is
easier
E
5 years – risk of heart attack falls to half that of a smoker (and
you save $5,000!)
E
10 years – risk of lung cancer falls to about half that of a
smoker; risk of heart attack now similar to someone who has
never smoked
ALCOHOL
ALCOHOL
WHAT IS ALCOHOL?
WHAT IS ALCOHOL?
*
Alcohol is the MOST ABUSED drug. Alcohol is the MOST ABUSED drug.
*
Alcohol is a colorless and pungent liquid that can be Alcohol is a colorless and pungent liquid that can be
found in beverages such as wine, beer, and liquor. found in beverages such as wine, beer, and liquor.
*
Alcohol is a Central Nervous System (CNS) depressant. Alcohol is a Central Nervous System (CNS) depressant.
*
Alcohol is considered to be a gateway drug to other drug Alcohol is considered to be a gateway drug to other drug
use. use.
WHAT IS BLOOD ALCOHOL
WHAT IS BLOOD ALCOHOL
CONTENT (BAC)?
CONTENT (BAC)?
*
Blood Alcohol Content (BAC)
Blood Alcohol Content (BAC)
- The
- The
amount of alcohol
amount of alcohol
present in a 100
present in a 100
milliliter (mL) volume of blood.
milliliter (mL) volume of blood.
*
The BAC is related to the users:
The BAC is related to the users:
×
Body Weight
Body Weight
×
Metabolism
Metabolism
×
Drinking Speed – Someone that
Drinking Speed – Someone that
‘chugs’ their
‘chugs’ their
drink will have a higher
drink will have a higher
BAC than someone
BAC than someone
that ‘sips’ the
that ‘sips’ the
same amount of alcohol.
same amount of alcohol.
EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL AND BAC
EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL AND BAC
.02 - .03 BAC .02 - .03 BAC – – No loss of coordination, slight euphoria and loss No loss of coordination, slight euphoria and loss
of shyness. Depressant effects are not apparent. of shyness. Depressant effects are not apparent.
.04 - .06 BAC .04 - .06 BAC – Feeling of well-being, relaxation, euphoria, and – Feeling of well-being, relaxation, euphoria, and
lower inhibitions. Minor impairment of lower inhibitions. Minor impairment of
reasoning and memory. reasoning and memory. .05 IS THE LEGAL .05 IS THE LEGAL
LIMIT IN THE U.S. ARMY. LIMIT IN THE U.S. ARMY.
.07 - .09 BAC .07 - .09 BAC – Slight impairment of balance, speech, vision, – Slight impairment of balance, speech, vision,
and reaction time. Judgment and self-control and reaction time. Judgment and self-control
are reduced, caution and reason are impaired. are reduced, caution and reason are impaired.
IN MOST STATES THE LEGAL LIMIT IS .08. IN MOST STATES THE LEGAL LIMIT IS .08.
.1 - .125 BAC .1 - .125 BAC – Significant impairment of motor coordination and loss – Significant impairment of motor coordination and loss
of good judgment. Speech is slurred and balance, of good judgment. Speech is slurred and balance,
vision, reaction time, and hearing are impaired. vision, reaction time, and hearing are impaired. IT IS IT IS ILLEGAL IN ILLEGAL IN
ALL STATES TO OPERATE A MOTOR ALL STATES TO OPERATE A MOTOR VEHICLE AT THIS STAGE. VEHICLE AT THIS STAGE.
EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL AND BAC
EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL AND BAC
.13 - .15 .13 - .15 BAC BAC - - Gross motor impairment and lack of physical Gross motor impairment and lack of physical
control. Blurred vision and serious loss of balance. control. Blurred vision and serious loss of balance. Euphoria Euphoria
is reduced and dysphoria (anxiety, is reduced and dysphoria (anxiety, restlessness) begins to restlessness) begins to
appear. appear.
.16 - .20 BAC .16 - .20 BAC – Dysphoria predominates, nausea begins to – Dysphoria predominates, nausea begins to
appear. The drinker appears to be a appear. The drinker appears to be a “sloppy drunk” “sloppy drunk”. .
.25 BAC .25 BAC - Needs assistance in walking; total mental - Needs assistance in walking; total mental
confusion. Dysphoria with nausea and some vomiting. confusion. Dysphoria with nausea and some vomiting.
.30 BAC .30 BAC - Loss of consciousness. - Loss of consciousness.
>.40 >.40 BAC BAC - Coma, and possible death due to respiratory - Coma, and possible death due to respiratory
arrest. arrest.
PHYSICAL SIGNS OF USE
PHYSICAL SIGNS OF USE

Nausea/Vomitin Nausea/Vomitin
g g
Blurred Blurred
Vision Vision
Unconsciousness Unconsciousness
Alcohol Odor on Alcohol Odor on
Breath Breath
Dizziness Dizziness
Enlarged Heart Enlarged Heart
High Blood High Blood
Pressure Pressure
Slurred Slurred
Speech Speech
Dilated Pupils Dilated Pupils
Slow Slow
Reactions Reactions

Overdose/Death Overdose/Death
Irregular Pulse Irregular Pulse
IMMEDIATE PHYSICAL
IMMEDIATE PHYSICAL
EFFECTS
EFFECTS

Nausea/Vomiting Nausea/Vomiting

Blurred Vision Blurred Vision


Unconsciousness Unconsciousness

Impaired Motor Impaired Motor
Skills Skills

Dizziness Dizziness

Enlarged Heart Enlarged Heart

High Blood High Blood
Pressure Pressure

Slurred Speech Slurred Speech

Loss of Loss of
Inhibitions Inhibitions

Slow Reactions Slow Reactions

Irregular Pulse Irregular Pulse

Staggering Staggering
Alcoholism: Physical and
physiological dependence/addiction
to alcohol
LONG TERM EFFECTS
LONG TERM EFFECTS

Vitamin Vitamin
Deficiencies Deficiencies

Loss of Feeling in Loss of Feeling in
Hands/Feet Hands/Feet

Lung Disease Lung Disease

Blood Disorders Blood Disorders

Heart Disorders Heart Disorders

Brain Damage Brain Damage

Skin Problems Skin Problems

Small Intestine Small Intestine
Damage Damage

Loss of Muscle Loss of Muscle
Tissue Tissue

Stomach Stomach
Damage Damage

Sexual Sexual
Impotence Impotence

Liver Liver
Cirrhosis/Cancer Cirrhosis/Cancer

Death Death

Pregnancy Pregnancy
Complications Complications
ALCOHOL WITHDRAWAL
ALCOHOL WITHDRAWAL

When a alcohol dependent person stops consuming When a alcohol dependent person stops consuming
alcohol they may experience withdrawal symptoms: alcohol they may experience withdrawal symptoms:
×
Auditory Hallucinations Auditory Hallucinations
×
Paranoid Behavior Paranoid Behavior
×
Body Trembles, “The Shakes”, this can occur as early Body Trembles, “The Shakes”, this can occur as early
as 12 hours after the last drink. as 12 hours after the last drink.

The alcohol dependent person may also show minor The alcohol dependent person may also show minor
signs of withdrawal: signs of withdrawal:
×
Agitation Agitation
×
Profuse Sweating Profuse Sweating
×
Nausea/Vomiting Nausea/Vomiting
×
Incoherent Speech Incoherent Speech
ALCOHOL WITHDRAWAL
ALCOHOL WITHDRAWAL

The addicted individual can also suffer extremely The addicted individual can also suffer extremely
serious, and sometimes fatal, side effects of alcohol serious, and sometimes fatal, side effects of alcohol
withdrawal: withdrawal:
O
Delirium Tremens (DTs) Delirium Tremens (DTs) - - A disorder involving A disorder involving
sudden and severe mental changes (psychosis) or sudden and severe mental changes (psychosis) or
neurologic changes (including seizures) caused neurologic changes (including seizures) caused
by stopping the use of alcohol. by stopping the use of alcohol.
O
Alcoholic Psychoses, when the addicted person is Alcoholic Psychoses, when the addicted person is
scared of imaginary small animals, and horrible scared of imaginary small animals, and horrible
sights and sounds. sights and sounds.
Psychoactive Drugs:
º
Chemical Substances are categorized by how they
alter the CNS (Central Nervous System)
+
Stimulants: speeds up CNS
+
Depressants: slows down CNS
+
Hallucinogens: alters and distorts CNS
+
Narcotics: anesthetic effect on CNS
+
Tranquilizers: sedative effect on CNS
+
Cannabis Derivatives: sedative effect on CNS, with
some potential hallucinogenic effects
Stimulants:
increase heart rate & metabolism
+
Amphetamines
+
Cocaine
+
Methamphetamine
+
Caffeine
+
Nicotine
+
Methylphenidate

Overdose Effects:
Þ
Seizures
Þ
Convulsions
Þ
Blood Clots
Þ
Heart Attack
Þ
Stroke
Depressants:
decrease heart rate & metabolism
+
Alcohol
+
Barbiturates
+
GHB
+
Benzodiazepines
+
Rohypnol

Overdose Effects:
Þ
Kidney Failure
Þ
Liver Dysfunction
Þ
Heart Failure
Þ
Memory Loss
Þ
Depression
Þ
Lowered Blood
Pressure
Tranquilizers/Sedatives:
brain and CNS are suppressed, causing
sedation
+
Methaqualone
+
Valium
+
Ketamine

Overdose Effects:
Þ
Kidney Failure
Þ
Liver Dysfunction
Þ
Heart Failure
Þ
Memory Loss
Þ
Depression
Þ
Lowered Blood
Pressure
Hallucinogens:
brain and CNS are distorted, causing
hearing and vision to be altered
+
LSD
+
PCP
+
DMT
+
Mescaline
+
Psilocybin

Overdose Effects:
Þ
Mental Confusion
Þ
Chromosome Damage
Þ
Brain Dysfunction
Þ
Chemical Imbalance in
the Brain
Þ
“Flashbacks”
Narcotic-Analgesics:
pain relievers, numb tissue, sedate
+
Heroin
+
Opium
+
Morphine
+
Codeine
+
Fentanyl
+
Oxycodone
+
Hydromorphone
+
Hydrocodone

Overdose Effects:
Þ
Respiratory Depression
Þ
Cardiac Arrest
Þ
Drug Induced Coma
Cannabis Derivatives:
depressant & some mild hallucinogenic
effects
+
Marijuana
+
Hashish
+
Hash Oil
+
THC

Overdose Effects:
Þ
Impaired Memory
Þ
Respiratory Infections
Þ
Panic Attacks
Þ
Paranoia
Þ
Chemical Imbalance in
the Brain
Þ
Cardiac Dysfunction
Designers/Club Drugs:
synthetic concoctions of chemicals;
stimulants & hallucinogens mixed or
depressants & hallucinogens mixed
+
XTC (Ecstasy)
+
MDA
+
MDMA
+
ICE
+
CAT
+
GHB
+
Crank
+
Crack

Overdose Effects:
Þ
Paranoia
Þ
Impaired Memory
Þ
Psychotic Behavior
Þ
Cardiac Toxicity
Þ
Liver Failure
Þ
Neurological Damage
Look-Alikes:

Fake substances which appear to
resemble illegal drugs that are sold
as street drugs
º
Oregano for Marijuana
º
Powdered Sugar for Cocaine
º
Rock Candy for Crack
º
Strychnine for Heroin
Inhalants & Poppers:

Volatile chemical substances
with breathable fumes that
are sniffed and inhaled to
provide a mind-altering high
Þ
Spray Paint
Þ
Glues
Þ
Lighter Fluid
Þ
Amyl Nitrite
Þ
Butyl Nitrite
Þ
Nitrous Oxide
Þ
Solvents
Þ
Aerosols

Overdose:
Þ
Liver Failure
Þ
Kidney
Dysfunction
Þ
Change in Bone
Marrow Structure
Þ
Permanent Brain
Damage
Þ
Blood & Oxygen
Displacement
Þ
Neurological
Damage
Steroids:
Addiction Continuum:
Stages of Addiction:

Experimentation:
+
Trying drugs out for the first time

Social-Situational:
+
Partying, Peer Pressure, Stress, Trying Fit In

Consequential Misuse:
+
Fights, Arrests, Family, School, Work Problems

Daily Dependency:
+
Have to use every day to feel normal

Total Addiction:
+
Needs to use drugs daily to avoid withdrawal
+
Physically and Psychologically Dependent
Addiction &
Dependency:

Tolerance: substance abuser needs more and
more to produce the high

Withdrawal: symptoms produced when coming
down from a high

Addiction: complete dependency on a drug; need
to use to feel normal

Physiological Dependency: body has a physical
need for the drug

Psychological Dependency: mind has a mental need
for the drug
Homework
E
Chapter 1 Lesson 9 Review Questions
E
Study For Test:
Þ
Review Chapter 1, lessons 1-3, 8-9
Þ
Test Monday